PHY GEOG LW SURFACES
PHY GEOG LW SURFACES GEOG 2051
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Geography 1001 1172012 74600 PM Grid System o Latitude imaginary line running east to east measures angular distance 0 degrees to 90 o Longitude imaginary line running north to south Measures angular distance 0 to 180 Contour Lines o Lines on a map that connects points of equal elevation o Contour interval o Interpolate o Bench Marks BM Slope o 1Shape o 2 Gradient 0 ratio 0 percent 0 degrees Rainfall intensity duration infiltration o Grain size porosity o Permeability o Other 0 Slope o Vegetation o Sand 0 Sand has an angle of repose Geomorphology o Subject can vary in scale time spatial context o Few laws mostly concepts 0 Uniformitarianism present is key to the past 0 Limitations change in intensity and process o Systems 0 A Closed 0 B Open Equilibrium Threshold Steady state o Realm of geomorphology o A Endogenic Processes Earth movements folding faulting Volcanic eruptions basalt Magma molten deep in the crust o B Exogenic Processes Weathering rock break down Erosion pick up wind water ice Transport Deposition o C Rock type as stage for action Igneous rocks o Base level Sea level 0 How can It change Tectonic Eustatic worldwide changes in sea level Isostatic a process in which continents float on a mantle that s a little more dense words of professor 1172012 74600 PM For next class find out what causes seasons 1172012 74600 PM A The earth 1 Introduction i What is geography earthdescribe ii Approaches 1 Systematic a Not looking from region standpoint b 2 Regional a In a region certain aspects are the same b There is a core and a sphere of influence around it 3 Manenvironment a Man influencing the environment and how the environment influences man 2 Shape i Oblate spheroid 1 Diameter 7927 miles 2 27 miles shorter through poles 3 72 water a Northern hemisphere is mostly land b Southern hemisphere is mostly water 4 Depths homestake mine South Dakota 6800 feet ii Cut through earth we have the crust what we live on and the oceans 27 in density iii Beneath that is the mantle is 33 density which is very dense 1 33 means 33 more dense than water 3 Grid system Maps i Problem two dimensional surface 1 Sphere onto 2dimmensional does not work ii Map properties 1 Direction azimuth 2 Distance 3 Area relative to each other 4 Shape i Area and shape cannot both be shown correctly on a map it s one or the other iii Types of projections need to know difference between first three 1 Planarplane a Take flat board shine light and project out onto piece of paper b Most accurate in center things on outside need to be stretched out 2 Conic a Most accurate is where it s in contact b Have to squeeze part of it together to make it fit c Most accurate 3 Cylindrical a In contact most accurate but must stretch everywhere else to make it accurate b Used for plotting courses c Mercator map 4 Mathothers iv Scale 1 Verbal a One inch one mile 2 Graphic a 0123 3 Fractional a 162500 verbally 1 inch 1 mile 163360 Small scale vs large scale 1250000 1 inch 4 miles Small scale lt1250000lt large scale 4 Map area square miles i 4 inches by 8 inches ii 1 in one mile iii 1 in two miles iv 1 in four miles i Square miles for each 5 Earthsun relationships 6 Time B Surface runoff and ground water C Landforms 1 Introduction 2 Mega scale features 3 Sealevel 4 Weathering 5 Mass wasting and denudation 6 Rivers and related landforms 7 Karst landforms 8 Structural and volcanic landforms 9 Wind and arid 10 Glacial landscapes 11 Coasts 12 Overview D Soil formation and classification Study Guide Look at the 4 sections covered Eliminate the wrong ones and the right one stands outquot Dr Kesel Rivers Dealt with the relationship between velocity and turbulence Transport 0 3 types and characteristics River patterns 0 Relative to different types of rocs I Rectangular angular etc Channels 0 Braided meandering straight I Meandering ood plain I Landforms that occur on the oodplain I Natural levee I Crevasse 0 Characteristics of each Landforms Deltas etc Relative to sections Landforms that form in limestones Sinkholes 0 Solution collapse 2 types Caves 0 Look at caves how rocks are formed in caves Windblown features 0 Erosional features 0 Most of the time looking at sand dunes I Longitudinal I Barcan o The one with the little horns Luss Windblown silt look it up 0 Has something to do with the Mississippi Valley so you know it39s important He won t tell us what the questions will be like Carst Structural features in terms of sedimentary rocks 0 Sincline anticline I can39t spell o Zigzag Mountain etc o Faulted these several types of faults I Most created relief I The SanAndreas slip strike does not create relief 0 Characteristics of fault landscapes I Age of the fault etc o Faulted landscapes I Horst and the Graben o Mountains and valleys robins Ithink Geography 2051 March 5 2012 Increasing Turbulence increases in the bed and bank Types of Flow 1 Laminarparticles parallel eg sheets of glass 2 Turbulent eddies mixing eg running water deals with turbulent flow a Streaming subcritical ordinary type turbulence most common surface e waves move faster than water beneath Movement of water travels faster than the column below it 57 Shooting super critical eg white water rapids surface waves move slower than water beneath A lot of turbulence in the river Types of Sediment Load 1 Dissolved Tons 3600 x 10quot6 Ration 36 2 Suspended Tons 12695 x 3 Bedload Bedload bouncingbouncing or sliding huge particles only moves ocasionally 39 39 load 39 39 by 39 39 Brown colorfine particles silt clay form runoff correlates with discharge related to turbulence can be measured Dissolved Not depended on gradient depends on water discharge climate related eg limestone can be measured absolute amount increases with increased dischargeQ March 7 2012 How to save LA wetlands Do we put diversions in the marsheswetlands 200000 is a really low in terms of how much water it carries The river may be low in years 3 columns Low flow 1 Siltclay very fine materials 2 Sand coarser stuff bed load See notes on noteswap It takes more energy to pick up clay from the bottom of the channel than sand When clay is laid down on the water its tightly packed Takes a lot of energy to move clay Sand has a lot of cohesion Remember Competencemaximum size grain that a river can carry Capacity maximum amount Knichpointscaprock resistence layer undercuts this most famous caprock Nigeria Falls Cascade March 9 Absent March 12 2012 TransverseXsectionprofile A Width depth channel shape these related to B Discharge velocity bank and channel sediment Bank made of sandnot cohesive Clay is cohesive Parallel walls V shape channellateral motion The downcutting 235 Asymetircial Stream Piracy Water gap beheaded capture wind gap In wind gapwater not flowing Drew a pic of the Mississippi River He labeled the coast the delta and the acfrayla Why does the want to go down the achfalya The channel is steeper Superimpositionriver lowerd on preexisting structure topography Antecedenceriver older than structuretopography Dendetic Random tree like flowing on a uniform surface colorado plateau Rectangular and the Trellis a The rectangular flow in two directions implies the rock has fractures have right angles perpendicular joint set b Trellis the main stream are all flowing in the same direction Following a strike All the ridges sticking up Main channel flowing down the strike valley Strike is perpendicular to the c Parallel d Annulartrellis drainage in a circle e Derangedthe great lakes below sea level Glaceirs scoop out the whole valley March 19 2012 Braided Rivers Steep gradient slope Excessive sediment load bedload Very wide channels shallow depth Constantly changing shifting pattern of bars and islands each flood event Bars mostly nonvegetated snwava Non cohesive banksnot easily eroded The channel can wided when eroding the bar whould be removed It must have non cohesive banksend resultmutitple bars widing of a channel quotwideing can ONLY occur is banks laterally erosion See p 1232 figure River terraces abandoned floodplain Processes Form a floodplain sutdownincision lateral cutting meandering channel shifting aggreade Causesterraces Eustatic changes world wide tectonic regional isostaticregional Terraceabandon floodplain Example of uplift on the himlayianmtsterraces all form the rivers cutting down in cycles As it loses it velocity it loses it sediment March 23 2012 Karstlimestone landforms 1 Joints or fractures 2 Waterco2 high 3 Limestone puritygt90 CaC03 Landforms Sinkholedolines A solution B collapse Cavesroles of water table dripstone features 1 Stalagmitesfeatures that grow from the ground 2 Stalactitegrow from the celing Tropical Karsttower haystack hills mogotes hh in Jamacia mogotesChina Limestone angular blocks notice how right angles are or shattering of the limestoneshows two pics of limestone 2 types of sinkhole Solutionwater moving down the cracks Collapse collapse in Word doline is antoher term for sinkhole The cave form first then the sinkhole Diagramsee figure 1122 Springs are very common in the limestone featureWichyWatchy spring in Floridia Have these solution types are cicular River that following in the sinkhole figure 1622 Collapse sink holepic Occur under used car lots Richard Kesel 2002 Groundwatercaves form above atbelow the water table How stagmitesstalagites from 100 humidity in the caves Water comes down botoom of the stalagites the water is under pressure the pressure is release the carbonic gas it wont stay there March 26 2012 Sedimentary rocks landforms 1 Horizontal Plateau mesa butte 2 Folded syncline anticline cusesta hogback scarperosional cigarshaped mt canoeshaped mtzigzag ridge All found in a syncline and anticline Mesawide Butte small Plateau all of these are horizontal embedded Anticlinefold up Synclinefold down Relief inversionanticline was eroded away Folding of rocks Anticlinecigar shaped mountain Syncline canoe shaped mountain put both together you get a Zigzag Hogback due to slower erosion of a resitant stratum Topography relief by faulting breaking Typemagnitude of faultimpt Types of rocks brought next to each other weakstrong Age of faultimpt Type of processes active Normal fault Reverse fault Transcurrent fault Overthrust fault UOF PPSNE JE Horst upfaulted block Grabendownfaulted block San Andreas faultTranscurrent fault O O O O O 0 1182010 42800 PM TEST 1 MATERIAL What is Geography Earthdescribe Geography o The science that studies the relationship among natural systems geographic areas society cultural activities and the interdependence of all of these over space Approaches o 1 Systematic o 2 Regional o 3 ManEnvironment Systematic c Any ordered interrelated set of things and their attributes linked by flows of energy and matter as distinct from the surrounding environment outside the system c 1 Closed 0 Heat and energy capable of being exchanged No exchange of matter Limited energy source Rarely found in nature The earth is a closed system in terms of matter and resources air water Open Heat energy and matter capable of being exchanged Interaction with the environment Equilibrium Threshold Steady state Energy in energy out Matter in matter out The earth is an open system in terms of energy and heat 0 O O O O O O O O O O 0 Regional o Areas having uniform characteristics how they form and change and their relations to other regions 0 Arbitrary 0 Having only relative application or relevance not absolute subject to change Homogenous 0 Continuous all the same Sphere of influence 0 Spatial The nature and character of physical space its measurement and the distribution of things within it o The Earth Shape oblate spheroid Diameter 7927 miles 27 miles shorter when measured pole to pole 72 water 0 N Hemisphere is mostly land 0 S Hemisphere is mostly water Depths o Homestake Mine South Dakota 6800 ft 0 Oil wells 25000 ft Specific Density 0 Crust 27 gmL o Mantle 33 gmL 0 Water 1 gmL 0 Maps and Grid Systems Maps 0 Generalized view of an area 0 Problem 2D surface 0 Map properties Direction Azimuth horizontal direction expressed as the angular distance between the direction of a fixed point as the observer39s heading and the direction of the object Distance Arearelative to each other Shape Cannot accurately show shape and area on the same map 0 Types of Projections Planar azimuthalplane n Accurate at the point of contact with the globe Conic n Accurate at the point of contact with the globe Cylindrical n Accurate at the point of contact with the globe n Mercator Most popular True compass directions kept in tack Parallels appearing as straight lines that are spaced closer together near the equator Cut around the 80th parallel in each hemisphere because of severe distortion at higher latitudes o Greenland portrayed as same size as South America when in reality it is only about 18 its size Rhumb Lines 0 A line crossing all meridians at the same angle 0 Constant lines that connect two points easily Topographic n Contour line map Mathothers a Don t need to know about 0 Scale Verbal n One inchone mile Graphic n O 1 2 3 a Bar scale n The only scale that still works when a map is blow up or shrunk Fractional n 162500 equally one mile a 163360 precisely Large Scale n lt1250000 a Larger scalesmaller mapmore detail Small Scale n gt1250000 n Smaller scalelarger mapless detail Ex 4 X 8 box H Area o 1 in 1 mile 0 32 sq miles o 1 in 2 miles 0 128 sq miles o 1 in 4 miles 0 512 sq miles o Grid Systems 0 13 Original Colonies MetesandBounds Survey for land surveying 0 Grid System Latitude Imaginary line running EW measure angular distance NS 090 degrees a Parallel Line connecting points of equal latitude Longitude Imaginary line running NS measures angular distance EW 0180 degrees a Meridian Line connecting points of equal longitude 1 degree latitude 70 miles 1 degree longitude 70 miles the equator other than that towards the N or the S the distance is less 1 degree60 minutes 1 minute60 seconds 827 0 Base Lines and Principle Meridians o Deeds o 6 mile squares NS Township EW Range 0 1 mile subsquares Sections n Quarters o Quarters 0 Corner 0 Contour Lines o Lines on a map that connect points of equal elevation o Contour interval 0 The vertical distance between 2 successive contour lines o Interpolate 0 Estimating the values inbetween 2 successive contour lines o Bench Marks BM 0 Plate or concrete fixture in the ground with a known elevation One on LSU campus by Highland Road Slope o Shape o Gradient 0 Ratio 0 Percent 00 0 Degree Bearings o Taking from either the N or S o W or E added after the fact 0 Ex N 35 E Azimuth o Start at 0 degrees N and proceed around the compass clockwise Ex 35 180 S Compasses l O O O O 91 0 What causes seasons o 4 Things Rotation of earth on axis Revolution around sun Tilt of earth on axis Parallelism of axis The axis of the earth remains parallel to it39s previous position as the earth revolves around the sun This means that the earth39s axis always points in the same direction Earth rotates 15 degrees every hour Earth rotates West to East o The Sun rises in the East and sets in the West How long is a day on the surface of the Earth o 48 hours o Snake example o Reason for international dateline The equator always receives equal hours of day and night Declination o Angle between the horizon and the sun Time Zones o Coordinated Universal Time replaced Greenwich Mean Time o International Date Line 0 180 degree meridian on the opposite side of the prime meridian Marks where each day official begins 1201 am From this line the new day sweeps westward and the west side of the line is always one day ahead of the east side BR 1 PM o What is it in NY 2 PM 1 hour ahead of us 0 O O O O O O O O O O O o What is it in LA 11 AM 2 hours behind us o Baton Rouge 1130 PM Sun 0 What is it in NY 1230 AM Mon 0 What is it in LA 930 PM Sun 9710 Geomorphology o Geo Earth o Morphology The Shape of o Subject can vary in scale time spatial context o Few laws mostly concepts megascale features 0 1 Uniformitarianism Present is key to the past Assumes that the same physical processes active in the environment today have been operating throughout geologic time o 2 Limitations change in intensity and process o Discontinuity 0 Place where physical differences occur between adjoining regions in earth s interior 0 Mantle 80 earth s total volume Rich in oxides of iron and magnesium Lower is more dense than upper o Crust Discontinuity called the MOHO Composition of continental and oceanic crusts are quite different Continental crust is essentially granite Oceanic crust is basalt 20 miles average thickness 3 miles of crust above the mantle When glaciers present land subsides When glaciers melt land rebounds Gulf of Bosnia elevated beach o Istostacy 0 State of equilibrium in the earth s crust with the principle of buoyancy o Pleistocene Age 0 25 million years ago Major influence Most of the earth s topography is no older than Pleistocene The geologic and climatic changes of the Pleistocene were critical in shaping most landscapes o 2 Types of Processes o A Endogenic Processes Processes that originate within the earth Examples n Earth movement folding faulting n Volcanic eruptions basalt n Magma molten deep in crust o B Exogenic Processes Processes that originate outside the earth atmosphere Try to wear down endogenic processes rocks Examples n Weathering rock break down a Erosion the picking up wind water and ice n Transport movement a Deposition leaving behinddepositing wind water andice O O O o Types of Rocks 0 Thousands of rocks Most common mineral is quartz Can all be sorted into 3 categories depending on the processes in which they are formed 0 Igneous 90 earth s crust Crystalline solids which form directly from the cooling of magma Exothermic process it loses heat Phase change from the liquid to the solid state The earth is made of igneous rock Volcanic above a Form from volcanic lava Plutonic below a Intrusive igneous rock body that crystallized from slowly cooling magma below the surface of the Earth Ex Granite basalt o Sedimentary Igneous rocks which make up the majority of the crust are covered by a thin veneer of loose sediment and the rock which is made as layers of this debris undergo lithification compacting and cementing together Called secondary because they are often the result of the accumulation of small pieces broken off of pre existing rocks Winddeposited Riverdeposited Ex Sandstone shale mud limestone bone and shells coal 0 Metamorphic quotMetaquot change and quotMorphquot form Any rock can become a metamorphic rock all that is required is for the rock to be moved into an environment in which the minerals which make up the rock become unstable and out of equilibrium with the new environmental conditions In most cases this involves burial which leads to a rise in temperature and pressure The metamorphic changes in the minerals always move in a direction designed to restore equilibrium Compressed O o Boundaries o Divergent Ex Sea floor spreading by midocean ridges o Convergent Ex Continental crust and oceanic crust collide and the more dense of the two dives underneath creating a subduction zone o 3 Orders of Relief 0 Continental landmasses 0 Intermediate level of landforms for continent and ocean 0 Individual mountains cliffs valleys hills and other landforms o Base LevelSea Level 0 Land eventually reduced to this 0 How can it changes 1 Tectonic n Earth s plates moving 2 Eustatic a Changing sea level due to glaciers etc 3 Isostatic a Play on Newton n Continents floating on surface of the earth o Rise rebound and fall due to melting glaciers Actual VS Relative Change o Archimedes Principle 0 Densities 0 Density of earth 27 gmL o Icebergs 10 above water 90 below water 0 Cork 30 above water 70 below water 0 91010 0 Glaciers o Weathering Antarctic Ice 0 Raise sea level 213 feet if melted Greenland Ice 0 Raise sea level 25 feet if melted Does not transport the materials Generates them for erosion and transport by the agents of water wind waves and ice all influenced by gravity PhysicalDisintegration O O O O O O O Dominates in drier cooler climates Need bare rock exposed Heating and cooling extreme temperature changes Diurnal Day and night Thermal expansion coefficients Freezing and thawing Need pores cracks orjoints Number of freeze thaw cycles diurnal VS annual Crystallization Occurs in dry weather as the moisture evaporates and crystals form Niche The small pieces of rock that come loose between sandstone and shale from crystallization Salts Growth and expansion of salt crystals in rock pores exceeding rick tensile strength Vegetation Exfoliation Curved plates of rock stripped from the rock below along joints caused by instability as a result of drastically reduced pressure at the earth s surface allowing the rock to expand Joints n Fractures or separations in rocks that occur without displacement of the sides ChemicalDecomposition o Dominates in wetter warmer climates 0 Need water water air minerals in rocks 0 Change of substance 0 Goes very deep below surface 0 Intensity increases with temperature 0 Intensity and rate decreases with depth 0 Produces a regolith Upper surface of bedrock undergoing continental weathering Bedrock a Parent rock from which weathered regolith and soils develop A layer of loose heterogeneous material covering solid rock Van t Hoff s Law Rate of chemical reaction doubles for every 10 degree centigrade rise in temperature Average temperature change between the tropics and midlatitudes is 10 degrees centigrade Arid n Debriscourse angular n Mineralogyvaried includes weaker rocks a Regoliththin Humid n Debrisfine clay rounded n Mineralogyresistant minerals quartz n Regoliththick Georgia 0 Types Spheroidal n Sharp edges of rocks become smoothed out and rounded from the alteration of minerals Oxidationreduction a All chemical reactions n Atoms have their oxidation numberstate changed a Oxidation o Loss of election o Increase in oxidation state 913 1 Reduction o Gain of electron o Decrease in oxidation state Carbonation n a Carbon combines with minerals Dissolving of carbon dioxide in an aqueous solution Ex Occurs on tombstones because most are made out of limestone Hydrolysis n a When minerals chemically react with water producing different compounds of other minerals Molecules are water are split into hydrogen cations and anions Solution 1 A homogenous mixture composed of two or more materials Hydration n 1 Combination with water Involves little chemical change just breaks down the compounds of minerals Hydroxyl group OH and a hydrogen cation an acidic proton are added to the two carbon atoms bonded together in the carboncarbon double bond which makes up an alkene functional group 0 End product is generally clay koalinite antidiarrhea especially in moist tropical areas 0 Soil Composition Largest to smallest o Gravel 0 Sand o Silt 0 Clay 0 1 inch254 cm254 mm o Caliche o Carbonate dissolved out from rocks once water has evaporated from it o Salt on the surface 915 0 Surface Water o Overland flow runoff unconfined o Rainfall Intensity Duration Infiltration n Grainsize n Porosity n Permeability D Other o Slope o Vegetation o Gullies 0 Created by running water eroding sharply into soil typically on a hillside o 0 Functional constructed channel to carry a water supply o Channels 0 Physical confine of a river consisting of bed and banks o Rivers 0 Terms o Porosity 0 Size of grain o Permeability o Pore space 0 Larger the grain greater the permeability o Aquifer 0 Geological strata bed that transmits water o Aquiclude 0 Geological strata bed that does not transmit water o Field Capacity 0 Amount of water able to be absorbed 0 Saturated soil Water that remains does not drain away after 24 hours Wilting Point 0 Point below which plants can no longer vacuum moisture from the soil 920 0 River Characteristics o FlowDischarge 0 Q A w d V o Discharge is instantaneous o Variable at different depths o Higher velocity towards the middle of the river progressively reduced towards the banks until almost none at the actual banks due to frictional drag o MS River highest discharge in April due to the melting snow from connecting rivers in the north o Lag time 0 Period from peak rainfall to peak flood o Depends on the rate of infiltration More infiltration longer lag time Less infiltration shorter lag time Direct influence on river depthheight o Hydrograph o Denudation erosionMass Wasting c Any process that wears away or rearranges landforms o Means to denude or lay bare includes 0 Mass Wasting Soil regolith and rock move down slope under the force of gravity Consistency n Wet dry Motion a Slow fast a Slide fall Result landform n Disturbed mixed undisturbed block 0 Mass Movement 0 Overland flow runoff Factors Main forcegravity Slope gradient Vegetation Moisture Differential Weathering o More resistant caprock protects supporting caprock below Geomorphic Threshold 0 The point at which there is enough energy to overcome resistance against movement 5 Ways of Mass Movement 0 Rockfall O O O O A volume of rock that falls through the air and hits a surface 0 Debris Avalanche A mass of falling and tumbling rock debris and soil 0 Landslide A large amount of material failing simultaneously 0 Mudflow Large amounts of loose debris Excessive amounts of runoff Sparse vegetation cover Steep slopes Special example a Lahar Volcanic mudflow Indonesian word 0 Soil Creep Slow slide of ground Evident through leaning telephone poles tombstones trees etc Frozen water can lift soil up and then it moves once the ice melts o Material Strength 0 Cohesion Shear strength of a rock or soil that is independent of interparticle friction 0 Internal friction Angle of repose is the same as internal friction The more angular the sand the steeper the sides The more rounded the sand the flatter the sides Slope StabilityShear Strength resisting force Shear Stress driving force a Function of cohesion and the angle of internal friction O 0 922 0 Frozen Ground o Solifluction 0 aka soil fluction 0 Type of mass wasting where waterlogged sediment moves slowly down slope over impermeable material o Periglacial 0 Around a glacier 0 Frost weathering o Freezethaw rock shattering o Permafrost 0 Ground being permanently frozen Soil or rock temperatures remaining below 32 degrees F for at least 2 years 0 Continuous Region of severest cold 0 Discontinuous O Permafrost gradually moves forward to the continuous zone 0 Active Layer Top layer about 3 feet that thaws out during summer 0 US had to learn about permafrost in dealing with the Alaskan oil pipeline 0 Thickness Canada 60100 m maximum 500 m USSR 250300 m maximum 1500 m o Landforms At 50 degrees below zero the groundice actually contracts and can crack Patterned ground a Sorting of large and small particles n Looks like crawfish ponds circle inside another circle Ice wedges n Years of thawingfreezing in cracks of permafrost a Can become massive Pingos H Area of risen ground from squeezed ice matter as a result of permafrost encroaching and filling in lakes n 254 mm 1 inch Potholes n Erosion below the surface of asphaltconcrete roads 924 Weathering Video Lecture WVU Professor c Any reaction between the surface of a rock and the atmosphere o Surface weathering solids o Atmosphere can penetrate the cracks of rocks as well and weather the cracks o Physical rips the rock apart O O O 0 Frost wedging 10 expansion from liquid to frozen water Freeze thaw freeze thaw freeze thaw Plant roots Efflorescence The growth of crystals just below the surface of the rock Edge of cliff Plane of weakness Exfoliation More large scale Batholith huge mass of granite rock n Unloading All material around batholith removed and induces removal of rock n Halfdome in Yosemite National Park Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Rapid temperature changes can cause failure of rocks Burrowing animals Promote weathering o Chemical 0 O O O O O O 0 Product and reactants are different Chemicals Oxygen Carbon Dioxide very water soluble Dissolved Oxygen Oxidation Any reaction with oxygen Iron Oxygen Iron oxide rust Oxygen has to be dissolved in water before it is an active oxidizing agent Dissolution CarbonationHydrolysis Carbonic Acid Plants Determinants for Rates of Reactions Temperature highmore Availability of water highmore Composition 927 0 TEST REVIEW 0 Maps o 4 Properties 0 Scale 0 Direction o 3 Families of Projections 0 Location o Land Survey 0 Latitude o Longitude Time Contour Lines Cause of Seasons Geomorphology o Laws o Concepts o Principles o Rocks 0 Families of rocks o Landscape lowered to base level sea level o 3 Ways that Sea Level Changes 0 Weathering o 2 Major Types o Examples o Spatial Distribution of Weathering 0 Where is spatial weathering the greatest 0 Surface Water and Ground Water o How do we get water flowing across the surface 0 Interaction between several things 0 Surface runoff Forces at work 0 River discharge calculation 0 O O O O O How is it measured Technique measuring the discharge through time as related to a rainfall event hydrograph Varying layer of groundwater Groundwater can flow as long as one side is higher than the other Our groundwater is from the Mississippi River 1182010 42800 PM 0 TEST 2 MATERIAL O 0 Types of Flow o Laminar Particles parallel o Turbulent Particles mixing 0 Eddies The swirling of a fluid and the reversed current created when the fluid flows past an obstacle o Streaming subcritical Ordinary type turbulence most common Surface waves move faster than water beneath 0 Shooting super critical Surface waves move slower Ex White water rapids o Secondary Flow 0 Helical type Circular downpull near the bottom of the river similar to undertow Ex Falling out of boat in MS River and never seen again Simple a Low n Widthdepth ratio Complex a High n Widthdepth ratio 0 Types of Sediment Load 0 Tons Ratio Dissolved 3600 x 106 36 Suspended 12695 x 106 127 Bedload 1000 x 106 10 o Dissolved o Dissolved within the water column solution Not dependent on gradient Depends on water discharge Climate related eg limestone O O O O O 0 Concentration decreases with increased flow Absolute amount increases with increased flow Can be measured Suspended O O O O O O O O The way most rivers carry their load Suspended in the water column Brown color Silt Clay from runoff Correlates with discharge Related to turbulence reason for suspension Can be measured Bedload O O O O O O 0 Most minimal Travels along bottom saltation rolling bouncing Largest particles Move intermittently Can cause potholes Most important type for channel characteristics Cannot be measured 9597 of rivers lost to Inner Turbulence n Friction within channel bed and banks Only 5 used in sediment transport 0 Critical Erosion Velocity Velocity it takes to move an object o Knickpoints Breaks in channels the point of interruption Ex Waterfalls If see level falls we get knickpoints moving upstream o Caprock A harder or more resistant rock type overlying a weaker or less resistant rock type Cause joints Ex Sandstone top of mesas Most famous Niagara Falls O 0 River Flow Caprock riverbed is composed of dolomitic limestone dolostone In processes such as scarp retreat the caprock controls the rate or erosion of the scarp Scarp Cliff or steep slope Escarpment The margin between two landforms As the softer rock is cut away periodically the caprock shears off o Transverse Xsection Profile 0 O O A width depth channel shape these relate to B discharge velocity bank and channel current o Superimposition 0 River lowered on preexisting structure topography o Antecedence 0 River older than structure topography o Drainage Patterns o Dendritic O O O Treelike pattern Flatuniform surface Ex Soft coal o Radial O O Streams radiate outwards from a central high point Ex Volcanoes o Rectangular O O O O O o Trellis O O Perpendicular joint set 2 directions Water flows at right angles to each other Result of density patterns Marked by noticeable changes Located in eastern parts of the US Appalachian Mts folded Folded sedimentary rocks Main trunk channels are parallel to each other 0 Tributaries feed into river at right angles O O O O 0 All following same directions Uplifted rocks Strong form ridges Weak form valleys Ex Hard coal o DerangedAimless O O 0 Created by glaciation Buries existing landscape Ex Swamps lakes streams much deposit o Annular 0 Circular pattern o Drainage Density 0 O O A measure of how well or how poorly a watershed is drained by stream channels Depends on climate and physical characteristics of drainage basin Soil permeability Underlying rock type Formula Length of channels miles Basin are sq miles o Hierarchy of stream ordering O 0 MS River is an 8th order stream with a free floodplain Shaleclay 0 River Channel Patterns amp Typical CrossSections o Braided O O O 0 Has a channel that consists of a network of small channels separated by small and often temporary island called braid bars Occur when a threshold level of sediment loador slope is reached reduced discharge lowers stream s transporting ability Usually highly mobile Move sideways via differential velocity Little to no vegetation anastomosingvegetated Steep gradient Excessive sediment load bedload O 0 Very wide channels shallow depth Noncohesive banks not much clay Straight 0 A river that flows in a relatively straight manner Meandering O O O O A bending motion in a sinuous water course Moving water in a river erodes the outer banks and widens its valley Sediments eroded from the outside of a bend and deposited on the inside Why Physical disturbance n Slumps n Tributaries Helical flow Corkscrewlike flow of water in a meander Example of secondary flow Hydraulics Bedload type Discharge rate Gradient slope Incised stream fills valley bottom When a river has cut downward through its riverbed ex sediment or bedrock Leaves floodplain behind at a higher elevation Entrenched n A river that is confined to a canyon or a gorge usually with a relatively narrow width and little or no flood plain and often with meanders worn into the landscape a Form when the base level of erosion is rapidly lowered so that the river begins downcutting into its channel faster than it can change course which rivers do on a constant basis a May occur due to o Tectonic uplift of the region o Lowering of the oceans o Collapse of a dammed lake downstream o Capture of the river by another a Ex Snake river canyon Ingrown a River comes back into itself 0 Free or floodplain meanders The meandering and course changing of a river throughout the given floodplain bending motion due to erosion and sediment movement 0 Sinuosity Index o A measure of deviation of a path length from the shortest possible path The deviations from a path defined by the direction of maximum downslope Caused because the down valley path is not perfectly straight o SIriver lengthvalley length o 1bedrock streams that flow directly downslope o gt15meandering river 0 Hydrographs o A graph of stream discharge over a time for a specific place The amount location and duration of the rainfall episode determine the peak ow 0 Floodplain o Flat surface underlain by alluvial sediments adjacent to the river stream and periodically inundated during flood stage 12 yr intervals Caused by a meander eroding sideways as it flows downstream o Sediment Deposits o Channel laid down directly by the flow of the river 0 Channel bed Entire river area Physical confine of normal water flow 0 Point bar Area of depositionland growing opposite of undercut bank Formed as the secondary flow of the river moves sediment laterally across the floor of the stream and up the shallow sloping floor of the point bar Ridge and Swale n Driven sediment under point bar Overbank result of the river coming out of its banks and flooding o Unconfined o Levee Backswamp H Area where sediment has been deposited once river no longer has enough velocity to carry the sediment as the river floods onto the floodplain Floodplain H Area where river overflow dumps Natural Builtup area on the bank of a river above the rest of the floodplain resulting from the deposit of sediment over time as the river floods Artificial MS River floods at 35 ft April is the highest levee saturation period Low water greatest velocity is on the outside of bend High water greatest velocity is on the inside of bend o Crevasse splay Thalweg Forms when an overloaded stream breaks a natural or artificial levee and deposits sediment on a floodplain Branchlike area of graded deposit coming out from the river 0 German word meaning deepest fastestcontinuous line of the channel 0 Marks the natural direction profile of a water course Major Flood 0 Flood of 1973 Revetment o Sloping structures placed on banks or cliffs in such a way as to absorb the energy of incoming water 0 Prevents bankcaving 0 Concrete mattress laid on river bank 0 Dike 0 Concrete structure protruding into the river 0 Narrows riverflow faster hoping to result in natural dredging for large ships rather than having to humandredge the river deeper o Concave Bank 0 Ordinary thread of maximum surface velocity 0 Bank to bank meander o Convex Bank 0 Thread of maximum surface velocity during extreme floods o Streamline o Braided Rivers o Steep gradient slope o Excessive sediment load bedload o Very wide channels shallow depth o Constantly changing shifting pattern of bars and islands each flood event o Bars mostly unvegetated o Noncohesive banks 0 River Terraces abandoned floodplain o Elongated terraces that flank the sides of floodplains and fluvial valleys all over the world o Consist of a relatively level strip of land called a tread separated from either an adjacent floodplain other fluvial terraces or uplands by distinctly steeper strips of land called risers o Processes 0 Form floodplain Cut down incision Lateral cutting meandering channel shifting Aggrade build up deposition o Causes terraces o Eustatic changes worldwide Mean sea level changes 0 Tectonic regional Shifts in the earth s plates 0 Isostatic regional State of earth s gravitational equilibrium between the lithosphere and the asthenoshpere o Climatic eg arid to humid regional Longterm temperature conditions 0 Stream piracy regional Phenomenon occurring when a stream or river drainage system or watershed is diverted from its own bed and flows instead down the bed of a neighboring stream Causes n Tectonic a Natural damming n Erosion o Headward moving up o Meandering o Karst topography sinking underground 0 Alluvial Fan o Fanshaped deposit formed where a fast flowing stream flattens slows and spreads typically at the exit of a canyon onto a flatter plain o Increases velocity and loses sediment o Great place to find water o Convergence of neighboring alluvial fans into a single apron of deposits against a slope is called a bajada or compound alluvial fan 0 Delta o Definition Landform that is formed at the mouth of a river where that river flows into an ocean sea estuary lake reservoir flat arid area or another river o Similar to alluvial fan Velocity decrease and loses sediment Cause Deposition of the sediment carried by the river as the flow leaves the mouth of the river marine and ocean processes mixing 0 Tides The rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of the Earth Ranging from barely noticeable to several meters Usually semidiurnal o Waves Disturbance that travels through space and time usually caused by the transfer of energy 0 Long shore currents Consists of the transport of sediments generally sand but may also consist of coarser sediments such as gravels along a coast at an angle to the shoreline which is dependent on prevailing wind direction swash and backwash River discharge and sediment Salinity Salinebuoyant Dissolved salt content of a body of water Ex n Rhone R into L Geneva n Volga R into Caspian Sea 10x larger Flocculation a Process where colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flakes a When clay interacts with salt particles it becomes electrically charged and clumps together 0 0 Delta Types 0 Digitate Birdfoot Main channel that divides itself into several distributary channels River dominated n Sediment rich Ex Mississippi River 0 Arcuate A bowed or curved delta with the convex margin facing the body of water Also known as fanshaped delta Currents and waves 0 Cuspate Formed when a river drops sediment onto a straight shoreline with strong waves Waves force the sediment to spread outwards in both directions from the river39s mouth making a pointed a tooth shaped with curved sides Waves and currents o Esturarine Has a river that empties into a long narrow estuary that eventually becomes filled with sediment inside the coastline Tide high tidal range a Flaring of the currents Deltas form in areas of low energy low marine processes none along the Eastern or Western coastlines However areas on the left and right side of India are able to form huge deltas because the massive amounts of sediment in the discharge is enough to overcome the high energymarine processes Also small advancing deltas form at the mouth of the Atchafalaya River due to massive sediment in the discharge If delta dominated by riverfingers shape If delta dominated by waveswaves pushing in Nile delta similar to MS River delta 0 Karst limestone landforms Landscape shaped by the dissolution of a layer or layers of soluble bedrock usuallycarbonate rock such as limestone or dolomite due to acid rainwater Name comes from the Karst mountains in Yugoslavia Necessary conditions Must contain 80 or more calcium carbonate for solution processes Complex patterns ofjoints in the otherwise impermeable limestone needed for water to form routes to subsurface drainage channels Aerated zone between ground surface and water table Vegetation cover required to supply varying amounts of organic acids that enhance the solution process Joints or fractures emphasized Water with high COzcontent Limestone purity gt90 CaCo3calcium carbonate Types 0 Caribbean 0 Temperate 0 Tropical o Landforms o Sinkholes dolines due to dolomite 0 Created by the weathering of limestone landscapes 0 Solution 0 Collapse o Cavesrole of water table where caves form dripstone features 0 Definition Natural underground space large enough for a human to enter formed from limestone because it is easily dissolved by carbonation o Stalagmites Develop from the ground up 0 Stalactites Develop from the ceiling down 0 Breathing Caves Lines and fractures at right angles allowing for airflow breathing o Tropical karst tower haystack hills mogotes o Occurs in humid tropical regions with much topographical relief 0 Towerlike O O O o Haystack hills Steep rounded hills aka Magotes in parts of the Spanishspeaking Caribbean o Rill karst o Formed from a tilted limestone 0 Landscape Evolution o Cycle of erosion Geomorphic cycle o Humid WM Davis 0 Most studies done in North America 0 A Stages of evolution youth maturity old age 0 B Main points Slope decline Slope gradually declines more and more Peneplain peneplanation A relatively flat land surface produced by a long period of erosion Monadnocks An isolated rock hill knob ridge or small mountain that rises abruptly from a gently sloping or virtually level surrounding plain n Surviving erosion o Arid W Penck Most studies done in Africa A Arid cycle Pediplanation A rockcut erosion surface formed in a desert by the coalescence of two or more pediments B Main points Slope retreat in parallel stages Pediment Triangular retreat Inselberg Isolated mountain 0 Sedimentary Rocks landforms o Definition 0 Type of rock formed through processes causing minerals andor organic particles to settle and accumulate or minerals to precipitate from a solution o Horizontal o Plateau Large flat sedimentary rock raised sharply above the adjacent terrain on at least one side Formed by O O O n Upwelling of magma n Extrusion of lava n Erosion by water and glaciers Types n Mesa o Raised flattop rock o Wider than it is high a Butte o Raised flattop rock o Higher than it is wide o Folded o Syncline Downfolded rock Trough Basin Largescale structural formation of rock strata formed by tectonic warping of previously flat lying strata Structural basins are geological depressions and are the inverse of domes Anticline Upfolded rock Crust o Cuesta A ridge formed by gently tilted sedimentary rock strata in a homoclinical structure 0 Hogback A ridge formed by steeply tilted sedimentary rock strata in a homclinical structure 0 Scarp face The surface of a steep slope o Cigarshaped Mt Elongated range bowing at center with rounded ends 0 Canoeshaped Mt Elongated range bowing at center with pointed ends 0 ZigZag Mt Syncline Anticline Zigzag Mts o Topography relief by faulting O Definition 0 Planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock across which there has been significant displacement Large faults within the Earth39s crust result from the action of tectonic forces Energy release associated with rapid movement on active faults is the cause of most earthquakes Fault Line Surface trace of a fault the line of intersection between the fault plane and the Earth39s surface Fault Zone Zone of complex deformation associated with the fault plane referred to by geologists since most faults do not have a clean fault line Types 0 DipSlip Normal One side up one side down Ex Baton Rouge 0 StrikeSlipRift Plate moving sideways along each other Ex San Andreas CA 0 ObliqueSlip Contains components of both dip slip and obliqueslip faults o Listric Fault Type of normal fault in which fault plane is curved The dip of the fault plane becomes shallower with increased depth 0 Ring Fault Occur within collapsed volcanic calderas Ring faults may be filled by ring dikes Magnitude o Intensity of fault Type of rocks brought next to each other 0 Weakstrong 0 Weak usually forced upwards while stronger goes under Age of fault o In years Type of processes active 0 Erosion o Vegetation o Volcanoes 0 Biological o Etc Cause relief 0 Pressurestress reduction 0 Definition Refers to vertical elevation differences in the landscape Ex Low relief of Nebraska medium relief in foothills along mountain ranges and high relief in the Rockies and Himalayas 0 Relief Inversion Takes place in the folded mts with time o 3 Orders of Relief Continental landmasses Intermediate level of landforms for continent and ocean Individual mountains cliffs valleys hills and other landforms o Horst Formation Raised formation Upfolded mountain block Usually surrounded by steep faults Crest of dome o Graben Formation Lowered formation Downfolded mountain block inbetween horst formation Crest of anticline H G Many mountains in the west the Rockies Ex Red Sea rift valleys 0 Types of Deserts latitude and weather pattern classification Areas receiving less than 250mm10in rainfall annually Dry climates occupy 26 of the earth s land surfaces Desert Fluvial Processes Rainstorms occur once or twice a year and are called flash floods Arctic o Descending air 0 Expands and absorbs water MidLatitude o Topographic o Continentality LowLatitude O O O O Descending air Sahara D Cold ocean currents Atacama D Arid Parallel retreat Humid Slope decline Desert Lakes Sink Depression in land where water collects with no visible outlet Water lost due to evaporation and penetration to groundwater Playa The result of an evaporated sink Very saline 0 Erosional Landforms o Hamada O Largely barren hard rocky plateaus with very little sand Rock desert O 0 Patches of gravel 0 Desert pavement Fine materials eroded away by wind deflation and moving water leaving behind a concentration of pebbles and gravel Reg 0 Sand eroded out leaving stones 0 Stony desert o Produced by the wind removing the fine products of weathering a process known as deflation The finer products are removed in suspension whilst the sand is removed through saltation and surface creep o Yardang O O O O Streamlined hill carved from bedrock or any consolidated or semiconsolidated material by the dual action of wind abrasion dust and sand and deflation Alternating strong and weak rocks eroded by winds weaker rocks Sculptured rock Elongate features typically three or more times longer than they are wide and when viewed from above resemble the hull of a boat 0 Facing the wind is a steep blunt face that gradually gets lower and narrower toward the lee end o Ventifacts o Rocks that have been abraded pitted etched grooved or polished by winddriven sand or ice crystals 0 Windblown sand 0 Depositional Features o Processes that lay down materials o Sand movement 0 Size 0 Shape 0 Source o Dunes o Slip face Shorter lee side of sand dune Slack Valleytrough between dunes Dune field Area covered by extensive dune fields Erg Large dune field 3 Forms Simple Basic minimum of slip faces define geometric type Compound Large dune with smaller similar dune types with similarly orientated slip faces superimposed on it Complex Combination of two or more dune types 0 Barchan Single wind direction Half moon direction Horns on the dunes face downwind wind direction 0 Longitudinal seif Multiple wind directions Long dunes Form where there is more than one wind direction multiple wind directions 0 Transverse Occurring wherever winds periodically reverse direction Major and minor slip faces oriented in opposite directions o Parabolic Ushaped mounds of sand with convex noses trailed by elongated arms are parabolic dunes These dunes are formed from blowout dunes where the erosion of vegetated sand leads to a Ushaped depression The elongated arms are held in place by vegetation Opposite of barchan dunes o Loess o Accumulation of windblown silt and lesser and variable amounts of sand and clay that are loosely cemented by calcium carbonate Tends to stand vertically due to grains cemented together 0 Traversed by vertical capillaries that permit the sediment to fracture and form vertical bluffs 0 Characteristics Homogenous Highly porous Pale yellow color 0 Found mostly along the eastern wall of the Mississippi Valley and in the mid US 0 Result of glacial limestone being chewed up and brought down the MS River over 1000020000 years c Wind Erosion Processes o Abrasion The grinding of a rock surface with sandblasting action by particles captured in the air 0 Deflation The removal and lifting of individual loose particles o Desertification 0 Worldwide phenomenon along the margins of semiarid and arid lands 1182010 42800 PM o Glaciers o Antarctica 0 13000 feet thick in the center o Ohio River and Missouri River paths regulated by Laurentide Ice Sheet 0 Paths flow along border as ice dips into the Northern US from Canada c To form 0 Need more accumulation than what is removed This must be above the permanent snow line o Definition 0 A glacier is a body of ice and firn consisting of recrystallized snow and melt water lying wholly or mostly on land and showing evidence of present or former motion and persisting for more than one year c Snow density 0 006008 o Granularfresh o Firn o 04055 o Glacial Ice 0 09 0 So pure that it is blue compacted by the ice and snow above it o The closer to 32 degrees F the faster glacial ice forms 0 Firn to ice 0 Switzerland 2540 years 0 Greenland 150200 years c Glacial Ice moves similarly to river flow 0 Plastic flow 0 Rigid flow 0 Snout of glacier has much debris in it 0 Can move up to 100mday o Parts 0 Accumulation zone Positive budget at the end of the year o Equilibrium line 0 Ablation zone Negative budget at the end of the year Glacial budget 0 Accumulation alimentation Precipitation n Snow Freezing rain on surface Condensation of vapor n Sublimation o Ablation negative Melting Evaporation Calving a Most ice lost due to icebergs 73 of loss a Ex 1287 129 mi X 33 mi 820 ft thick Wind Avalanche Snow Line equilibrium line 0 Fluctuation Colder n The farther down the snow line comes Warmer n The closer up the snow line is o Continentally How far inland it is from the oceans Amount of precipitation Examples n Alps Europe 26003250 m n Caucasus USSR 27003900 m n Ransalai Central Asia 4105000 m o Latitude Examples O n Snow line in Arctic is different from snow lines in Africa S Greenland 2000 m S Norway 5000 m Equatorial Africa 18000 m n n n o Aspect In N America snowline can change between individual mountain ranges 0 Types Continental n Greenland n Antarctica Alpinemountain n ContinentalAlpine o Erosional Depositional o ProglacialIce contact depos Till drift fluvioglacial o Zone of scouring o Zone of maximum erosion o Zone of deposition o Limit of glacial advance 21 Volcanoes now rumbling in Indonesia due to chain effect of moving continental plates o Drumlins o If one usually a dozen Eskers 0 Running under ice stream 0 Bedload forming sinuous pattern 0 Left when glacier retreats Recessional Moraine Terminal Moraine Ground Moraine Cirque 0 Ice filled valley on mountain O O O O O O O O O o Arete 0 Ridge 0 Due to cirques cutting back 0 Multiple ar te lead to a horn Most Famous Matter Horn 0 Fiord 0 Where the glacier actually got out into the ocean and actually carved into the ocean floor 0 Eventually raisedfloated by hump in floor scouring stops Interpretive Techniques Age o Relative you look like your 20 but your 19 o Absolute you are 20quot im positive Fossils forams Paleosols fossil soils developed during glacial melting Good gving relative age of landscape Prehistoric cultures o Rat middens poo Pollen all plants have different types Data methods biggest is radial carbonation Tree rings drye thin wet 9 wide Water temperature Cold interglacial Warm glacial O O o Increased 0A2 in water o Plaeosols represent interglacials in Midwest Seal levels up to 400 feet lower during Pleistocene Difficult to work with grass and pine pollen o Radial active material has a 12 life o All living things has same ratio of c12c14 Crevasses cracks in ice what determines the rate at which glaciers move o Alpine glaciers move faster than continental glaciers o Wet based scenario ice frozen to bedrock Layer of rock on ice 9 eliminates friction Downslope and less cohesion and friction Move at foot per day or several hundred feet per yearNorthern Rockies Dry based scenario horizontal surface pouring pancake batter on griddle glaciation CANADA Atlantic coast EROSION Plucking water moves inside cracks at bottom water expands and makes more cracks for more water to flow downward Abrasion ace ice spreads it picks up regolith rock bug piece of moving sand paper Plucking Ice ow e if VGlaciar abrasion quot grand Tetons horns in Jackson hole Wyoming roosh moneia DEPOSITION o Till unsorted glacial sediment o main glacial deposit Made of till Ground terminal recessional Varves layers of sediment off glacier Have an annual ring Deposited into lake Milankovich o Extraterrestrial cause of Pleistocene o Inclination of earth axis 40000yrs o Eccentricity of earth orbit 100000yrs o Precession of equinoxes 23000yrs Coastal Morphology 1 What is a coast 0 Where land and ocean meet 2 Boundaries a Outer i Shoaling waves waves bottome ii River sediments extend out o Inner ocean inulence 0 Storm waves 0 Estuary drowned river mouthsaltwater wedge o The coast is a dynamic zone changes w each storm energy is concentrated in a narrow zone WAVES 1 oscillation sea a fetch distance wave travels b wind speed 2 translation bottom friction D12L a wave energy i spilling low energy Low fetch Florida ii plunging high energy High wind Hawaii 3 tsunami SE Asia Result of undersea earthquakes Wave refraction part of wave bottoms out first marching band pivots o wave trains o wave energy concentrated on headland TERMS Swash zone width related steepness beach Gentle beachebig squash zone o uprush rush of water from onto beach o backwash when wave sucks back into ocean beach drift drifting of sediments parallel to contours of beach rip currents powerful currents flowing away from shore tides rise amp fall of sea levels due to gravitational forces beaches what is source of material where does it come from o Sand on beaches stored offshore in winterCalifornia o Sand pushed onshore in summer sandy beach Net Transport Direction TIDES Factors 1 Gravitational pull Moon and sun 46 Newtons law 0 Force m1xm2d2 Types of tides o 1 Diurnal one highone low o 2 Semidiurnal two hightwo low poles o 3 Mixed different peaks Springtides moon and Earth aligned Dramatic high amp low tide Tides a Gravitational Pull Neap tides when moon and sun are perpendicular w respect to Earth Smaller difference bw high and low tide Quarter moon Atlantic ocean tidal range is 45 feet Tides influence estuaries o Estuaries good place for fish and crabbing Beach sediment sources o Coastal erosion o Offshore o Rivers particles made up of little pieces od shell from offshore coral reef LANDFORMS Baymouth bars longshore currents gravel and deposits from drift current Closes off bay from ocean Spits sand bar found off coasts caused by longshore currents Tombolo uncommon bar that extends outward from shore Barrier islands eastern US Formation of a Tumboln 0m mm mm Mm u kahuna hy m 51 Chln eln mpenlllmdlnnd rrsn ln m he formuliun uh wll SI mm m m m mainland m mm 2 am am ToMmLu Coastal Dunes SE coast of Us sand suuply longshore currents not active strong onshore winds low rain low beach angle large tidal range 9 9 Sea cliff coast 0 wave cut notch caused by waves 0 wave cut platform 0 sea stackarch Coast Classifications 1 materials a mangrove trees that grow in saline coastal waters b coral c rock type 2energy tidewaves 3 structure 0 strike parallel to coast straight o strike perpendicular ria coast Greece 4 shapeform a straight b embayed 5 valentine a advancing b retreating c stationary Coral Reefs Types 0 fringing West IndiesCaribbean Grows right on shoreline o barrier parallel to the coastline and separated from it by a lagoon o atoll rings of reef often encircling an island sand and coral rubble Pacific volcanos coral reefs grow towards light Factors 0 tropical 30 degrees NS equator Bermuda 0 sunlight little growth below 10 ft depth what causes lagoons How do reefs grow in great depth Soil collection of natural bodies on the earth s surface supporting plants w lower limit being roots of perennial plants or development gentetic horizons which ever is deeper Soil Terms 1 soil profile D quotmmquot Eluviatlon A Horizon layer IIIuvIanan a narlzun E Hariznn R Horizon 2 soil horizon 3 solum active part of soil Topsoil formation occurs p substratum base of soil where plant is attached 9quot regolith layer of loose heterogeneous material covering solid rock Dust soil broken rock 6 sequum a euvia b illuvial deposition of particles from above PH levels 1 battery acid 7 neutral bloodmilk 14 alkaline Horizon Distinctions 1 boundaries width 2 composition mineral 45 air 25 water 25 organic matter 5 texture clay determines hardness silt sand LA V AVva we 7 Dnvcenl 5m 4 structure 5 color 0 climate 0 parent material all white Little iron a types i consolidated i unconsolidated o topography a catena change in topography o biologic animals humans plants 0 times 0 active climate biologic o passive parent material 0 modifying topography 0 time interval where other interact mineral content a calcium carbonate accumulates over time 9 tropics shifting agriculture humus rich A horizon 0 organic due to falling leaves off tree SOIL ORDERDegree of Weathering oxisols ultisols High alfisols spodosols mollisols Moderate aridsols inceptisols Andisols Low entisols Calcification o soild w CaCO3 o mollisols grasslands Midwest Very thick Parent material has CaCO3 o CaCO3 A in west surface Lowers in east Dissolves farther east 0 Mollisols cornwheat belts Podzolization o Humid regions forest soils o Spodsols podzolics cool o Utisols warm except Mississippi river Very red w oxidation Laterization o Tropical o Oxisols laterites soils structureless high iron and aluminum o Processes o Intense weathering o Intense eluviation o Phtocycling Alluvialdunes young soil Not much horizon Layers bc sedimentation Inceptisols Mississippi valley and volcanicalluvial areas Histosols form peak for making fire Very dark sharkey soil Louisiana back swamp young soil REVIEW waves at sea oscillation caused by c Fetch distance wind blows in ocean o Wind speed translation tsunami undersea earthquake where does sand in beach come from o Rivers o Offshore o Erosion of headlands How many types of tides o Louisiana has diurnal tides Glaciers o Depositional feature 0 Escar o Drumlin o Moraine Iceage Pleistocene o Wisconsin soil forming factors o climate o parent material o topography o biological o time active climatebiological passive soil classifications o youngest soil anthesol o Louisiana o Most weathered