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by: Dana Jacobson


Dana Jacobson
GPA 3.83

Lindsay Horn

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Lindsay Horn
Class Notes
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This 30 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dana Jacobson on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLI 2057 at Louisiana State University taught by Lindsay Horn in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see /class/222765/poli-2057-louisiana-state-university in Political Science at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
2057 Midterm Exam Review 10 multi choice 1014 definitions 23 sentences As specific as you can 1 essay Choice of 3 Larger concepts Constructivist theory chapter 6 general perception of int n law difficult to enforce Realismguaranteed essay Neoliberalism Compare and contrast theories neoliberalism humanitarianism Nuclear policystrategy deterrence arms race Marxism Eisenhower llno big standing army 1 snpr PWN Deterence keeping another state from doing something without doing anything Must be creditable threat Zerosum Game if 1 side wins the other side must lose Balances out to zero Groupthink outcome of the desition Mob mentality Could be least optimal outcome Arms race responding to a threat Competition State with best arsenal Mutually assured destruction deterrence nation wont attack because their target will have the ability to attack back Both nations would be obliterated Reactionary theory dealism post ww1 Realism as cold war is starting Maybe game theory chicken ect a Chicken Cuban missle crises kennedy publicly said that he would not back down Hegemony 1 great power all others look up to the 1 Rational actor assumption cost benefit analysis only do things that benefit the nation Unitary actor assumption in realists tradition the state is assumed to be the actor The leader is the state The president doesn t make the descision the US does National interests realists accumulating and increasing power military or economic Can change anything good for the nation others besides realists Compellece using force to make someone do something Oppicite of deterance Game theories not on test 2057 Midterm Exam Review 16 Resiprocity realists almost deterent You should be in line because if you don t we ll be on you like white on rice You attack me attack you back Neolibralism keep in like because of backlash of community a Who should have nuclear powers Don t need to know models of decision making accept groupthink Ch 4 1 Public opinion is important in both democratic and authoritarian regimes a Matters in authoritatian because there could be a coup Interest groups represent the views and interests of small groups in society Eisenhower warned against large peacetime military force Warned against having corperate interests merged with militarywar machines 4 Kant s perpetual peace requires a republican form of government 5 Neoliberal approach on slide 6 International regimes set of rules norms and procedures 7 Convergence of expectations 8 Collective security a Peacekeeping forces have to wait for a cease fire in order to do their job 9 UN a Both real and symbolic value i Only maintained because people believe in it and ensure that it has power 10 Don t worry about security council or parts of UN C Ch 5 1 The democratic peace democratic countries almost never fight each other 2 No buracracy 3 Interest groups functions represent specific interests 4 Diversionary theory if something isn t going well direct publics attention somewhere else 5 No legislature Ch 6 1 Constructivism rejection of realism focus on social issues Domestic things matter Socialization 2 Sources of international law 3 ICJ world court Ch 7 1 What makes a great power a great power 2 No revolutionary movements 2057 Midterm Exam Review 3 First 23 of ch 7 Transnational Actors Chapter 7 CHAPTER 7 Transnational Actors UNIVERSITY PRESS Five Problems with the StateCentric Approach OXF CHAPTER 7 Transnational Actors UNIVERSITY PRESS 1 Ambiguity of Meanings of State 0 The term state is used inconsistently in international relations texts In your text the state is composed of territorial exclusivity people and government that has sovereign power and authority Your textbook uses the word state to indicate the abstract legal concept whereas countly and government are used to analyze political behavior Very dissimilar concept of a state as the apparatus of government as Marxists democratic theorists realists and others each have different ideas about the term OXF CHAPTER 7 Transnational Actors UNIVERSITY PRESS 2 Another Problem Term Civil Society 0 In your textbook civil society is part of the state 0 For some Philosophers and sociologists focusing on the state as government Cit1 society is separate from the state 0 International law or when the state means the whole country difficult to acknowledge the existence of distinct transnational actors OXF CHAPTER 7 Transnational Actors UNIVERSITY PRESS GLOBAL 3 Lack of Similarity POLIT IJCSK Between Countries 0 Equal legal status of states suggests that all are the same kind of unit when this is not the case 0 Even if states have the same geographic extent or natural resources they might exhibit very different kinds of Political behaviors 0 Many transnational corporations have more annual revenue than most states have GDP OXF CHAPTER 7 Transnational Actors UNIVERSITY PRESS 4 State Systems and International Systems 0 Realist IR theory asserts Domestic systems tend to be orderly International system is without order or anarchic 0 Reality Order and disorder in both systems Statecentric approach reduces the importance of NGOs of all kinds to the international system OXE CHAPTER 7 Transnational Actors UNIVERSITY PRESS 5 Difference Between State and Nation 39 Communal identities form a hierarchy from the local through the nation to Wider groupings 0 Many individuals have dual national identities 0 National loyalty might not be the same as loyalty to a specific nation state OXE CHAPTER 7 Transnational Actors UNIVERSITY PRESS Transnational Companies as Political Actors CHAPTER 7 Transnational Actors UNIVERSITY PRESS Transnational Companies 0 Firms with branches or subsidiaries outside home country 0 The first examples were European firms in agriculture mining and oil sectors 0 Now found in all economic sectors OXE CHAPTER 7 Transnational Actors UNIVERSITY PRESS GLOBALquot F1nanc1al Flows and IOLlTlfCSK 1 Loss of Sovereignty 0 Effects of financial ows Countries no longer have sovereign control over economic activities Results Currency crisis for countries in 1980s 1990s 2008 Firms distort profit loss statements to avoid paying taxes OXE CHAPTER 7 Transnational Actors UNIVERSITY PRESS Triangulation of Trade and Loss of Sovereignty 0 Home government imposes trade restrictions 0 TNCs export goods through third country to avoid restrictions 0 TNCs subvert Will of the home government OXE CHAPTER 7 Transnational Actors UNIVERSITY PRESS Regulatory Arbitrage and Loss of Sovereignty 0 Home government has legislation on health safety taxation 0 Arbitrage TNC threatens to move or moves its operations to a country With more favorable Policies 0 Result Governments held hostage to TNC s business decisions and stockholders OXF CHAPTER 7 Transnational Actors UNIVERSITY PRESS GLOBAL Extraterritoriality POLIT Ics and Sovereignty 0 Which government should the TN C obey TNC operates in two or more countries Each has different regulations 0 Governments are seeking to coordinate policies Example Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions Example European Union OXF CHAPTER 7 Transnational Actors UNIVERSITY PRESS From Domestic Deregulation to Global Reregulation 0 Trend Governments reducing domestic regulations 0 Push for regulations on TN Cs has been at global level Working together governments can reassert control over TNCs TNCs have accepted consumer and NGO pressures for global codes of TNC conduct NGOs UN and governments have pressured TNCs to submit to social and environmental auditing OXF CHAPTER 7 Transnational Actors UNIVERSITY PRESS Nonlegitimate Groups and Liberation Movements as Political Actors CHAPTER 7 Transnational Actors UNIVERSITY PRESS GLOBAL Transnational Criminals and POILI IT IICSK 339 Their Political Impact 0 Criminal activities with greatest political impact Illegal arms sales Illegal drugs trade Human trafficking 0 Same four sovereignty problems arise with tackling criminals as with regulating TN Cs Criminal financial flows erode government controls over banking Diminished government control over borders Law enforcement arbitrage Anti gang activity by one government can push gangs to another country Extraterritorial jurisdiction OXF CHAPTER 7 Transnational Actors UNIVERSITY PRESS GLOBAL Terrorlsts Guerrlllas and POLITICS National Liberation Movements 0 Political violence by nonstate actors Groups reject the legitimacy of a government Support for nationalist groups has varied over time What the groups are called re ects extent of sympathy for them 39 Governments call them terrorists to express disapproval 39 Neutral observers call them guerrillas 39 Supporters call them national liberation movements OXF CHAPTER 7 Transnational Actors UNIVERSITY PRESS Terrorists Guerrillas and National Liberation Movements 0 Political violence and legitimacy Violence more likely to be considered legitimate if Widespread support Government rejects a political settlement or closes access to nonviolent means of expression Target government is exceptionally oppressive Nationalist groups attack only speci cally military targets 0 Failure to meet these criteria usually means less or limited transnational support OXFO Example Palestine Liberation Organization PLO Example Al Qaeda RD CHAPTER 7 Transnational Actors UNIVERSITY PRESS Political Violence by States 0 Prior to 1970s diplomatic norms hindered intervention in sovereign affairs of states 0 International Criminal Court ICC altered that Created in part as a result of pressure from human rights N GOs National responsibility to prosecute criminals transferred to the new ICC UN s collective global responsibility to protect RZP resolution September 2005 Replace state sovereignty when government authorities fail to protect human rights and security OXF CHAPTER 7 Transnational Actors UNIVERSITY PRESS The Signi cance of GLOBAL POLIT IECS Criminals Terrorists and Guerrillas 0 September 11 2001 attacks changed governments perception of transnational criminal gangs and guerrillas 0 Groups exploit aspects of globalization 0 Increased governmental cooperation to fight the groups Preemptive attacks Extraterritorial application of domestic anti terrorism laws 0 The actions of countries might become subject to ICC suits OXF CHAPTER 7 Transnational Actors UNIVERSITY PRESS Nongovernmental Organizations as Political Actors CHAPTER 7 Transnational Actors UNIVERSITY PRESS Consultative Status at the UN for NGOs 0 Economic and Social Council ECOSOC to consult with N GOs United Nations Charter Article 71 0 ECOSOC NGO statute in force from 1950 1664 NGOs as of October 2009 are registered with the UN s Department of Public Information Three kinds of NGO participation with ECOSOC Small number that are active in many areas Specialist NGOs that work in limited functional areas NGOs that have only occasional dealings with ECOSOC OX CHAPTER 7 Transnational Actors UNIVERSITY PRESS GLOBAL UN Definition of an POLITle Acceptable NGO 39 Should support the aims and the work of the UN 39 NGO should be a representative body with identifiable headquarters and officers who are responsible to a democratic policy making conference 39 Cannot be a profit making body N 0 individual corporations Federations of corporations permitted 39 Cannot use or advocate violence 39 Must respect the norm of noninterference in the internal affairs of states 39 Not established by intergovernmental agreement OXF CHAPTER 7 Transnational Actors UNIVERSITY PRESS Globalization and the Expansion of NGOS 0 Corporations trade unions and professional groups have reacted to globalization by forming NGOs 0 Globalization and the growth of NGOs have eroded government control over political economic and social life 0 Technological advances have provided the means for NGOs to expand their scope and in uence OXF CHAPTER 7 Transnational Actors UNIVERSITY PRESS Four Kinds of NGOS 0 INGO international NGO 7 Formal structure 7 Headquarters with secretariat 0 Singleissue N GO Utilizes e mail websites 0 Advocacy networks a Single issue focus uniting local groups around the world 7 Examples Coalition for an International Criminal Court International Campaign to Ban Landmines 0 Governance networks 7 Formed by N GOs 7 Goal To continue and improve NGO involvement in intergovernmental meetings OXE CHAPTER 7 Transnational Actors UNIVERSITY PRESS GLOBAL International Organizations POLIT IICSK as Structures of Global Politics 0 International organizations and NGOs of all types transcend country boundaries 0 Have a major impact on the governmental actors and transnational actors composing them 0 Like states international organizations have Founding documents and mission statements Rules of correct behavior and procedures Secretariats Processes that socialize new participants OXF CHAPTER 7 Transnational Actors UNIVERSITY PRESS GLOBAL POLIT IECS The Power of NGOS In pluralist societies NGOs have multiple points of access to in uence policy Sources of NGO power Providing information to government officials Symbolic Call attention to a specific event as an emblem of a large problem Leverage politics Applying moral suasion to governments and publics Accountability politics Compelling governments to live up to their commitments Global campaign Uniting groups and friendly governments for a specific issue OXF CHAPTER 7 Transnational Actors UNIVERSITY PRESS


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