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by: Dana Jacobson


Dana Jacobson
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H. Mokeba

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H. Mokeba
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This 48 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dana Jacobson on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLI 2053 at Louisiana State University taught by H. Mokeba in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see /class/222751/poli-2053-louisiana-state-university in Political Science at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
Introduction 8222012 110700 PM Why is this semester of Comparative Politics so much more relevant o US Presidential Elections o New government in FRANCE o New government in MEXICO o New government in CHINA Frank Wilson importance of comparing politics o In our increasingly small and interdependent world we need to learn about the politics and events in other countries Appreciate our own political system Learning process Political systems are in a constant process of change Charles Hauss o Wherever you live politics around the world matters NO 2 POLITICAL SYSTEMS COUNTRIES OR GOVERNMENTS ARE GOVERNED IN THE SAME WAY Ethnocentrisms o Focused on yourself and your own surroundings o Its closer no time to look at other things and its simply the best o Reality is there is no perfect political system Great Britain Parliamentary France Parliamentary Germany Parliamentary Japan Parliamentary China Presidential Russia Presidential India Presidential Mexico Presidential Iran Presidential Nigeria Presidential What do people think of when they see Louisiana o Crooked politics Bad public schools Crazy laws Food Football Lottery Political Systems 8222012 110700 PM Presidential System9 France Russia China Mexico Iran Nigeria Citizens go to the polls and they directly elect who the president is going to be Universal mandatesuffrage Head of state leader of the entire country in the case of the United States the head of government only has control of those few official elected to serve Stay in office even if within those 4 years Congress changes 0 Obama was elected in 2008 0 Congress changed in 2010 Can have a prime minister because the president grabs a friend and gives them the position Parliamentary Systeme Great Britain Germany Japan India People go to the polls and elect representatives that would stand for the district where they come from Head of government is only known as the Prime Minister Prime Minister has a limited mandate which means he can only stay in office as long as he has a parliamentary majority 0 Head of government Japan has a emperorpresident but he stands in much more of a ceremoniously position Crisis in Political Systems 8222012 110700 PM All political systems are in some form of crisis Governments are always in trouble Crisis of Identity o How people feel about their own role in the political system c Do I belong Do I feel accepted Crisis of Legitimacy o Perception that people have of the government and its leadership Crisis of Penetration o How far does the government reach o How much does the government affect and touch your life o Most effective in the capital city Crisis of Participation o How much people include themselves o Going to vote Crisis of Distribution o Who gets what when and how Systems Approach o Whether politics works or doesn t work in any given situation depends on the role that we play in the process o Politics acts more like a machine in the sense that everyone has to play some kind of a role for this process to be successful o If one part of the system is not working then it affects everything else 0 Football team example Offense Defense Special Teams All must work in an effective passion to ensure a successful team Study Methods o Political science has an advantage in the sense that it offers different methods of studying politics c There are two major ways of studying politics 0 Normative Approach People use their beliefs thoughts and opinions to explain what is going on in politics 0 Empirical Approach Based largely on facts and actual experience O O Participant observation Case Study Approach Statistical Approach o Studying comparative politics you must be aware of problems 0 O Overgeneralization Blanket statements that may not be true for everyone Ethnocentrism Assuming our own political system is better than everyone else s History of Comparative Politics o It can be traced as far back as the earliest recorded history of ancient peoples Although not much documentation exists people often engage in comparison when they engage in multi state and multi group interaction Argument here is that the Bible is the most important source for comparative analysis that exists 0 O O O O Plato O O O 0 Good and evil Old and new testament Kane and Abel Adam and Eve Past and Current World and Aristotle Nature of Power and Leadership Different forms of government Sociological Basis and Foundation Categories of Political Systems Ruled by n ONE a Few n Many Called a Monarch n Aristocracy n Polity Degenerative Forms n Tyranny n Oligarchy n Anarchic Democracy Main Social Groups a King a Wealthy a Poor Majority o Lycurgus 0 Ancient Sparta o Tried to study politics by travelling across the various city states in Greece 0 Sparta was a different kind of society In Sparta the locals and natives were the minority The slaves were the majority Contextual Study of Politics o Geography 0 Even a place where a country is located can have an effect on that political system c History 0 French Revolution had a different effect on different political systems o Economic Structure 0 People vote based on their pay cheeks Republican National Convention o Rhetoric and limited specifics o Just an event pep rally o Boost in polls Democratic National Convention o Rhetoric and limited specifics o Clinton o Economy will be make or break topic 0 Unemployment o Deficit o Boost in polls Building BlocksIssues Constitution amp Ideology 8222012 110700 PM quot39i Wi iaiif 13h illlliwl l 9i i i i 39l iztls ll Lilquot ii l1 Lnl39 allquot to H Li l lll It is the basis and the framework to live by Many citizens do not know much about the constitution Sometimes even when they try it tends to be vague Because it tends to be vague the Supreme Court is often called upon to help in interpreting the laws The constitution of a country represents the collective aspirations of the people Plays a more critical role in western societies while in other parts of the world the constitution is often ignored and can easily be changed by leaders of countries Unwritten constitution 0 Simply means that their constitution is not consolidated in a single document 0 In the case of GB its constitution is the combination of several historic documents various traditions and practices and various laws and judicial decisions Still qualify as a constitutional regime because power is separated between the various parts of government and their limit as to how power can be exercised 0 Don t have to make amendments just keep adding laws I in Elia 39 i If ou don t have an ideology and don t stand for something you will drown We tend to like politicians who stand for something Ideology that people have is shaped by a variety of historical experiences On the issue of ideology it consists of 2 dimensions which include o How society should be organized 0 Appropriate way to achieve such a goal Often combines several ideas including the form of government that one could have the type of economic system and the various levels of political though Bring ifferent varied interests into a single platform Interest groups represent a single issue while a political party brings in multiple interests 0 Women s rights 0 Abortion rights o Interest groups play a hugely important role in American politics o Across the world political parties could be several different types o NonPartisan o No parties exist at all 0 There will be a single dominant political party o Multiparty 0 Many political parties with many of them having a chance to win o Lonely at the Top Article 0 The Economist magazine published in England largely conservative says that political parties are on their way out because many people don t seem to identify with any one major political party 0 In Germany PP membership fell by 20 Sweden fell by 27 Norway 29 GB 39 Caravan club now has more members than all political parties combined 0 Numbers usually drop before major presidential election 0 Apartisan Floating voters on steroids Tend to be young educated vote almost the same way as someone who belongs to a party can be on the right or on the left don t believe that any party explains their views very well Vote for a party that will somehow care about the views that they have LegislatureParliament o Vital political requirement for every country because those who serve in the parliament or legislature represent the popular will of the people so that you could make laws for a country c Scapegoat when things are going wrong o Play important roles O O O O O O O 0 How 0 Help to maintain regime stability Affect a wide range of area of life or activity Control and criticize the government Serve as a forum for public debate Play key roles in the law making process Serve as a means of communication with the public Plays the role of recruitment Internships education CSPAN and socialization Visits GENERALLY CONTROL THE BUDGET are they elected into Congress Single Member District System SMD based on plurality many candidates running for a single seat Allows one single person to represent for a whole district doesn t take into consideration the many votes that were cast against that candidate Proportional Republic amount of percentage of votes that a party would have in a given election That would then be distributed proportionally to the seats that exist within the legislature Advantage is that it is more democratic and allows many PP to be represented disadvantage could lead to confusion and forces various PP to often usually form a coalition government Indirect election Elected directly by the people to serve in BR then members within choose a few to serve in the Senate o Bicameral Legislation 0 TWO 0 Upper SenateHouse of Lords and lower House of RepresentativesHouse of Commons The Executive Judiciary Presidential 0 People directly vote 0 Universal suffrage 0 Independent of the legislature Parliamentary Often the most ignored branch in the government People don t care much until they get in trouble Biggest role played was the determining the winner of the 2000 elections in the US when the support was for Bush over Gore Because the US Constitution was not specific on certain issues the Supreme Court has played an important role in deciding on these issues Power of the judiciary could be traced as far back as 1803 when they adopted something that came to be known as judicial review simply deals with the power of the supreme court to declare certain acts of congress on the president to be unconstitutional Supreme Court has become one of the more powerful institutions People who are not satisfied engage in various AntiConstitutional Practices 0 Break the laws Self Immolation 0 Lighting yourself on fire Society amp Politics Internet Groups Political Parties Whatever takes place in politics is often influenced by what is going on in society They often coexist with one another Symbiotic relationship Various roles that you can play will affect the political roles 0 Run for office Write congressman Engage in protests Write to the editor Contribute to political campaigns o Biggest role that society played in government today was the possible impeachment of Bill Clinton 0 O O O Left and Right Ideology 8222012 110700 PM Obama John Breaux Left Pragmatic Right Radicals Liberals Someone willing to ConservativeReactionaries compromise John McCainJesse Helms Key Concepts 8222012 110700 PM Parliamentarism political system where the government is created out of the legislature o Headed by he prime minister but he is only is power as long as he has the majority o If one party cannot get the majority than two parties can get together and form a coalition as long as they can maintain the majority o Great Britain France Federalism o Where government functions and activities are distributed between central Level of government state and local o United States o Everywhere has this Cafeteria classroom Names of Hollande s Women o Valerie Treurweilen o Segolene Royale POLI Notes September 5th 2012 962012 123200 AM Political Science September 5th 2012 No two countries are governed the same Parliamentary Presidential In Great Britain there was a cabinet reshuffle looking to change some members in the cabin cons democrats were a little behind David Cameron Scotland wants to separate it self from GB In france unemployment rate continues to rise New president of france not doing so well Lufthansa is going on strike on Friday Issue of economy still dominates german politics Elections will take place next year In japan a new political party has been formed the PM continues to look pretty bad Their economy will not look good in the future if they do not resolve RUSSIA Putin continues to show how powerful he is CHINA people have gone on hunger strikes because china wants schools in the country to start teaching patriotism classes Also a top official who was a chief of staff of the President of the country was kicked out because his son was involved in a accident where 2 women were killed as well INDIA the current govn is still faced by a new crisis some scandal going on and they want the PM to resign MEXICO the President of the country Calderon has defended the country s drug war 47600 since he came to office in 2006 Belongs to the PAN France calling for more sanctions against Iran NIGERIA Talks are being held bw the govn of Nigeria and the Islamic radicals Nigeria is planning to privatize its energy industry The leaders are all kicked out of office Relevance of studying comparative politics to know what you want to do Interconnectivity to the world one gains knowledge about other countries By learning about political systems in other countries you learn about your own country s political system and you learn to appreciate it You can use something you know and compare it to something you don t know LEARNING PROCESS We get out of a particular mindset ethnocentrism Crisis in Political Systems All political systems are in some type of crisis crisis of identity How people feel about their own role in the political system crisis of legitimacy perception of govt leadership crisis of penetration how far does the government affect your life In most countries governments affect the capital the most crisis of participation How many people are truly involved in the political process ARP people Jews always vote Students stopped voting crisis of distribution who gets what and when Definitions and their relevance in the study of comparitve politics Louisiana in Comparative Analysis Clocked politics Crazy Laws Good Food Systems Approach Whether politics work or doesn t work in any given situation depends on the role that we play in the process Everyone has to play some kind of role for this process to be successful Obama said I m calling on all system to start working because its not just me its all of us Inputs things that people really want demands Study Methods Pol Science Normative Methods Different Methods Case study approach Statistical Approach Questions and responses numbers makes it look better and accurate 1990 s democratic political culture HISTORY OF COMPARITIVE POLITICS Can be traced as far back as the earliest records and history of ancient people Although not much documents exists people have often engaged in multi state or multi group levels Even on occasion of war you learn from weapons When you trade we learn from other people how they made shoes etc Bible is the most important source for comparative analysis that exists o Plato Aristotle o Greeks Lycurgus Ancient Sparta southern Greece tried to study politics by travelling and taking notes of different political systems that existed but at the end of his travels when he returned to his country he realized he couldn t just transfer all those to his own country Peculiarity in Sparta In Sparta the natives were minority and the slaves were majority Never assume that all countries are the same Political systems can be studied with contextual study 0 geography where they re located 0 History of the country 0 Economic structure of the country 0 September 122012 962012 123200 AM REPUBLICANS DEMOCRATIC o Rhetoric o Rhetoric 0 Limited Specifications 0 Limited Specifications Building Blocks Issues Political systems are often distinguished by the kind of constitution they have an the ideology they have adoption A constitution is that to a political system that a bible is to Christians and the Quran is to the Muslims something they live by An ideology can be defined as something that politicians can use to orient themselves in the sea of politics The constitution of the country represents the collective aspirations of people While the ideology that people have is shipped by the variety of historical experiences Constitution seems to play critical role in western society Constitution is often ignored and can be changed by political parties Unwritten ConstiutonL several historical documents and practices An ideology combines several ideas including the tyoe of gov one can have LEIT liberalsOBAMA pragmatic conserv RIGHT Radical Willing Reactionaries Whatever works Jesse Helms John Breaux Political Parties A political party can be described as an organization that tries to in uence government policy by nominating candidates to serve in of ce It would bring different interests into a single platform Interest group Political Party only represents a single issue brings different views and puts them together Singapore PAP The economist magazine Aug 4 2012 Lonely at the top Political parties may be on their way out Many people don t seem to identify with any one major political party GERMANY Political party economy fell by 20 SWEDEN 27 Norway 29 Britian 39 Rightist Parties Austria Italy Apartisans Floating voters on steroids They vote almost the same way as partisans They can be on the right or on the left They don t believe any parties explain their views any well and instead they vote for parties that they feel care about the views they have The legislatureparliament The parliament is a viable political requirement for every country because those who serve the legislature represent the popular wheel of the people and the reason why you were voted is that you can make laws for the country In recent times however legislatures could also be described a scrape goat institutions when things go bad they are blamed Congress play vital role in the political system They help maintain regime stability They affect a wide area of life They can control and criticize the government and all their branches They serve as a forum for public debate They play key roles in the law making process Serve as a means of communication with the public Plays the role of recruitment education and socialization They generally control budget SMD system Single Member District search on internet PR governments don t last in office very long Advantage of the PR system is that it is more democratic and Often causes political parties to form a coalition government Bicameral Legislature Upper Senate Lord Lower HOR HOC house of commons USA powerful upper house Only country similar to having the same powerful upper house is the country of Japan England Indirect Election Presidential System Parliamentary System People vote directly They are elected only in Universal Suffrage their own districts because of this he becomes an independent of legislature This system exists in several countries Russia mexico china france where the HOG is the president Whatever takes place in politics is often influenced by what is going on between society Judiciary Often the most ignored branch of government People don t care about it until they get into trouble Biggest role played so far was determining the winner of the 2000 elections in united states The constitution is not good in deciding people s basic rights the supreme court has decided to take up this issue Judicial review simply deals with power of the supreme court to declare certain part of the congress to be on constitutional The us supreme court has become the most powerful system in US September 19th 2012 962012 123200 AM Compare France and Britain GB France Parliamentary Presidential Monarchy Abolished Unwritten Const Const 1958 Coalition govt Social Inst United States still plays a major role in the fortunes of Japan and Germany 1 Unwritten const for Britain 2 Naughty royalty 3 HEADLINES Royal Family Olympics Two British women gunned down NO Death penalty in GB British system represents a model for any political system Parliamentary democracy Westminster system disctricts in London where the parliament government offices and the prime ministers office is located Britain has been noted over the years for its tradition and its self preservation Survived over time and were able to maintain the system intact Tony Blair Millennium dome Devolution Mayor of London House of Laws dismantle Economist Accidental Revolution They hoped for the gamble that happened in 2010 to be successful They described British govt as of 2012 as radical and daring The coalition formed in 2010 and still going in 2012 is the first coliation that was put in place since the first world war No one party seemingly manifested Like most European countries britian was a major force in war poltics to the degree where they were able to estabilish empires Which means it brought vast distant areas under its control They made good use of their large navy and also took advantage of their large trading network that they put in place to control distant areas that were now lead by the queen Common wealth IO Sort of a fraternity or club Today british influence in the world is not as strong as it was in the past British have become a little emore assertive in recent times William Hague Peculiar aspects Things that make Britian different from others Unwritten Const exists in many multiple forms Changes The magna Carter of 1215 Petition of rights 1628 The bill of right of 1689 The act of settlement 1701 Reform Act of 1832 The parliament act of 1911 Rulings by judges September 12 962012 123200 AM Monarchy Where political office is hereditary The monarchy is still important in british political life Almost everything done in Britain often done in her majesty s service Used to be divine office in the past Magna carta bill of rights Dine Queen still pplays an important role People often describe this speech as a royak Should be more democratic otherwise the system will not work very well Efficient aspects Although we discussed this in effiecitn parts of the british system The british electoral system is not fair and balanced This means elections tend to favour more established political party in A vote that a party reiiewves does now al This sytem has been cirri 2005 Labour 26amp 72 votes Conservative 44mo Britain only hold 1 elections evert five At the end of this 5 years the elections ar going to be hello Ani Administration Eurpeanelections PA Conservatives believe in the unity of the nation they believe that social classes Advocates freedom of choices They are against government assistance They tend to be hostile to nationalization They often tend to favour direct taxes or indirect taxes Direct taxes pay money Indirect taxes In general conservatives were advocates of an empire and they tend to be anti European union They have a party structure known as the national union of conservatives association They hold a conference once every year and members tend to business executives lawyers and farmers Many of them have gone to oxford or Cambridge They were lead for a long time The most influential leader of that time was Margaret Thatcher M Thatcher she was able to fight argentina in the falcom war THE LABOUR PARTY Often follows a socialistic agenda When Tony Blair took over it was called New labour Some of the prinicples that governed this party included Religious nonconformity Disgust for the class system Strive toward a more humane society Tend to favour public ownership They believe very strongly in the redistribution of wealth In foreign policy Labourparty were strongly against NATO They often favoured the EU The structure of the party consists of individual membership and affiliated membership trade union The labour party began to win elections when they moved away from the extremes and to the center and this happened at the time when the conservative party was moving away from the center to the extreme New labour was the main ideology put in place by Tony Blair David Owens Roy Jenkins Pashdy Ashdown Charles Kennedy Current 2007 Nick Clegg Bicameral Upper House Lower House The house of lords used to have as many as 1276 members before tony blair began to dismantle Currently membership is at 730 There is complete disagreement among the parties as to how much power the members in the upper house should have For now the upper can delay legislation but cannot deny the passage of the law Their functions tend to be minimal They often decide on controversial issues They have been involved in several scandals 2009 etc that somehow hurt their image in the eyes of brtish people The lower house house of commons consists of 659 members who represent the various districts across the country They set a five year term and they have been able to elevate the situation They were named liveliest debating forum in the world When something happens they can select committees to manage The majority party in the house of commons would be called upon to set up a government In Britain theres a difference between cabinet and the govt Cabinet Chancellor of the Exchequer treasurer The Cabinet would insure that the act is decided as a unit If someone questions they will be called upon to resign from the cabinet Problem New Coalition Class System Lack of influence September 26th 962012 123200 AM FRANCE Represents contrast to GB Return of the socialists after 17 yrs Euphoria to dim reality The French state of mind political traits Political party left right Interest groups Constitution Presidential system Legislature Bicameral Judiciary Facing the Future Trepidation X Confidence MIDTERM Japan Germany france Britian BIG question Definition New york times articles 2 definitions 1 big essay 1 small essay Assessment 2 scantrons Multiple choice new york times questions Q differences between GB and France Write as much as you can Differences France GB Presidential Elections take Britain is parliament those that place parliament still plays a role are able to command majority but not that big Ties to Europe Both of them are members of the EU France is a stronger member because they have their currency while Britians are also tied to Europe but their connections do not seem that strong Sacozzi Economy European trend Leadership style He described himself as a normal president France 1995 Mitterrano 19952007 2007 2015 sacozzi The arrival of the socialists were greeted with so much fan partly because of the contrasting images that Hollande president put up Holland made promises 1 The wealthy would be paying 75 income in taxes 2 Complete Gay rights 3 Equal treatment for women in terms ofjobs Cabinet has 34 members 34 are men 17 are women President decided to take 30 reduction in his salary Justice French Guyana Next time Birth certificate says Parents39 instead of mother and father Huge cloud of uncertainty France had to closer several of its embassy s last week The suburbs of france have been affected by protests and violence that Qatar has pledged to send some money over to france to help France is facing many problems Don t judge me by how things are today judge me when I finish my termquot Hollande Valarie Segolene The French system has two major political traits Quest for Individualism Stand out unique separate self Strikes protests FRANCE All this is heavily deceptive Propensity For abstraction philosophies crazy ideas they think they are better thinkers than the world The French have used these propensity for abstraction and it has affected their politics Distinction given to those to the left and those to the right LEFT RIGHT Colonial Policy Contra PRO State Intervention PRO Contra in economy PRO par PRO pres Par vs Pres power State aid Contra Pro RIGHTIST PARTIES For a long time French politics has been dominated by the parties to the right They often describe themselves as Gaullist parties Charles de gaulle who is seen as the hero of French politics because of the role he played to fight against the germans and the war with Algeria He used all the power what came to be known as French constitution RPF rally for the French people formed in 1947 The name of the party was changed several times Today the party is known as UNION FOR THE PRESIDENTIAL MAJORITY This name was given to the party There is some kind of fight going on between Apart from the main conservative party on the right several other parties exist including Movement for france party Lead by Devillens Rally for france Lead by Pasqua Citizens and Republican movement Lead by JeanPierre Chev nement PARTIES TO THE LEFT or LEFTIES PARTIES Long suffering parties within the French political system Since the system was put in place since 1958 first election was won ON 1981 and the next time they won again was 2012 ON 2011 the parties to the left were able to gain control to the upper house Parties to the left are many as well It was only in 1981 that the socialist party was able to make a major head way in French politics when mitterrano won president Difference between communist and socialist in the French system Communist they have been closer to the soviet union Consist mostly members of the labour force Socialist they are commited to social reform and parliamentary democracy When mitterrano became president of the party in 1971 He stayed in 2 full terms from 19811985 Since his departure from office Martine Aubrey was supposed to Important name DSK Dominique Strauss Kahn Green Environmental parties always somehow connect to left party Interest Groups Party Discipline Many of these interest groups are the ones who take place in protests strikes The major employee group that exists in French system is CNPF INTERNET The CGT Generalconfideration of labor formed since 1895 of Marxist inspiration Force Ouviers Agricultural lobby ARP strongest most influencial grouping in the French political system Also france has made it possible that the agricultural system in the WTO is not liberalized CONSTITUTION PRESEDENTIAL SYSTEM French constution is the most important document in the French history Officially known as the constitution of the 5th republic It was put in place because of the huge problems No balance In the 4rth republic government was unstable Congress was stronger than Political doctrines stability Inst preference govnt power only with president October 3rd 2012 962012 123200 AM Parliamentary System Government created by Legislature Federalism Where governments functions and activites are divided among The central State Local Bundes Republic Deutschland Germany QUESTION FOR EXAM Valarie Treuweilen Seqolene Royale Government of the two countries were created from the majority party that exists in the legislature Both are parliamentary Majority party the Christian Democratic union Bavaria the parties that exist there doesn t exist in any other place Japan New leader of LDP SHINTO ABE Formal prime minister who stayed in office from 20062007 The economist magazine described the selection of this man as their new leader as an Abberation Shigeru Ishiba Members of the LDP decided NOT to vote for him Conflict between japan and china seems to be rising recently because of islands It is possible that the democratic party of japan will not win which will mean that the LDP will come back to power Shinto Abe has interest in Osaka Mayor Shinto Abe likely to win elections Japan has a bicameral system which means it has two houses 1 UPPER HOUSE House of councilors 2 LOWER HOUSE House of representatives Good thing about upper house few upper houses are directly elected Big problem that japan faces could be traced to the degree of fractionalization that exists in lower house It could best be described as combination of different fractions of party There is no unity between them Japan political system is one you cant be too proud of GERMANY Parliament in Germany is also bicameral UPPER HOUSE Bunderrat Members of the upper house come from various state assembly s The more you win in state elections the greater you have chances in upper house LOWER HOUSE Bundestag govt is created The people in this party are directly elected All parties that are able to get 5 of national vote are represented in the government CDUCSU German government If elections are held today FDP wont make it today Changed leaders too many times The opposition party that exists in Germany today SPD They decided to select a new leader for 2013 The guy s name is Peer Steinbruck He served as the finance minister of Germany 2005 2009 The grand coalition big parties decided to come together to form a government SPACSUSPD Merkel served as Chancellor Steinbruck best candidate that the SPD can find He generates a lot of fear in the minds of people in other parties Recently he had an argument with the current CDU You need to get a little more manners to be chancellor of Germany said by CDU to Stienbruck In 2008 when financial crisis started Lehman brothers went down JAPAN AND GERMANY have weak heads of states Japan weak head of state is the emperor Germany weak head of state Bunderprasident Both leaders of current Germany are from east Germany East Germany remain the weakest link People who come from there are despised Their functions are largely ceremonial President is supposed to serve as the conscience Japan emperor doesn t play much role in the political system BOTH WARFARE While Germany terrorized Europe Japan terrorized Asia And both of them lost Two countries have dominated as economic miracles In these two countries there has been a rise of new political parties in recent times In the case of Germany the new party is known as the Pirate party they argue for internet freedom gaining a lot of popularity In japan the new party is called Japan restoration party39 Osaka Incase there are elections they will be 2 d Another common thing between Germany and japan Their disgust for Nuclear Power Green party opposed nuclear power and they did really well These countries also had elections around the same time every 4 years and most of the times germans come out of these elections much better than the Japanese DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GERMANY AND JAPAN WRITE IN EXAM What prospectives do you see GERMANY JAPAN Germany has had more has had less stable stable governments governments Germany has had 3 chancellors since 1990 KOHL SCHROEDER MERKEL parliamentary vote no confidence39 Their political party has always been described as 25 two and a half political party system Germany characterized by Too many chancellors cant count them Japan has always been characterized by One party dominant system which is the Liberal Democratic Party japan characterized by economic sluggishness Japan foreign policy crisis economic strength with china Germany foreign policy ciris with Europe 962012 123200 AM Comparative politics is a subfield of political science characterized by an empirical approach based on the comparative method In fact comparative politics does not have a substantive focus in itself but rather a methodological one it focuses on quotthe how but does not specify the what of the analysisquot1 In other words comparative politics is not de ned by the object of its study but rather by the method it applies to study political phenomena When applied to speci c fields of study comparative politics may be referred to by other names such as for example comparative government the comparative study of forms of government or comparative foreign policy comparing the foreign policies of different States in order to establish general empirical connections between the characteristics ofthe State and the characteristics of its foreign policy Comparative Politics involves the systematic study and comparison ofthe world39s political systems It seeks to explain differences between as well as similarities among countries It is particularly interested in exploring patterns processes and regularities among political systems It looks for trends for changes in patterns and it tries to develop general propositions or hypotheses that describe and explain these trends Comparative Politics covers a broad range oftopics The eld has no one single focus Different scholars have different preferences There are several different kinds of studies Among the types of studies that students of Comparative Politics actually do are the following 1 Studies of one country or a particular institution political parties militaries parliaments interest groups political process decision making or public policy eg labor or welfare policy in that country When we focus on a single country or institution it is necessary to put the study into a larger comparative framework That means we should tell why the subject is important and where it ts in a larger context 2 Studies of two or more countries Provides for genuine comparative studies usually harder and more expensive in terms of research and travel costs 3 Regional or area studies This may include studies of Africa Latin America the Middle East East Asia Southeast Asia South Asia Europe or other subregions Such studies are useful because they involve groups of countries that may have several things in common eg similar history cultures language religion colonial backgrounds an so on Regional or area studies allow you to hold common features constant while examining or testing for certain other features 4 Studies across regions Often expensive and difficult to carry out Such studies might involve comparisons of the role ofthe military in Africa and the Middle East or the quite different paths of development of the East Asian countries and Latin America 5 Global comparisons With the improved statistical data collected by the world bank the UN and other agencies it is now possible to do comparisons on a global basis 6 Thematic studies Comparative politics focuses on themes as well as countries and regions Eg themes such as dependency theory corporatism role of the state process of military professionalization Thematic studies are often complex and usually carried out by more senior scholars WHY STUDY COMPARATIVE POLITICS There are a number of reasons for studying Comparative Politics 1 First it39s fun and interesting and one learns a lot about other countries regions and the world 2 Second studying Comparative Politics will help a person overcome ethnocentrism AII peoples and countries are ethnocentric but Americans seem to be particularly afflicted 3 Third we study Comparative Politics because that enables us to understand how nations change and the patterns that exist 4 A fourth reason for studying Comparative Politics is that it is intellectually stimulating Consider these questions Why do some countries modernize and others not Why are some countries democratic and others not 5 Fifth Comparative Politics has a rigorous and effective methodology The comparative method is sophisticated tool of analysis and one that is always open to new approaches 6 Finally Comparative politics is necessary for a proper understanding of both international relations and foreign policy Without an intimate knowledge ofthe other countries with whom we conduct foreign relations we cannot have an informed successful foreign policy HISTORY OF COMPARATIVE POLITICS Comparative politics has a long and very distinguished history dating back to the very origins of systematic political studies in ancient Greece and Rome Comparative Politics is about 2500 years old and maybe older One could argue that the study of Comparative Politics goes all the way back to humankind39s first recorded history Even the most ancient of peoples organized as clans tribes or extended families compared their situations with those of other peoples with whom they came in contact The Bible is perhaps one ofthe rst written statements of Comparative Politics Particularly in the Old Testament the prophets are constantly comparing the people of Israel with other peoples Egyptians Persians etc The earliest systematic comparisons of a more modern secular sort with almost all the ingredients oftoday39s Comparative Politics were carried out by the ancient Greeks The two foremost political scientists in ancient Greece were Plato and Aristotle Plato39s Republic and Aristotle39s Politics are really the beginning of political science as we know it today and among the great books of all time In these two books the authors cover almost all the key issues of politics the nature of power and leadership the different forms of government public policy and so on For our purposes what is important about Aristotle and Plato is their analysis of Comparative Politics Aristotle more a quotscientistquot collected approximately 150 constitutions of his time mainly from the Greek citystates but from other areas as well He studied these constitutions extensively He wanted to know which form of government was most stable so he began looking at the causes of instability Both he and Plato arrived at a system or scheme for classifying the then known world39s political systems A modi ed form of this classification of systems is still used today Montesquieu the 18th century French philosopher is the next great comparativist Unlike Hobbes and Locke who focused on one country but assumed it had universal validity Montesquieu was a true comparativist In his book The Spirit of the Laws Montesquieu attempted to move beyond the constitutional procedures of a country to examine its true culture and quotspiritquot His greatest contribution to the field was his model for the separation of powers that in uenced the US system THE METHODOLOGY OF COMPARATIVE POLITICS Many studies employ quantitative methods such as opinion surveys and aggregate analysis and the use of timeseries data has also increased Comparative politics has developed a greater awareness of the usefulness of combining quantitative and no quantitative materials


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