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by: Angie Gulgowski


Angie Gulgowski
GPA 3.94

Nathan Price

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Nathan Price
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Angie Gulgowski on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLI 2053 at Louisiana State University taught by Nathan Price in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/222746/poli-2053-louisiana-state-university in Political Science at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
India Lecture British East India Company 11600 a Fquot 0 Private company but had strong state support It was not political conquest but a business there were large portions of India it did not control Allowed local leaders to stay in power as long as they helped the company make a pro t Begins to lose money in the 19Lh century and the company begins to take more land to make up for it Placed them under military protection i 1857 mutiny in response to British ri es that used grease from cows and pigs offends Indian Hindus and Muslims they attack British soldiers and set some prisoners free Britain quickly clamps down on the unrest destroys many bridges in India 1858 Parliament passes the Government of India Act which transferred all power in India directly to the British Crown Raj Bureaucratic hierarchy within the Indian states maintained power only with help of the Indian elite a Secretary of State In the British Cabinet responsible for all Indian affairs b Viceroy appointed by Sec of State serves in India for 5 years Indian Civil Service chosen by competitive examinations in London until 1923 O Eventually Indian Elite began to turn on the Raj and began talking about Swaraj self rule tensions come to a head in 1883 when the British government passes a law that allows Indians to sit on juries of European defendants the 100000 British living in India object and force the government to back down Indian National Congress 11885 a Fquot O 00 quot1 73 Indians meet in Bombay demand swaraj and that civil service exams be given in India and the UK to give Indians a better chance of serving Simultaneously the Raj becomes more ruthless engages in military campaigns to conquer more land Indian National Congress launches rst nationwide nonviolent revolutionary movement a boycott of British goods i Indians buying swadeshi of our country cloth By 1908 imports had been cut by more than a quarter British respond by arresting and prosecuting Congress leaders creates a more radical violent movement amongst a wing of the party WW I India agrees to help the UK thinking that after the war the Indians will get their freedom for reward 1 million Indian troops fought in British army g In the aftermath Mohandas Ghandi leads a massive boycott of British goods ibut he is jailed and it is quickly apparent that this boycott will not lead to independence emergence of violence which Gandhi adamantly opposed 1 while 1920 s movement failed it did create a class of leaders who believed in nonviolent methods of protest h Gandhi tries again in 1930 with a salt boycott Salt was one of the few goods the Indians needed and the British had always taxed it heavily 1 March to the seagather salt as a symbolic gesturegains traction for his movement 2 However again the movement is suppressed and Gandhi has to deal with increasing nationalism amongst the Muslims and Hindus i British limp out of WW II so drained they know they cannot retain India However they split it into 2 countries Muslim Pakistan and Hindu India 111 Indian State a Unlike many Third World countries India starts independently as a country with great pride in the state people identify as being Indian However Indian society burdened by a stringent caste system Brahmin teachers scholars and priests Kshatriyas Kings and Warriors ii39 Vaishyas Traders iv Shudras farmers service jobs Untouchables Lowest caste or out of caste system altogether lt Offspring organized into jati or subunits of the aforementioned castes b 0 3 1 5 Constitution defines India as a secular republic guarantees civil liberties to all religious groups castes racial groups and both genders Lower House Like the UK is the powerful house Lok Sabha 545 members 543 of which are elected by FPTP elections in single member districts and the other 2 are appointed by the President Indian MP s represent 15 million people Party discipline in Lok Sabha is not as great as in House of Commons plus there is a lot of turnover of members Upper House or Rajya Sabha primarily elected by state legislatures which makes it like the Bundesrat in Germany however it is nowhere near as powerful 12 Members represent the artistic and intellectual community and are appointed by the President i If the two bodies cannot agree on a bill the Prime Minister nominally appointed by the President but must come from the majority party in the Lok Sabha appoints council of ministers who must be MP s or be elected within 6 months 1218 ofthese become the cabinet but there is a smaller more informal group that is more powerful in reality PM has power to declare emergency rule qorh Pquot IV i Happened in 1975 Indira Ghandi found guilty of violating a campaign nance law was supposed to step down Refused evoked emergency rule suspended civil liberties arrested political opposition and suspended elections President ceremonial head of state Bureaucracy Gigantic bureaucracy headed by the Indian Administrative Service i ii Employees 15 million people tiny elite faction that is highly trained Revolves around personal connectionstypically based on family caste or religion Federalism ii39 2 States have a governor Bicameral state legislature powerful Divisions not based on ideology as much as patronclient relationships benefits in exchange for votes 39 Article 365 Presidential Rule gives state level the equivalent of federal emergency powers Indian Political Parties a Indian National Congress INC i ii39 Though it never won a majority at the polls the INC was able to thrive in the FPTP system Class plays a relatively small role in politicsParties have to deal with overlapping cleavages to appeal to voters Dominant Party in India throughout independence comparable to Christian Democrats in Italy or the Liberal Democratic Party in Japan General period of decline since 1967 exacerbated by Indira Ghandi However opponents to INC were not a positive opposition but a negative opposition were not able to form a coalition to replace the INC b Bhatriya Janta Party BJP C ii39 lt Others i Hindu nationalist party political standing is strengthened by clash at the Babri mosque between Hindus and Muslims In the 1990 s it is radical comparable to France s National Front Elected in 1998 tests nuclear devise Harshest rhetoric comes into regard to Pakistan mostly over disputed region of Kashmir Ultimately takes amore moderate approach to governing than their critics had imagined lose power in 2004 Remnants of the traditional left Communists and Regional Parties China Lecture 1 Chinese Histog for Dummies not you guys my other class A Notion of China as a sleeping giant 1 China s legacy of Confucianism a Notion of a verticallyintegrated society b Teaches Chinese to respect the status quo their rank B Sense of Chinese nationalism begins to emerge in the early 20Lh century resentment toward the West for meddling in Chinese affairs May Fourth Movement radicalized youth C 1920 s Con ict between Chinese Nationalists KMT led by Chiang Kai shek and Chinese Communists CCP led by Mao Zedong a Moscow in uences both factions urges them to unite to form one government for China 39 Shanghai Massacre 1927 brings con ict to a peak KMT trying to exterminate the Communist bandits throughout the next 7 years KMT is generally on the offensive iii Long March Long retreat of CCP is ghting KMT and local warlords all along the way i39 1 Devastating in human cost 90 of the KMT are dead by the end 2 Successful because it spread Communist principals throughout the Chinese countryside a CCP army treated civilians better than KMT 3 From 19371945 KMT and CCP unite to ght the Japanese in World War II a War weakens the KMT emboldens the CCP b In aftermath of the war civil war resumes and the tide turns toward the CCP i KMT ees to Taiwan in 1949 Beginning of 2 Chinas II Mao s China a lst 5year plan in 1953 emphasis on heavy industry b Chinese assistance to N Korea in Korean Con ict 19501953 c Khrushchev s Secret Speech doesn t sit well in China 1956 i Leads to Sino Soviet Split Mao s Cult of Personality Vision that Chinese society can be transformed i Chinese people are a blank sheet of paper on which the most beautiful things can be written 1 Supplant traditional loyalty to the family or village with loyalty to all of China 2 Replace acceptance of the status quo with the notion that society must struggle to get ahead 3 1 3 Society must be egalitarian replace existing vertical integration of society 4 Self reliance Chinese must break pattern of dependence on elites a Farms backyard furnaces e Noticeable divisions in Mao s China Hundred Flowers Campaign 1956 Intellectual freedom in China Let a hundred owers bloom and a thousand points of view contend Great Leap Forward l957 Impatient with slow transition to socialism Mao calls on everybody to assist 1 Move to collective agriculture 2 Incorporate everybody into process of industrialization Backyard furnaces Melting all iron metal Children making iron at school Intellectuals forced to get back to manual labor Production decreases rapidly during hard winter of 19581959 more than 45 million people died many of starvation Red versus Expert debate iii Cultural Revolution 19661976 1 Mao insists that liberal bourgeoisie has in ltrated the Party Communists needs to recommit themselves to permanent revolution a Period of high tension within the Communist Party 1 Strong emphasis on the cult of personality of Mao emphasis on his link to Marx and Lenin a Can 76year old Mao really swim 6 miles 2 Spreads to military universities a Creation of Red Guards bands of thugs that would roam universities countryside attacking perceived enemies of Mao i Destruction of all Western in uenced things movie theaters antiques etc b Round up of Capitalist R0aders perceived enemies of Mao would be rounded up paraded through the streets i Forced labor imprisoned 3 Party dominated by Mao and Gang of Four rug99 s III PostMao China a In Mao s declining days most Chinese realize the country cannot afford to continue on Mao s revolutionary path 39 Increasing role of Zhou Enlai architect of China s four modernizations agriculture industry science and the military Rehabilitates Deng Xiaoping Zhou s death in 1976 8 months before Mao Massive outpouring of public sympathy Mao s death receives very little in comparison iv Ping Pong Diplomacy F ii39 v Nixon and Mao begin cooling tensions between the United States and China culminating in a 1971 visit by Kissinger and a 1972 visit by President Nixon and first lady Pat Nixon vi Perestroika without glasnost liberalization of the Chinese economy without undertaking political reforms 1 Creation of Special Economic Zones SEZ s in 1979 in which foreign investors were given preferential treatment a Integration of SEZ s expansion to all of China IV The Chinese State a Just like the Leninist model the Communist Party and the State are intertwined in China except at local level where party and state are better separated 39 N omenklatura Party list of all the people who are qualified for political office Central Committee Elected to 5year terms from the Nomenklatura 1 As was the case with the Soviet Union CC is a rubber stamp for decisions that were already made by the elites iii Politburo Composed of about 20 members this is where key decisions are made iv President fused with Chairman of the Communist Party V Chinese Political participation a Topdown or bottom up i Topdown during the days of Mao but this is weakening ii With a semicapitalist economy Chinese have other ways to work themselves up in society that are independent of the Party iii Increasingly resembles bottomup participation 1 Survey data in Beijing 4 other regions found in the 1990 s that Chinese were a Attending Local Party meetings village meetings b Expressed their opinion to local party cadres c Tried to contact in uence regional governors VI VII China places Democracy Movement a The 5 modernization of China b Creation of the Democracy Wall in Beijing Goddess of democracy c The events of 1989 39 Death of respected reformist Hu Yaobang Students begin to demonstrate in Tiananmen Square lay wreaths to mourn the loss of Hu Military allows demonstrations to continue they grow rapidly protests in Beijing go beyond students 1 April 2122 10 thousand protestors 2 April 27 over 300000 during Gorbachev s Visit state controlled media reports what they are seeing demonstrations breaking out all over China i39 ii39 3 May 17 2 million protestors in Tiananmen Square 4 Period of crisis in China government not willing to back down students begin to debate employing Violence 5 June 34 Tiananmen Square Massacre Government sends the tanks into Tiananmen Square Death toll as high as 4000 students many prominent dissidents ee the country The Rise of the F alun Gong a Spiritual movement that combines elements of Buddhism with meditation and exercise Practitioners believe it leads to physical and spiritual wellbeing 50 million members the largest nonCommunist Party organization in c Adherents to Falun Gong practice openly in city parks in other public 1 Have demonstrated in Tiananmen Square urging the government accept their religion insistence that this is not a political organization d Confrontation with President Hu Jintao in the White House Rose Garden


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