New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Dana Jacobson


Dana Jacobson
GPA 3.83

R. Hogan

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

R. Hogan
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Political Science

This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dana Jacobson on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLI 4032 at Louisiana State University taught by R. Hogan in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/222763/poli-4032-louisiana-state-university in Political Science at Louisiana State University.

Similar to POLI 4032 at LSU

Popular in Political Science




Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/13/15
Midterm Study Guide 1 Moodle 1 llThe Federalist Papers No 10quot James Madison a What is a faction What is an interest group i Hogan defines very broadly ii According to Madison it s an organization that wants something that isn t necessarily in everyone s best interest b Are they good or bad i Madison says they re a potential threat to the government c What is their source i Mostlyjust in man s nature but also bc ofa misdistribution of wealth d What can be done i Nothing e What s the difference between a republic and a democracy i Democracy 1 Society consisting of a small number of citizens who assemble and administer the government in person can admit no cure for the mischiefs of a faction Democracies have ever been spectacles of turbulence and contention They usually have a short life and die a violent death ii Republic 1 A government in which the scheme of representation takes place and promises the cure for which we are seeking The greater the number of citizens and greater sphere of country The more people the more reps which can lead to denial of access by those who aren t represented 2 Moodle 2 llEvaluating Political Science Research Information for Buyers and Sellers Arthur Lupia a Says that many people don t like politics b Questions whether or not political science is actual science i Yes it is 1 Bc lltheir goal is inference and their procedures must be replicable and public ii But there is 1 possible difference 1 Political science is much more vulnerable to ideological infiltration bc a social scientist s world view affects their choice of research a llAdvocacy masquerading as science 2 But bc it s an empiricalbased discipline findings are submitted to internal and external reviews 3 Moodle 3 llThe Concept of Causation Berry and Sanders a 4 Moodle 4 llAppendix A Brief Introduction to Regressionquot 5 Moodle 5 llInterest Group Activity in the States Nownes and Freeman a What techniques in are used by groups win states How much do groups win the states do How do techniques differ across group types What types of groups are most active in the states 5053957 There is little specialization win the states or even win the different branches Seems to tilt power away from interest groups toward elected officials bc groups cannot focus 6 Moodle 6 llInterest Niches and Policy Bandwagons Patterns of Interest Group Involvement in National Politics Baumgartner and Leech a Major question asked i Whether or not interest groups specialize in lobbying or is it more broad based 1 Mostly broad based ii How do they determine this 1 By looking at the amount of contact made and how much is spent on each contact b They actually argue that there aren t too many interest groups but rather too few i This supports pluralist and hyperpluralist perspectives 7 Moodle 7 llThe Effect of Direct Democracy on the Size and the Diversity of State Interest Group Populations Fredrick Boehmke a The 2 hypotheses that he tests are i Dependent 1 Number of interest groups ii Independent 1 Amount of direct initiative available b The use of the initiative has positive affect on the number of interest groups i Especially true if there is an underrepresented portion of the population ii Also this encourages participation both on the individual and group level c What data does he examine i The number of groups organized per state level d What does he find i If the initiative is in place there is a great number of interest groups e Why is this important i On the state level this is something that influences the amount of groups that exist 8 Moodle 8 llPublic Opinion Public Policy and Organized Interests in the American States Gray Lowery Fellowes McAtee a What is the major question asked i Is the liberalconservativeness of the populace related to the kinds of liberalconservative laws passed b What are the working hypotheses What findings from previous studies lead the authors to this hypothesis c What is the major dependent and independent variables of this study i Dependent 1 Public policy ii Independent d What are the major findings i Rather mixed ii Public opinion matters more than interest groups or diversity iii Interest groups only play a role marginally but the more there are the greater the role is that they play e Supports pluralism mostly but can be argued for the other two as well 9 Moodle 9 llPublic Interest Group Entrepreneurship and Theories of Group Moblization Nownes and Neeley a They are trying to determine which of the following theories are most valid patrons entrepreneurs selective incentives and pluralism 57 Do this by interviewing 60 national leaders and ask how their organization came to beusually there is an entrepreneur not a patron who is most responsible 10 Moodle 12 llGrand Old Tea Party Partisan Polarization and the Rise of the Tea Party Movement Alan Abramowitz a Tea party rose bc of distrust of Obama grassroots organization b Does this represent a new force in American political movement or is this result of polarization c Used NBWall Street Journal to get evidence i Tea Partiers are the most conservative of Republicans overall 11 Moodle 13 llCorporate and Labor PAC Contributions in House Election Measuring the Effects of Majority Party Status Rudolph a Does majority status have effect on party or PAC contributions i Yesas long as it s corporatelabor almost always contributes to Dems ii Used elections cycles 19891996yes is the ultimate answer iii Used data from FEC b Dependent variable i How much money contributed c Independentvariables i Trend Democrat Majority party iv Ideology v Seniority vi Freshman vii Electoral security viii Committee assignments 12 Moodle 14 llAll in a Day s Work The Financial Rewards of Legislative Effectiveness Box Steffensmeier and Grant a Hypothesis PACs give to members who are effective legislatorscontributions will flow to members who are successful in getting a large percentage of their sponsored bills enacted into law Uses date collected from 103104 19936 Congress Yes this is true 393 T i Not just for having their legislation passed but also for preventing legislation from passing that they don t want passed or changing it in committee which is why committee placement is important to PACs 13 Moodle 15 llWielding the Stick Instead of the Carrot Labor PAC Punishment of ProNAFTA Democrats Engel and Jackson a Hypothesis that spending is carrot and reduction of money is stickthose Dems who voted proNAFTA were punished by not receiving money from labor PACs b Dependent variable reception of money c Independent variable procon NAFTA vote d 19934 vs 19956 14 Moodle 16 llNot for Members Only Group Endorsements as Electoral Information Cues Monika Mcdermott a Hypothesis group endorsement affects not just the members of the group but also nonmembers Looks specifically at labor organizations b Yes endorsement affects candidateslooks specifically at endorsements of AFLCIO in elections of 19982002 15 Moodle 17 llCongressional Campaign and the Quality of Democracy Colemam and Manna a The more money that is spent the more people are able to identify candidates and what they stand for b Uses 1994 and 1996 House electionsmore that is spent the better it is for voters 16 Moodle 18 llCompeting Social Movements and Local Political Culture Voting on Ballot Propositions to Ban SameSex Marriage in the US States Fleischmann and Moyer a The younger more educated the populace is the less likely they are to ban samesex marriagethe opposite is true Those who are able to mobilize the best are also more likely to be able to prevent the passage of law 17 Moodle 19 llCampaign Finance Policy After Citizens United v Federal Election Commission Issues and Options for Congress R Sam Garret a Plays off ruling of Buckly v Valero which says that you cannot limit contributions by interest groups and individuals nor can you limit spendingweird b Citizens now says that limitations by interest groups are permissible but groups can spend whatever amount they want for express advocacy i Problems 1 Unlimited amounts of money elitist point of view means that they may have too much influence which gives wealthy interest groups the upper hand 18 Moodle 20 llExplaining Increases in the Stringency of State Campaign Finance Regulation 19932002quot Witko a Why states institute campaign finance laws especially during that time period b Says that whether or not it s an initiative state makes a difference c The population of the district i The more people there are the more expensive it is and the less likely they are to initiate laws that make it harder to raise money It s win their interests to raise money bc it s also easier for incumbents to raise money 19 Moodle 21 llState Campaign Finance Laws and Interest Group Electioneering Activitiesquot Hogan a Lower limits in state races increase the likelihood that the incumbent is challenged b Also the influence shifts when reform is initiatedwater balloon analogy Final Study Guide 1 llSolicited Advice and Lobbyist Power Evidence from 3 American States Nownes Anthony 3 Major questions and answers i What determines whether or not and how often a lobbyist is approached for advice by policymakers 1 llFindings suggest that fulltime experience lobbyists have the largest lladvice advantage 2 However female lobbyists and those who work for governmental bodies have the largest lladvice advantage 3 Ultimately provides insight into what makes some lobbyists more influential than others What data does he use 1 595 lobbyists from 3 states a Wisconsin b California c South Carolina 2 Asks them how often they get approached for help iquot Findings 1 Government fulltime lobbyists are approached often 2 Those w2030 years of experience approached often 3 Women approached often iv Why is this question important 1 By knowing what makes lobbyists important in eyes of those who seek their help one can figure out why they get approached b Other notes i Different elements of lobbying 1 Provide information a Policy analysis i What will a policy do ii What impact will it have iii Why is there a need for it b Political analysis i What affect will the adoption of the policy have on a politician s reelection chances ii Will it actually be adopted c Legal analysis i Is it constitutional 2 Assist in getting legislation passed killed a Best way to do this is in committee 5 Help candidates formulation a workable campaign strategy P Being a source of innovative ideas ii Techniques of effective lobbying 1 Credibility comes FIRST and FOREMOST a It s a huge precondition for getting your message heard Iquot Having information and knowledge concerning an issue 5 Alliances are important and can shift from issue to issue a One has to be careful not to burn any bridges 4 Compromise is often necessary a You cannot ever get everything that you want 5 Create dependencies and maintain constant communication 6 Cooperation and coalitions are critical 2 llOrganized Interests and the Decision of Whom to Lobby in Congress Hojnack and Kimball a Major questions and answers i Whom do they lobby 1 Allies 2 39LA I 39 D I U39 I 1 I I I I I 3 Foes 4 Honestly the answer is all of the aboveit s mostly influenced by the venue in which they are trying to have an influence What data do they examine iii What is their major dependent variable of interest 1 Look at the committee and ask if they are lobbied iv Are there any issues of validity wthis measure 1 Yes It s really not a good measure of influence v What do they find vi What are their conclusions 1 Organized interests are more likely to lobby their allies in committees than their opponentsundecided members 2 A group moves beyond its allies 3 llLobbyists and Interest Groupsquot Mooney Christopher a Term limit enforcement and the effect it has on relationship between lobbyists and legislators 2 hypotheses i More harderworking lobbyists but worse ethical behavior 1 They wield more power but it s more evenly distributed amongst them 2 BUTlessexperienced termlimited legislators need the resources of lobbyists but are much less likely to use them bc they are distrustful of lobbyists ii Little evidence that term limits have any impact on the broader macro level influence of interest groups in state policymaking in general b Ultimately term limits have not reduced usage of lobbyists by legislatorsit often has the opposite effect of strengthening existing relationships 4 Rosenthal book a What are some of the central questions in this study i How do lobbyists go about doing their jobs ii What are the mechanics of their jobs iii Looks at how lobbying has changed 1 Relationships 2 Changing context in state politics iv Looks mostly at the legislative branch and how they are lobbied v How much influence lobbyists have b Describe his research strategywhat types of data i He asks the lobbyists directly 1 Not a good way to bring full perspective to the issue ii Mailouts that lobbyists respond to c What are the 5 basic types of lobbyists i Association 1 Represent associations a llwork for a specific organizationthey may have duties that extend beyond lobbying 18 2 Less likely to have come to lobbying after leaving politics most come from their previous associations 3 The issues that they lobby for are always around ii Governmental 1 Employed by municipalities countiesparishes school boards a state etc 2 Almost always come from a career in politics iii Cause 1 Cover a broad spectrum of groups and their concerns are philosophical and ideologicalcover both sides of the political spectrum 2 Rarely do any other kind of lobbying and they rarely switch sidesthey work bc of their belief in something not for money iv Company 1 Work for just 1 business as quotinhousequot representation a They may have to focus on 1 state or many 1 law in 1 state or a few in severalit just depends on how the company is set up 2 Usually become lobbyists after having worked in previous areas of the company a llthey know the company and its productsthis is more important than an understanding of the legislative process and legislatures 3 They do little direct lobbying v Contract llhired guns 1 Have many clients 2 Employed via 5v a Own company i Most common 57 Law firm Squot Multiservice company i Has many options for the client which they enjoy term limits more people working on an issue etc 3 Overall highest paid 4 Most are former legislators or have some political background a Means that they re better connected usually making them more successful 5 Know that compromise is most important How might these differences influence the effectiveness of some lobbyists How does a person become a lobbyist i You leave politics and were an expert on a committee etc at some point How has the legislative arena changed over time and what effect have these changes had on lobbyists their activities and their ability to have an influence on the legislative process i Become much profession over time 1 Fulltime legislators create fulltime lobbyists Power has shifted from the federal government to the state level 1 This is referred to as New Federalism and began in the 1970s iquot Many more minorities and women iv More partisanship means less compromise v Fragmentation of the system 1 In the past power win the legislature was more centralized win the leadership or even in committee There are now so many people to deal with making it difficult for lobbyists vi Lobbyists believe that integrity has declined which is unusual bc the good ol boy network has also declined viI It s more antiseptic 1 It s much easier to lie when you only see someone a few times vs all the time Name and describe some of the techniques that lobbyists use to build a relationship and cultivate connections wlegislators What is meant by gaining accessquot i Access is ultimately the most important part of it all How do campaign contributions play a role in making these connections Discuss some of the important elements of forming coalitions wother lobbyists and what role quotgrassrootsquot lobbying plays i Using citizens etc ii quotOutsidequot lobbying iii Letter writing phone calls lobby day etc k Describe some of the important elements of a good defense strategy Of a good offense strategy 5 llMeasuring State Legislative Lobbying Regulation 19902003quot Newmark Adam a Basic point is about the method to analyze the level of stringency of regulations of lobbyists across the states and over time as well b Looks at several different aspects to get this done c Big point is that states differ widely on these various issues 6 llExploring Interest Group Participation in Executive Policymaking Furlong Scott a Looks at interest group behavior in regards to how they treat the executive branch 4 different attempts to do this Lobbying by providing specific comments on rules and policies Trying to influence the appointment of an agency head who supports policies advocated by the organized interests Trying to convince members of Congress to influence the bureaucracy iv Organizing a grassroots campaign that may pressure an agencyCongress to change a policy Despite many thinking this doesn t happen it does and often Lobbying the executive depends on the executive the issue at stake etc Congress is still the preferred branch to lobby but it can sometimes be beneficial to lobby the P 7 executive too 7 quotA Bias Towards Business Assessing Interest Group Influence on the US Bureaucracy Yackee and Yackee a What is the major question addressed by this study 39 Do business interests actually try to influence regulations Is there more or less regulation and what causes the various levels of regulation to be instituted Seeing that business lobbies the most one wonders if they also influence this llnotice and question period iv They believe that business interests do influence bc they have resources unlike most public interests Agencies are also more likely to respond bc business has expertise that public groups don t Describe the research design used to answer this question i 19942001 by looking at participants of 4 agencies in 40 different question and answer periods c What is the major depended variable of interest What are the major independent variables of interest 57 S3 What are the major findings i The sheer number of commenters 1 57 by business 2 19 by government 3 Business outnumbers the others and have a greater influence What do the authors conclude 5 r 8 llLobbyists Before the US Supreme Court Investigating the Influence of Amicus Curiae Briefsquot Collins Paul a What is the major question addressed by this article i Do amicus briefs sway the court b What have previous studies found What are some potential problems wprevious research in this area i Previous studies have been a bit muddled 1 There is no consensus mostly bc of the limited number of groups and time periods examined ii The past studies draw correlations not conclusions 1 You can t control a whole host of factors like the makeup of the court so it s really difficult to reach solid conclusions c What research design do they use to answer their question i Over 6000 cases from 194595 d What is the major dependent variable of interest i Liberalconservative decisions e What independent variables does he expect to have an influence i Number of liberalconservative amicus briefs ii Which side the Solicitor General argues on 1 Heshe is considered to be the 10 h justice bc of the enormous amount of power and sway they hold f What are the major findings i Yes amicus briefs do matter 1 When there are more liberal briefs the ruling is more liberal and vice versa 2 The ruling is also statistically significant 9 llInternet Social Media Helping Groups Boost Grassroots Lobbyingquot Adler Ari a Article about Michigan s physicians association usage of the Internet as an outreach tool i Form of microtargeting 10 llInterest Groups and Journalists in the States Cooper Nownes Johnson a Relationship between journalists and interest groups in various American states b Questions asked 39 Do journalists have frequent contact winterest groups How important are interest groups to journalists as news sources compared to other sources iquot Whether journalistinterest group interactions are initiated by journalists or interest groups c Data used i Original survey of statehouse journalists in the American states relying exclusively on the journalists perceptions of the interest groupjournalist relationshipno direct measures nor data from the reverse angle d Results i Interests groups are important sources of information for journalists ii Groups are not the most important source they are more important than other sources iii A groups deal of interest groupjournalist contact is initiated by interest groups but a significant amount is initiated by journalists iv The extent of the contact that statehouse journalists claim to have winterest groups is influenced by the number of interest groups active in the state and the overall level of interest group power in the state e Implications of findings i They highlight the importance of learning more about how they journalists who cover the state legislatures gather their information ii They suggest that interest group density and interest group power may influence the nature of politics in the states in ways that we do not yet understand 11 llLobbying in a Hyper Media Age Ch 6 and quotThe New Lobbying Toolboxquot Ch 7 Andres Gary a llToo often scholars and journalists focus on a single latestage point where advocates tory to impact the process However analyzing influence this late in the game masks important dimensions of lobbying like how the issue moved on to the agenda in the first place The tools outlined in this chapter do more than just shape roll call votes and final regulatory decisions They help gather information reduce uncertainty and form the initial agenda of policymakersquot b Andres addresses i Media fragmentation ii 24hour news cycle iii New media and the Internet 12 llTobacco Lobby Political Influence on US State Legislatures in the 1990 squot Givel and Stanton a Study of the recently released historical tobacco industry documents that shows that tobacco was and remains a power presence in the state legislatures bc people perceive tobacco poorly they seek to wield their power very quietly and behind the scenes This is often used to the favor of state and local health advocates who can link tobacco and the legislators who support them 13 llFunding Mechanisms and Policy Instruments How Business Campaign Contributions Influence Congressional Votes Fellowes and Wolf a Interest groups have influence at the adoptions stagea bunch at this level acutally 14 llPerceptions of Power Interest Groups in Local Politics Cooper Nownes and Roberts a Interest groups have general influence b This is specifically about how they affect local government 15 llWhen Do Movements Matter The Politics of Contingency and the Equal Rights Amendment Soule and Olzak a Interest groups influence the implementation stage 16 llOrganized Interest and the Politics of Federal Discretionary Grants Lowry and Potoski a Major question i Do organized interests have an effect on discretionary spending b Data used i Empirical model of the number of discretionary awards each year in each state for 199198 using data from Federal Assistance Awards Data System c Results i Interest groups and private and public organization influence discretionary federal spending even while controlling for latent demand and supplyside factors Shows that politicians do not ignore citizens when allocating discretionary federal grants Citizens influence federal spending both directly and through organized intermediaries 17 llLabor Organization and Public Policy in the American States Radcliff Saiz a 18 llBusiness Mobilization and Public Policy in the US States Witko and Newmark a Major question i Examine how political mobilization of business interests influences aggregate public policy outputs in the states by examining the relationship between business mobilization and general state policy liberalism b Method i Construct a measure of the business policy climate from a number of tax and regulatory indicators in the states and examine whether business influences it and policy liberalism using ordinary least squares regression WTF c Conclusion i Extent of business mobilization in a state is an important influence on public policy outputs but is constrained by the activities of other political actors such as unions 19 llExploring the Social Roots of Smart Growth Policy Adoption by Cities O Connell Lenahan a The study identifies i The smart growth policies adopted in a sample of US cities ii The relative impact of 4 social factors on policy adoption 1 Education 2 Local environmental activism 3 Race 4 Homeownership b Method i Survey was sent to planning and development officials in a sample of 340 cities c Results i Cities have 496 smart growth policies on their books Adoption of such policies is more associated w2 indicator of new political culture presence of environmental activists groups at local level and percent of collegeeducated residents than wthe of residents who are white or the who are homeowners ii Conclusion 1 Smart growth movement at the local level is a product of the environmental concerns associated wthe NPC and is more likely to influence the adoption of the landpreserving policies than landuse intensifying policies These are the questions that he talked about in the review session 1 At what point in the public policy process do you believe interest groups have their biggest influence Justify your response a First name what the 5 different parts of the process are i Agenda building 1 Where do ideas about policy come from 2 Frame the debate a Tobacco article is a great one for this ii Policy formation 1 Berry and Wilcox discuss the importance of coalitions iii Policy adoption 1 Subgovernments model a ron triangle i Small group of actors that make policy that benefit a few 2 Issue networks model a Shared knowledge group that ties together wcommon expertise b Policy made in large permeable domains iv Policy implementation v Policy evaluation b For me it s better to think of it like this i Courts 1 Influence ofamicus curiae briefs 2 Influencing who gets appointed to certain positions on the judiciary 3 Contributing to those whom interests want on the bench but they have to win an election ii Legislative 1 Attracts most attention bc a Of the power of the legislative institutions b Easy to have access to legislators i Lots of staff c They re broken up into committees meaning there are many points of access iii Executive 1 It s hard to meet whim 2 1970 White House created Office of Public Liaison to maintain contact wquotfriendlyquot organized interests iv Bureaucracy 1 There are 2000 separate agencies at the federal level who implement policies through llnoticeandcomment process This is done by a Drafting rules b Rules published in Federal Register c Agencies decide whether to adopt them i Who participates 1 See Furlong article ii How much do they participate v Education of the publicengaging and activating citizens 1 Grassroots general public 2 Members ofa specific group 3 Grasstops influential elites c Then you must be able to justify your response by exhibiting that you understand the material well 5 Do you think interest groups have too much power in the political system today relative to other political actors eg elected officials political parties citizens etc a Can go both ways b Again state your argument clearly based on your general knowledge from material learned from the class Is the net effect of interest group activity in the US a good thing or a bad thing Do you believe that the pluralist elitist or hyperpluralist perspective best describes the 53 role of interest groups in US politics a Again you have to be able to define the 3 different perspectives i Pluralism 1 Madison Truman share this view 2 Interest groups are at the heart of public policy a This is bc there are many diverse interests at work that are looking out for the greater good 3 This is a very positive view bc it s a way of providing legitimate means of influencing government ii Elite theory 1 C Wright Mills touted this theory 2 Some interests loose some win a Who wins and loses is determined by the amount of wealth the group has 3 There are many different groups represented but they re unequal in power again bc of the amount of money that they have a Those wthe most money always win 4 They see pluralists as silly iii Hyperpluralism 1 Lowi is hyperexample 2 There are many different groups in competition but the problem is that government gives them what they want a The government and the interest groups are in bed together 3 Means that common interests aren t being looked at 5 Do you think any parts of the political system need to be reformed to control or reign in the power of interest groups Remember that the exam is next Thursday in this class from 810 pm There are 2 parts 8 short essay questions you must answer 6 About V2 a page and they count for 13 points each The second part is 1 essay that is quotcomprehensivequot in its nature broad themes discussed in class Make certain that you can define and elaborate on pluralism elite theory and hyperpluralism and cited evidence throughout the course that provides support for each Don t forget to review the Rosenthal book there may be several questions from it review the questions asked from the book review Study the articles and think about how to fit these findings into the broader questions addressed in the course There will be nothing specific asked from before the midterm readingsspecific questions will be from after the mid term Think about how all the articles fit together Also on Moodle it mentions something about the movies that we watched being fair game crap so maybe review notes from that too


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.