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by: Dana Jacobson


Dana Jacobson
GPA 3.83

R. Hogan

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R. Hogan
Class Notes
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dana Jacobson on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLI 4015 at Louisiana State University taught by R. Hogan in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see /class/222764/poli-4015-louisiana-state-university in Political Science at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
1232011 0 Why Study Politics in the States 0 State politics have an effect on our lives in a very direct way 0 States offer greater opportunities for citizen participation 0 Trend toward greater state power and leadership in policy areas 0 Provide analytical leverage for how do quot matter 0 Enables us to see how well policies work laboratories of democracy 0 Approach to studying states 0 A comparative approach 0 goal of developing generalizable theories 0 Goal of estimating the effects of certain factors on institutional development and policy adoption 0 One assumption so far that states differ widely do they differ and how much do they differ o Socioeconomic context I D39 in peopleg g r39 I Differences create greater opportunities for some states and problems for others 0 Cultural Context I Daniel Elzar 0 Know the differences in these from the book 0 Traditionalistic subculture o Individualistic subculture o Moralistic subculture o Constitutionalarrangements I More flexibility allowed for institutions in some states than in others 0 Bringing it all together 0 Public policy process 0 Many factors have an independent influence 0 One of our goals is to identify their independent and relative effects 0 Mechanics of Studying State Politics 0 The focus of this class in on the empirical research although we are also interested in normative implications I Normative what should be I Empirical what is 0 Scientific methods 3 components 0 Description 0 Discovery of regularity 0 Formation of scientific theories 0 Our goal is the development of scientific theories lla logical statement of relationships among characteristics and events that explain a particular range of phenomenon o Hypothesis lla test by experimentation and the collection and analysis of dataquot o In these ways polisci is very different from say journalism or quotpolitical commentary 0 What does Lupia have to say about this 0 He makes some important points about the study of politics I People don t like politics I Thr is a unique problem with polisci the adversarial relationship with its objects of study 0 But is polisci similar to a natural science I Major similarity thr goal is to influence and their procedures must be replicable in public I Possible difference poli sci could be more vulnerable to ideological infiltration I quotno one cares what we think the scholarly community only cares about what we can demonstratequot This doesn t mean that a social scientists world view doesn t affect their choices of research question because it probably does 1252011 0 quotMuch social science research is designed to testI 39 or r r 39 39 about 39 such hypothesis take the form of an assertion that is something occurs then something else will happen as a result Dependent variable 0 the phenomenon that is explained Independent variable 0 a variable that is selected as an antecedent condition to an observed behavior The quotcausequot in a cause and effect relationship 0 quotWhen we make a claim of causation we often use the phrase lwhile holding everything else constant what is the independent effect of one variable 0 What is the difference between experimental and nonexperimental research 0 Experiments have random assignment and quotcontrolquot groups Theory 0 a systematic explanation for the observations that relate to a particular issue or set of questions Correlation coefficient 0 Shows how close the relationship between two variables is and ranges from 1 to 1 Positive values indicate that the factors are positively related negative values indicate that the factors are negatively related 0 Correlation does not say much about the responsive values of y to x how much y changes for a given change in x regression enables us to see the strength of the relationships that is how responsible they are 0 Multiple Regression o Tests two or more independent variables on a dependent variable to asses thr independent influence 0 Measurement o Operationaldefinition I Stating a hypothesis in terms that can be tested experimentally 0 Quantitative research I The numerical representation and manipulation of those observations for the purpose of describing and explaining the phenomena that those observations effect 0 Qualitative Research I The nonnumerical representation and manipulation 0 Assessing Measures 0 Validity I A term describing a measure that accurately reflects the concept it is intended to measure 0 Reliability I The quality of measurement method that suggests that the same data would have been collected each time in repeated observations of the same phenomena 0 Cultural and constitutional contexts 0 State constitutional Context I What is a constitution o It lays out the fundamental aspects of what a government does I Why are they important 0 I How are constitutions created or altered o Constitutional conventions can be held 0 Amendments are voted upon I How often are they created or altered I What are some issues that constitutions deal with I What are some recent trends that Dinan notes 1272011 0 Cultural and Constitutional Contexts 0 Political subculture Elzar s Subcultures moralistic individualistic and traditionalistic Potential problems with this type of measure 000 What is the major question that mead poses I How efficient are states ate managing their welfare system 0 Why is this question interesting or important I When the government is trying to implement a new program it is important to look at how different states are dealing with welfare reform 0 Describe his research and design I He hypothesizes that moralistic subculture will best deal with welfare reform 0 What is his major dependent variable of interest I Implementation of welfare reform policy What is his major independent variable of interest What factors does he control for I All of these are on table 3 in the reading I Government ideology state local revenues per capita Personal income per capita percent of state population black percent of state population Hispanic government quality and information technology grade What are his major findings I On chart What does he conclude I He was right culture does matter for the way that policy is implemented What does this tell us about the role of culture in the study of state politics Note the systematic nature of this analysis and how it uses a scientific approach 0 Note there are other differences that might be considered part of the political culture that are additional elements of a state s political context Some specific elements include 0 O O 0 Trust and support of political institutions Specific policy preferences Party identification Ideology o Federalism O O O O 0 What is federalism How is it different from unitary or confederal systems llThere was no other practical choice in 1787 but to create a federal system of governmentquot Note the constitution gives that national government primary or exclusive power over some areas eg Declare war coin money etc some powers are reserved to the states eg Illustrate commerce policy powers etc and some are shared concurrent powers eg taxes public health Etc The most fundamental power of states coercion through police power can regulate health safety welfare and morals of its citizens Hanson llthe allocation of specific powers in imprecise and subject to change over timequot A key point to understand about intergovernmental relations in the US we are still trying to work things out We are constantly trying to reconcile elements of the constitution that give the national government broad powers the supremacy clause the necessary and proper clause and the commerce clause with those that grant states broad powers tenth amendment Don t forget about state obligations to each other I Full faith and credit clause constitutional required states normally honor the public acts and judicial decisions of other state Gay marriage and adoption issue I Privileges and immunities clause constitution requires states cannot discriminate against someone from another state I Extradition 0 Also there are I Interstate compacts I Reciprocity agreements 212011 Race to the top or the bottom race to highest or lowest welfare or taxes Who benefits from federal spending Changing features of federalism due to 1 supreme court cases2 executive and legislative branch action and3 historical incidents The changing framework on 39 quot Dual 39 quot r 39 f 39 39 regulated federalism and new federalism have all been implemented in the US Describing differences in federalism at different points in time 0 Dual federalism I layer cake federalism most fundamental governing was done by states 0 Cooperative federalism I marble cake federalism growth of categorical grants 1 pro39ect grants 2 formula grant 0 Regulated federalism I The federal government gives grants and requires states to set standards and meet national guidelines Growth of mandates and llunfunded mandates 0 New federalism I National government would provide funding while states and localities would decide how to spend it More block grants 0 Publius the journal of federalism o What us the set if questioners addressed in this study 0 Why are these questions important I Because public opinion might affect what the government does 0 How do the authors go about answering these questions data and methods I They looked at an internet survey of us citizens And related them to demographic features age ethnicity o What did they find I Most people think local governments should take on more responsibility I They found the same answer for national and state governments I Generally people wanted all three to do more 2311 0 Another characterization of federalism o llfiscal federalismquot the general pattern of spending taxing and proving grants in the federal system Money is used as carrots to gain compliance from states on a wide variety of policies 0 Federalism o Evolved over time 0 Federal structure is a structure through which states operate 0 State Legislators who they are and how they got there 0 What are the qualifications of office I Varies from state to state in La you must be 18 and have been in la for 2 years one year in your district 0 Why does anyone run for legislature I Ambition and to make sure your place is represented or maybe just for ego gratification insurance owner 0 What factors might affect candidacy decisions 0 Variation in institutional features and district conditions I Election districts magnitude SMD and DMD size of constituency I Legislative professionalism pay days in session and staffing I Term limits and career prospects 0 Legislative professionalism people are paid a high wage o All legislatures are more professional today than they were in the past 21011 0 Electoral conditions 0 Campaign finance laws 0 Chamber competition 0 Partisan leaning of the district 0 Presence of and incumbent and their war chest 0 Diversity of the district 0 Urbanruralsuburban district 0 Agents of recruitment 0 Interest groups 0 Political parties 0 Campaigns for the state legislature 0 Raising funds 0 Building an organization 0 Hiring professionals 0 Developing a strategy and using techniques 0 What is descriptive representation 0 Representing constituents by mirroring their personal politically relevant characteristics 0 What factors influence descriptive representation o The influence of state and district conditions on the representation of women in the state legislatures Test 2 Notes 2172011 0 Other elements of representation 0 Policy responsiveness I The correspondence between the constituents preference and the behavior of the elected officials 0 Service representativeness I casework advantages and benefits that a member is able to obtain for particular constituents o Allocation responsiveness I pork barrel efforts to gain governmental goods and services for the district 0 Symbolic responsiveness I Involves public gestures of a sort that create a sense of trust and support in the relationship between representative and represented 0 Note that there are several things that can affect the type of representative behavior exhibited by legislators 0 Their perceptions of their roles as representatives I Trustee I Delegate I Politico o What does coopers article have to say about that 0 Conditions associated with their district I What does jewel say about this I Note his point about representation it is not a one way street it is not just legislators listening it is also about legislators helping to educate the public 0 Conditions associated institutions as well as the ambition of legislature o What does Maestas say about this 0 Note different types of ambition 0 Progressive I Goal to attain higher political office 0 Static I Goal to retain office as a long term political career 0 Discrete I Goal to return to private life after limited service 2222011 0 Legislatures structures leadership functions Process and decision making 0 Keep in mind 39 039 this quot how do 39 39 features might matter for what a legislature does or what individual legislatures do 0 Structures I Number of chambers and size I Chamber leadership I Party caucus I Committees I Staff 0 Leadership I Chamber leaders I Party leaders I Committee chairs Legislatures have committees to break up the work because there are thousands of bills It varies by state is always a good answer to test questions you don t know Functions of legislature 0 Male policy laws 0 Appropriate money 0 Administrative oversight o Constituency service and passing out the pork Process 0 How a bill works its way through the legislature I Bill is drafted I Introduction and first reading I Committee referral Subcommittee Committee hearings Committee action Third reading and floor vote Reconsideration Action in the second chamber I Conference committees I Governor s action I Implementation What are some of the arguments against term limitsbrowser and Moncrieff 0 Can cause ppl to not care about opinion of constituency o Interferes with ppls right to elect new constituents o Weakens legislative branch 0 What are some arguments in favor of term limits Same ppl 0 Allows for a more citizen legislature o They ll due what s in the interest of the people 0 Longterm relationships are severed o Evens the playing field with governor who has term limits 2242011 0 TEST 1 INFO 0 Made an 805 and answered the first five questions 0 1 Define these things Deoendenet independent variable Validity Reliability Operational definition Quantitative research 0 Three different political subcultures in chapter 1 and discuss studies that we have read that examine the influences of political subculture What do these studies conclude about its influence 0 Under the us federal structure we are constantly trying to reconcile elements of the us consitiution that give the national govt broad powers with those that reserve powers to the states List and discuss some of these powers that can come into conflict What asome recent controversies that put the federal and state powers at odds 0 Describe federalism in the us and how its changed over time differentiate amoung the periods that characterize the relationship btnat and state responsibilities What does jacoby discover about ppls views of federalism o What are four major sets of factors that can affect the decisions of individuals to run for the state legislature identify how each factor might encourage or discourage certain types of candidates Institutional fearures or rules district conditions agents of recruitment ect o What is legislative professionalism What components are included in measures of legislative professionalism Such as squires index why do states vary on this dimension and what consequences do these differences have Cite evidence 0 from wrights book 0 Moncrieff o What are some of the strengths if this study compared to previous research on term limits Berkian shift it has resulted in more legislators interested in the state as a whole Many people view term limits as negative because it gives the governor a bunch of power People say that term limits weaken the legislature o What areas to the authors examine o What are their major findings and conclusions 0 What about the validity of this analysis and the measures I He asked the legislators to rate the governors power and interest groups powerthis might dampen our measure because if you re asking legislators they may say interest groups don t play a big role Better way to ask this question would be llare these people important in the legislature and whyquot 0 Legislative decision making 0 There are a wide variety of ways that legislators participate in functions In the legislature o What affects the way individual legislators vote I Personal beliefs I Constituents I Political party leaders I Interest groups I Governor I Cues of other legislators o Masket where you sit is where you stand the impact of seating proximity on legislative I Major question the effect of single member vs multi member districts In a single member appeal is more moderate Multi member appeal is more ideologically specific ideologically extreme voting is more likely because in a multi member district its just the top two candidates who win so a candidate may choose either democrats or republicans to target for votes What data does he use to measure these things 0 He first measures the dependent variable a legislator s ideology He scores them on a scale of how much interest groups affect each legislator He looks at eight groups as liberal or conservative Is this a valid approach to measuring ideology No because interest groups tend to try to influence only those to are likely to win 0 How else would you measure someone s ideology 0 You could ask them about their opinions on specific issues 312011 0 Wisconsin governor set to deliver steep budget cuts 0 Cuts spending for community schools and programs 0 Democrats have fled Wisconsin to avoid needing to vote on the matter 0 Without a single democrat it is impossible to move forward on the matter 0 National Governors association 0 They are meeting in Washington quarterly 0 Obama could force governors hands on healthcare law 0 Executive Power in state government 0 Overview of changes in executive branch 0 Many state governors were in initially elected by the legislature They were not always powerful 0 Where do governors come from 0 Career ladders I Entry level jobs are usually in the legislature I Many have been a attorney generals because it has statewide recognition and the same incumbency as the governorship o It puts them in a good light because the attorney general fights political corruption I Some governors run for office as his or her first political job 0 Like George bush he ran a baseball team before his governorship 0 Fewer and fewer people trust in government so not having experience in it can be seen as a good thing in campaigns 0 Campaigns and elections 0 What factors influence individual elections contests I Heterogeneity and partnership of state I Incumbency war chests 0 Assessing the power or governors 0 Institutional powers I Plural singular or executive I Tenure potential I Power of appointment I Control over the budget I Veto I Party control 0 Personal powers I Electoral mandate I Position on ststes political ambition ladder I Personal future of governors 0 Keep in mind that there are things that condition the power of governors 0 Economic conditions 0 Media relations 0 Personalities and agendas of the governors 0 Last part of notes are in the binder 332011 0 Remember that the governor is not the only executive branch official 0 Lieutenant governor o Attorney general I Goodman josh 2009 llthe second best job in the state 0 Secretary of state o Treasurer o Dilger article 0 Major question I What influences gubernatorial effectiveness 0 How is the governor s effectiveness determined by the authors I They survey governors on each other They asked governors to rate other governors They were asked who the top three effective governors other than themselves It was a peer assessment 0 Dependent variable I Effectiveness of governor I Institutional powers 0 Tenure veto power and budget changing authority 0 Independent variables I Legislative professionalism o What factors influence effectiveness I Approval rating 0 What do they find I Professionalism enhances effectiveness 0 What are the important conclusions I Partisanship doesn t matter 0 Klarner and Karch article 0 Major question I Why do governors issue vetos 0 Individual factors and institutional facors I party dems veto more than republicans I Legislative experience I Electoral mandates I Percentage of votes needed to veto I Are you a former legislator only one with any effect if you are a former legislator you are less likely to issue vetos This is a negative effect 0 What hypothesis do they test 0 What do they find 0 Which set of factors is more important 3102011 0 Courts as political institutions 0 In some ways the courts play a role similar to the other two branches in the policymaking process but in other ways they are quite different 0 Judicial selection methods Structure of courts 0 There are usually four basic types of courts I State supreme courts I Intermediate court of appeals I Trial courts of major jurisdiction I Trial courts of specialized jurisdiction One of the biggest changes within the past few years is the creation of intermediate courts Intermediate court of appeals had lessened the workload of the state supreme court Changing nature of the courts key change was creation of intermediary courts of appeals This has given the state Supreme Court greater control over the docket which provides leeway in what cases they ultimately hear This has given state supreme courts greater power within the political system Structures of state courts vary considerably Note that there are differences in court professionalism Judicial selection methods 0 Partisan election 0 Nonpartisan election 0 Retention election Missouri plan 0 Appointment Nonpartisan election you run without a party Appointment you are appointed by a governor of someone else with that power Retention election someone is initially appointed but every few years they must run for reelection Bonneau article What is the major question 0 What factors influence the ability of candidates to raise state funding What factors does he think might have influence in table 0 Incumbents might raise more because they are well known and lots of interest groups are trying to curry favor with them 0 The quality of the candidate does heshe have prior judicial experience They would be likely to have more money Femalemale no expected difference Minority harder time raising money Prior close race candidate will work harder to raise money 0000 In districts with many Tort cases more money is raised tort cases are slip and fall accident cases 0 More lawyers in state more fundraising 0 Increase in voting age population more money needed to raise o More seats less money needed What are his findings 0 Partisan elections produce fewer contributions 0 Voting age population amount others decrease available money 0 Those with judicial experience are raising more money 3172011 0 What is an interest group 0 It is a linkage institution llan association in individuals or organization or a public or private institution that attempts to influence government decisions think of them as corporations 0 The role of interest groups in the political system different perspectives o Pluralist perspectives pluralism everyone s voice in heard 0 Elitist perspective elitism interest groups are not eual they tend to dominate views interest groups negatively o Hyperpluraliste perspective hyperpluralisme 0 Types of groups in the states 0 Traditional membership groups eg Citizens citizen or cause groups professional associations 0 Associations of organizations eg Associations of unions and trade associations 0 Institutional interest eg business firms local governments hospitals state agencies universities these interests are currently the largest category of interest groups operating in the states 0 A states interest group community size diversity etc varies according to 0 Economic conditions 0 Political culture 0 Governmentinvolvement 0 Group level how powerful is a single group 0 Interest level may contain many groups interested in achieving the same goals 0 Interest group system level how influential are groups relative to other sources of power within the political system 0 Group formation and maintenance 0 There are often barriers to group formation for some types of groups 0 Membership groups are often attempting to persuade cr ill overcome ii Mia problem why contribute when you will receive the benefits regardless this problem is less severe for smaller groups To overcome this barrier they use the a e I IT C39EIIgtI vie material incentives solidary incentives purposive incentives 0 But many state level groups are m hus the free rider problem is less of a problem 0 What goals is a group or groups trying to achieve 0 One overall dimension to consider I Defense of maintenance they simply want to maintain what they have I Promotion more common today than in the past 0 Another dimension pertaining especially to campaign support I Electionoriented strategy they want to gain access to those who already have power I Accessoriented strategy I Mixed strategy 0 What techniques do interest groups use 0 many options are available and many large organizations as a multifaceted strategy I Electioneering 0 Recruitment of candidates 0 Campaign funds through PACs political action committees 0 Provide services to candidates 0 Independent spending or issue advertisements o Endorsements o Mobilization efforts get out the vote drives I Lobbying insider strategies direct techniques quotlobbying is largely about providing information Going public grassroots or outside lobbying indirect techniques instead of going to the legislator you go outside to other pple his constituents and you tell their constituents to call them you influence their constituents and in turn you influence them Litigation instead of focusing of legislature and governor you focus on the judiciary 3222011 0 Know formal types of lobbying techniques according to dalengaro 0 Many people don t like lobbying why 0 Some people thing leaders should be listening to the people not the interest groups 0 Others think that s why it s called a linkage institution because it links the people to the leaders 0 Some people don t like lobbying because it is a revolving door many people who are lobbyists were once legislators speakers of the house etc People were on the inside and are now on the outside 0 There are a whole host of strategic considerations 0 Where to focus effort executivehat a legislative or judicial 0 Within on area legislative for example o What determines the strategy or strategies that a group uses 0 Nouns and Dealejandro O 0000 0 What major questions are addressed I how do you lobby Why They looked at three states because they wanted variation in states gubernatorial power and culture They used a survey They asked lobbyists to say what it is they do They found that personal interactions are very important Governor s office is given a great deal of attention in this article staff is very important differences among the states how much power and influence do interest groups wield o Ozmymy article this relates to the powell article 0 O Q Do regulations on lobbying effect lobbyists influence specifically in the state legislature Three components of of newmarks lobbying regulation index I Definitions of lobbying I Prohibited activities I Disclosure requirements Hypothesis the more regulations the less influence He finds that


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