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by: Dana Jacobson


Dana Jacobson
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This 45 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dana Jacobson on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLI 4040 at Louisiana State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/222774/poli-4040-louisiana-state-university in Political Science at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
August 24 2011 Intro The movement of a group of people from one location to another due to a plethora of reasons economics agriculture religion etc Who is a migrant Sowellmid 1900s 0 What are the costs of moving 0 Financiallycost of the move and starting all over in new place 0 Psychological emotionalloss of familiarity friends family places Issues of detachment o Adjusting to clothing etc acclimating to an entirely new culture Huge adjustment to daily life and growing accustomed to a brand new lifestyle 0 Are immigrations random Sowell says no 0 Really not random in the larger spiel there are reasons someone goes somewhere chain migrationsomeone moves and someone moves after them Needing subsistence looking for that similarity yet betterment at the same time Groupings reestablish somewhere within a certain community Usually the migrants are the cream of the crop from where they came and are willing to put in the work to redo everything 0 What are some issues with chain migration 0 Actually getting that 2nd person to move 0 Clashes between language new vs old cultures feuds moving from one place to another overpopulation along with depletion of resources 0 How does geography affect cultural development 0 Desirable areas 0 How has transportation technology affected migration 0 Airplanes facilitate migration Steiner o What are the dynamics of economic migration 0 Upward mobility o Demands change over time market structure and business cycle 0 What moral obligations do we have toward different types of migrants 0 We often don t see the catalyst of why they migrated I Youll see war or hurricane as a sufficient catalyst but often ppl just don t understand the driver for economic drivers August 31 2011 0 Transit 0 Transit is how you get from here to there 0 What are some major forms oftransit o How would you migrate For many transit is not as smooth and easy as it is to us No car hotel rooms or money September 2 2011 0 Migration TheoryBrettell and Hollifield 0 Do we have a migration crisis I We have the land and resources but as people are coming in jobs are leaving the country leaving fewer and fewer jobs effecting the livelihood of those here as well as those just arriving o What are the top down vs bottom up ways to look at migration I Top down is looking at movements and patterns I Bottom up I Need to understand both to get the bigger picture 0 Anthropology I How does migration effect culture o It effects the culture of the place they are arriving as well as the place they are leaving 0 Unit of Analysis UOA Individuals and households 0 How does one group relate to the other 0 TH Relational o DemographyPopulation numbers I How does migration affect population change 0 Leaving family behind dying along the trip having children once you get there etc I UOA macro populations 0 Status wealth age sex etc o Rationalist o Might make since for certain categories of people to move or stay 0 Economics I What explains the propensity to migrate 0 Poor conditions pay 0 Micro and individuals 0 Costbenefit analysis 0 Geography 0 What explains the spatial patterns of migration I What kind of rural to urban what kind of topography is in the way understanding where people go and how they get there 0 Individuals and micro relational 0 Geography concerns why go a certain route to get there put a city there etc 0 History 0 How do we understand the immigrant experience I Everything we know about immigration was from the history of how it happened 0 Looks at individuals as well as groups 0 Theory testing what can you pull out of the situation that made it unique to the next group moving 0 How does the law influence migration I Law has precedent set This sets the pattern of migration because the migrants look at the laws to decide on whether to move there are not Law really focuses on refugees and migrants The unit of analysis is the political and legal system Looking at laws and the shaping of them to come to conclusions I The institutionalist and rationalist are looking at do these laws work and how 0 Political Scientists 0 Why can t states control immigration I You have a sovereign border why are people still coming in and out then I UOA political and international systems I TH institutionalist and rationalist o Sociology o What explains incorporation or exclusion I Ethnic studies how many generations need to be there in order to accept them Or how many must we become acclimated to in order to accept them What makes you American and them not I an ethnic groups I TH structuralist and institutionalist What the different dependant variables look at o Antropology migrant behavior 0 Demographymigrant behavior 0 Economics migant flows 0 Geographymigrant decision making o Historymigrant experience 0 Lawlegal treatment of migrants 0 Political sciencepolicy outcomes 0 Sociologymigrant behavior with ethnicity September 7 2011 Forced VS Voluntary Migration o What does voluntary mean 0 How does it involve choice 0 How are some options constrained o What do we understand force o Is it physical social emotional economic I Any of these that are out of your control is quotforcedquot I What would force you to migrate 0 Voluntary Migration 0 Voluntary is usually equated with economic migration 0 Voluntary migration for economic reason is voluntary because one does not have to choose a better life I If you move cause of a hurricane its more politically accepted than if you lose your job and have to move because your company moves overseas 0 Does anyone want a worse life I Umm no o Is moving to achieve a better life necessarily opportunistic I It may be good financially but could be drastic as far as leaving behind your base of friends and family I If you live in a 3rd world slum and cant sustain yourselfand your family and have to move in order to provides the necessities is not really opportunistic or voluntary moving for life necessities is forced migration At what level do you separate opportunistic and necessity If we accep the American dream as americans how can we look suspiciously on others who want it too Why should it be problematic that anyone be able to move where they want 0 Manmade laws are what make it problematic o Forced migration o If you don t have freedom then essentially all of your choices are forced If you are on the wrong side of the berlin wall you didn t have to leave but you may have been forced to stay Forced vs voluntary should be more of a matter of your personal beliefs if you are lacking freedoms where you are then moving to you may be forced but to the place you moved it was all to opportunistic and very voluntary o What types of coercion indicate a forced migration 0 Can economic globalization force migration I Jobs moving overseas farmland being bought for urban development I Theres a constant flux ofjobs building up an area and moving out o Are there other unconventional drivers of forced migration I Love and relationships I Pollution I Development induced displacement huge if youre going to build infrastructure you have to do that somewhere September 9 2011 0 Economic Migration o In what ways can a country compete for preferable migrants I Making entrance easier for high skilled workers 0 Offer 0 Social services 0 Pay more than the country they come from 0 Less time for the process of citizenship 0 Tax break for businesses that hire overseas workers 0 Can a developing country compete for trained professionals I A developing country has a lot of trouble retaining professionals because the opportunities elsewhere brain drain I The developing country doesn t have the resources ie money to subsidize the retaining of the professionals I Sometimes loyalty and family is the only thing that can keep professionals o Is the Canadian point system fair I It only accepts higher skilled workers leaving Canadians feeling the possibility of upward mobility lacking o What about the US temporary worker visa system 0 Data only 72 of LA residents hold an advanced degree 0 How are lower skilled immigrants needed but not wanted I Theres a value judgement on what is good and bad o If they are needed why only admit them on a temporary basis I Political means of being able to say its simply temporary o How are guest worker programs not immigration programs I The intent of the program is not to have them stay so it actually isn t immigration 0 Are the regulations from Singapore too much 0 How does accepting workers instead of people affect the way in which immigratns are treated I Its more ofa contract than a human o Is there a best way to judge who can be reunified I What level of dependency do you cut the cord 0 Do you ever feel competitive towards foreign students I For admission to law school perhaps September 12 2011 Economic Migration o How do the ILO conventions contradict national policies for low skilled labor migrants o ILO conventions represent ALL workers rights migrants and citizens but the nation doesn t treat the migrants with the same rights as the rest 0 Do human rights naturally conflict with immigration policy 0 Yes human rights and national rights conflict o If you don t have enough jobs for the people in the country then how can you keep letting more and more in if that does harm to the nation as a whole how humanitarian is that Sure you are helping the migrant but are you hurting the ones that are already present within your country 0 Human right is the right to citizenship itsall inclusive is naturally occurring ts on paper in the ILO convention however does not get practiced like it should o Is a rights based approach better than one economic efficiency 0 Realistsvs idealist approaches I Realists may exclude the other citizens right to be included within the state I Idealists may fight for any and every immigrant to be included I neither of the 2 is practical the realists is too inhumane and the idealists is so humane that it could lead to inhumaneness through a lack of control of resources resentment of the previous citizens etc I has to balance if you re super realists your morally bankrupt If your idealist your going to be financially bankrupt o Are these the only legitimate options for governance 0 Also sense of identity if you fit the mold and are low skilled come on in High skilled migration 0 Should it be a concern to a potential migrant that their home country may need their skills 0 Doesshould a country have the right to restrict their out migration 0 It s a human right to renounce citizenship however the government still has sovereignty over their borders 0 How are low skilled migrants different from high skilled workers o I think the high skilled workers may have more drive be more opportunistic have the family structurally built behind them to pass along their means the resources of course also 0 Can we understand migration as a public or private good 0 Cultural food within the community is a public good 0 Cultural diversity September 14 2011 o Irregular Migration o Definitionundocumented migrants everywhere else 0 Alternate definition illegal immigrants here 0 What are some of the linguisticassociative implications of using each type of terminology I Illegal has a negative connotation I Undocumented seems a bit more appeasing and less criminal o What are ways that one can become an quotillegalquot I Green card expires student visa tourist visas expires I False identification 0 When did quotillegalquot immigration become possible I Countries taking in refugees and it got out of control Iquot I Passports came into play and now it could be quotillega if you didn t have it because it was a new term Iquot I How does the term quotillega politicize migration Creates a need for policy You associate a need for law to handle it because it is now a criminal action so now politicians come in and say im cleaning the streets im taking out illegal citizens etc I Can we rank quotillegalquot immigration among other crimes o Is it parallel to jay walking or murder Or simply not paying taxes I Should migrating outside of the system essentially BE a crime I How has Europe dealt with irregular migration 0 Plan to 0 Contain such migrations outside of the EU Harmonize deportation policies with sending countries deploy experts to non EU countries 000 target employers of irregular migrants I what has been the US approach 0 Action 0 Enhance border controls I Very limited vision of immigration compared to Europe I Not as systematic or nearly as good as what the Europeans have come up with I How does the US approach differ from that of the EU I What human rights concerns cloud this issue September 16 2011 o How does seasonal migration work in the Javanese countryside o How does working in one place but spending ones earnings in another place affect an economy 0 Presence of money in a small city brought or shipped into will increase income etc within that city 0 How does gender play into circular migration 0 Men working to make more 0 Women commuting far distances to find jobs 0 Bride priceyoung men leave to make money so they can pay a dowry for a bride I Lots ofage gap due to this 0 Land rights are matrilineal inherited I A woman get land inherited so if the man gets the status to attain a certain bride he won t need to migrate o What about emotion I Strong emphasis on family and extended family will lead the migrant to migrate back hence circular o In what ways is circular migration utility maximizing I Utilize land in agriculture season and utilize whatever else at the other time o By moving around in the right season 0 Maximizing peak labor demand 0 Reduces cost of subsistence in the city 0 By moving for that seasonal work you only have to pay for yourself in the city rather than your whole family which is still at home 0 Minimizes transit cost 0 Bc you are only taking one person rather than the whole family 0 Maximizes earnings 0 Finding the most efficient way to find the best labor circumstances to save money for the family back home 0 Why is it important for the Javanese workers not to cut themselves off from their village support system I They look after your family while you re gone I Something to rely on if needed I Support of knowing that they are there for you when you get back emotional connection I Someone to monitor what you have while you are gone 0 NOTE most of rural Javanese barely subsist thus they do not have the surplus to take the risk of permanent migration 0 Circular migration is a sort of way where you can go off to make money and bring something back but if it doesn t work out you can always go back home and survive Maybe o Allows for a temporary cheap way to take a minimal risk in order to prosper O O 0 Effects of colonialism I Elites with total control of land use I To take money they divert labor into the extraction of raw materials I The many landed become landless with no way to survive but to work for money to buy food not produces ones own so you had to find a job to buy food I Political effects 0 Delays the formation of a proletariat o Flows are from areas of little investment to places of higher investment 0 govt services roads electricity water etc o Remittances are larger and more frequent than those from permanent migration 0 Bc if you move permanently and you have to get a descent place and descent things then you have less money to remit o Is circular migration a satisfactory long term solution to village poverty 0 No bc a bad season could ruin the purpose 0 The city trends change and get more expensive deducing the means able to remit o Trafficking and Smuggling o Trafficking movement either within or across borders which related to some kind of coercion or deception for the purpose of exploiting a person for profit or benefit Kind of long term 0 What are the causes of traffickingsmuggling I Poverty conflict regionto get out O O O 0 Whats the difference between smuggling and traffiscking I Smuggling is voluntary and international trafficking is forced and can be international or national o Smuggling is the act of getting across the border trafficking is being moved and then whatever happens afterwards 0 You see smuggling a lot around borders its more ofa free will economic thing but sometimes can turn into something else Types of trafficking scenarios I Domestic servants promised work in another country when they get there the employer will take away the workers paperwork and then they cant leave and sometimes they wont even pay the worker It becomes a type of enslavement because there is nothing really the worker can do to get out of the situation I Bonded labor indentured servants sort of Go into an agreement and often the worker doesn t know the real agreement Terms in the contract are usually hard to get out of I Sex trafficking and forced marriage 8020 womenmen Forced to have sex become prostitutes etc I Begging Their promised quotjobquot is to beg I Child soldiers How can a conflict situation provide the environment for smuggling or trafficking I Governments too busy to notice I People are more likely to do anything to survive I The conquered area forces them into it I No one is technically in charge so who do you go to How do peacekeepers provide such a situation as well I 30 of peacekeepers are the ones that visit the brothels that are compromised of trafficked people Trafficking protocol I Signed by 90 nations I Provides for the protection of trafficking victims but relies on individual governments for enforcement I It encourages states to provide for such victims to recover UN Global Initiative to Gift Human Trafficking UN GIFT I Working to reduce the vulnerability of potential victims ensures adequate protection and supports those who are victims and supports prosecution of those involved September 21 2011 Detention 0 International law perspective I What are we talking aboutgt 0 When no crime other than llj walkingtrespassingquot has occurred but the entrants status to be processed 0 States retain the power to restrict the movement of refugees and others who cross into their borders in the interest of national security 0 However a refugee who is denied statues should be allowed a reasonable amount of time to seek legal entry into another country 0 Additionally human rights treaties affirm that no one should be subject to arbitrary arrest or detention this is not only illegal but unjust o Refugees have justifiable reasons for illegal entry 0 ECHR Article 51f detention of persons to prevent unauthorized entry in to a country in order to remove those liable to expulsion is a permissible exception to the right of individual liberty 0 Liberty of movement is what is being discussed here quot 0 Does this make sense as law 0 When is detention justified under International Law 0 To prevent unauthorized entry 0 When action to deport is under way 0 It is acceptable only to prevent unlawful immigration and asylum seekers should not be treated in the same manner as illegal immigrants 0 But many asylum seekers are quotillegalquot entrants 0 Why is detention an expedient way to process asylum seekers o Keeps them in one place 0 Politically seems like a good idea bc it s a plan keeps the public from thinking the immigrants are all in the country in flux 0 Stat FY 20002004 DOJ 19 case approval 0 Stat ICE 5764 of seekers are llno show to immigration hearings 0 Can it be defended when the deprivation of liberty is NOT permitted for administrative convenience September 23 2011 Case Study Christmas Island 0 In between India an Australia 0 Captain William Myors of the Royal Mary a British east India company vessel named the island when he sailed past it on Christmas day in 1643 O O 0 It was annexed by the British crown on June 6 1888 It was invaded by the Japanese in WW2 It was transferred to the Australian Govt in 1957 where it has been a tourist destination o The former Howard Government secured the passage of legislation which excised Christmas Island from Australia s migration zone meaning that asylum seekers arriving on Christmas Island could not automatically apply to the Australian government for refugee status 0 this allowed the Royal Australian Navy to relocate them to other countries Papua New Guinea s Manus Island and Nauru as part of the socalled Pacific Solution I Screws up the entire asylum seeking process 0 In 2006 an immigration detention centre containing approximately 800 beds was constructed on the island for the Department of Immigration Originally estimated to cost 210 million the final cost was over 400 million 0 The Christmas Island IDC has permanent purpose facilities including accommodation compounds medical centre and firstaid rooms commercial kitchen laundry educational and recreational facilities and a range of sporting facilities 0 The Christmas Island IDC has a regular use capacity of 400 adults Recently the contingency capacity has been increased to give a total capacity of 1116 people 0 Is this a functional way to deal with an influx of possible asylum seekers September 26 2011 Lifestyle migration A migration for reasons related to lifestyle and which does not otherwise fit into existing policy categories Movement to places which signify a better way of life 0 Primary reason is not economic disaster persecution etc all about the way of life What are reasons for lifestyle migration 0 Climate 0 Retirement 0 Pace of life facilitates the way they want to liveurban to rural and vice versa 0 CultureWay of life 0 Aesthetics Though insignificant compared to other types of migration this is now a growing phenomenon and is beginning to be studied by academics it has been overlooked thus far why might this be 0 It s not problematic retirees have money and are bringing that money into that economy as opposed to poorer migrants who may be a drain 0 Doesn t seem to be as much ofa securityterrorism threat If you are moving somewhere you would like to be why would you blow it up I Examples 0 1 in 10 British citizens live abroad many to Costa del Sol Mallorca or France 0 Retirement migration in the US Florida 0 Return migration to the Caribbean Moved for economic reasons and they prefer to move home once they retire 0 These populations are fluid and hard to pin down with accuracy Because its more movement on an individual basis as opposed to mass migration it can be a little more difficult to track 0 Many do not register as residents in their new homes ex voting in Fla they move their and then stay registered to vote in home town 0 Many also come on tourist visas some places allow you to live there for 10 years on a tourist visa 0 Conceptual difference from other migration forms 0 Motivation and characteristics 0 Lifestyle migration relates to consumption not production like economic migration o It is also a cultural phenomenon related to social changes in western states Saving money simply for consumption when you retire retirement is a relatively new thing in some other places your American dollar is worth more providing an even better lifestyle 0 Migrations are usually from northern countries who move to other nations in the Global North or South 0 Why has lifestyle migration garnered such little attention 0 Because we aspire to do similar things at retirement o It is not considered an issue in its own right 0 Its adequately governed by existing regulations 0 These migrations are also favored due to their consumptive power it builds up the economy where the lifestyle migrants move to September 28 2011 0 Tourism 0 Tourism is like a gateway drug for migration 0 Six of the top ten destination countries for international tourists are also among the top ten migration destinations 0 Where have you been Would you ever permanently migrate back to any of those places 0 What was used as a document of passage before the passport I This eventually turned into a norm of reciprocity Fridtof Nansen developed the first passport to assist Russian refugees 0 After WW2 when nationstates were predominant Way to allow for those to have a travel document that told their situation of why they were where they were Started as a way to recognize refugees easily the politics of travel pits the economic interests of carriers travel companies the tourism industry against security concerns Electronic visas biometric controls all make travel more cumbersomeis it worth it when security concerns are taken into consideration I Should we have a Schengen system with Mexico Canada and the Caribbean I The politics of Tourism are also consumptive in a postcolonial style 0 Similar to lifestyle migration you re going and spending money so you expect a certain treatment 0 How is the developing world consumed o By consuming the aesthetics I Caribbean you re consuming the palm trees bars etc this piece that is there for consumption Tourism industry has developed things to be consumed life s a vacationquot I Do you think you could actually live there 0 What is the sentiment of The Anitlles 0 Where do people go for cultural tourism 0 People travel to nola to get the mardigras experience which is only a week long period that is extended year round to get those tourist Theres so much more history and culture to nola but they don t experience the true culture they experience the funquot culture 0 is there a respect for the culture of post slavesindentured servants September 30 2011 Midtermchoose 5 of 7 short answers Blue book 0 Not really essay form 10 minutes per question On the readings and notes Circular migration internal or external internationally Like the Mexican border agricultural work The reading has the basic definition pg 60online reading Mostly gender specific men working sending remittances certain reasons this was significant then Indonesia Colonialism in some ways forced this because if you didn t own land anymore and couldn t farm so had to find another way to feed yourselves Individual working in city so you are spending less on yourself in your foreign working environment and sending as much as possible to your home and family Helpful because their home community is still home to take care of their family home etc a sort of safety net whereas if you move permanently then you don t have that home safety net Economic migration low and high skill workers preferable migrants Canadian point system signapore unification low skilled are needed yet not wanted rights of labor migratns ILO convention rights based approach economic based approach country needing to retain skilled workers Public good vs private good public is a park roads etc and private good is something good for business Migration is very good for businesses bottom line pay under minimum wage less employee rest breaks worry less about government regulation such as OSHA As a public good migration builds multiculturalism and makes communities more interesting Its good for the world economy because they are sending money back into their home country As a private good companies migrating to quotbetterquot working environments can be bad for the area they are leaving Smuggling and trafficking peace keepers sent to help an area out and bring stability The perception is when the peacekeepers are there then they are good However peace keepers are from everywhere and have their own values and thoughts on what is goodbad and oknot ok Many of them see the vulnerability of the poor women in the area and use prostitution to meet their own needs The men already in the area see it as a business opportunity knowing that the peace keepers are going to want women because they haven t seen women in awhile due to their work as peace keepers The peace keepers are there to stop people from shooting each other not to deal with smuggling or trafficking They are often held in high esteem almost like they are the law Just peace keepers or any occupying force being there facilitates the demand for prostitution Smuggling is illegally moving by paying someone to move you it can become trafficking through coercion or force Such as hiring someone to bring you anywhere and after they change the price or wont let you leave they may even take your passports and paperwork in order to stop you from being able to leave Chapter 9 Migration theory on moodle brettell and hollifield How different things look at migration I I h I I I r m 39 quot I I I I U I what pushes and pulls people geographyspacially what and why they are moving political science Christmas island the residents main concern is now that the center is there the conditions are horrible violence to workers and the migrants upset that they are just sitting there for long periods of time left in limbo which is why the people are being violent in the first place Detention European courts view this is important because it gives us state laws to migration ECHR article 51f the legal aspects of ALL of this is what sets up the vagueness of immigration law doesn t really make sense because it allows the govt to hold migrants in detention centers with no true basis Have standards of living arrangements What is a reasonable length of time to detain migrants and what factors make up the definition of reasonable amount of time October 5 2011 Begin of Test 2 0 Survival Migration persons outside their country of origin because of an existential threat to which they have no access to a domestic remedy or resolution 0 There is no clear and universal institutional framework for ensuring these rights for those survival migrants who fall outside the scope of the 1951 Refugee Convention Who are these people Haitians to Dominican Republic they had to leave because after the earthquake there was not enough resources to sustain the population People with personal enemies that threaten their lives but the government cannot help or will not help then they are survival migrants survival migration is broad and encompasses refugees Refugees are typically leaving persecution This is a very big group people this can also be a perceived threat that you are fleeing from whether it happens are not is not always relevant o Complementary protections O 1969 OAU Convention llexternal gg 39 or events seriously disturbing public orderquot foreign I Regional agreement of the states of Africa 1984 Cartagena Declaration llfleeing generalized violence foreign aggression internal conflicts massive violation of human rights or other circumstances which have seriously disturbed public orderquot I These orders are very broad Provides additional protection from previous quotrefugeequot conventions 2004 European Council Asylum Qualification Directive llserious harm I Death penalty or execution I Torture or inhumane treatment I Serious individual threat such as generalized violence What can we ascertain from these regional agreements I Definitions of survival migrants can be broad Tend to see a larger acceptance levels between neighboring states so that when you need to flee to the other you have an understandingthis is more relevant in Africa as opposed to the Northern states Why is there any sort of push to develop additional legal instruments to assist these migrants when human rights law already applies I So that those that are outside of legal norms can begin to access the human rights I Broad way of how individual states handle survival migrants What appears to be the key findings as to why there is this uneven protection I Depends on who s coming in if Yemen doesn t want Somalia s coming in but allows Saudi Arabians to come in racism it s all sovereign decisions where the state looks out for their own interests as opposed to the migrants human rights to live and seek asylum I Would it be more effective to create a new legal mechanism for this or leave it up to the individual states 0 Even if you have a legal document stating how to handle this it doesn t change the state s ability to apply this October 10 2011 o EnvironmentalMigration 0 There is no internationally recognized definition of what it means to be an I Environmental migrant I Environmental refugee I Climate change refugee I Climate displacee o This also influences governance and legal responses to this phenomenon 0 these quot words tend to be interchangeable whether they should be or not 0 EM is not new the oldest EM story is that of the great flood as references in the Epic of Gilgamesh the Torah the Bible etc I first historical terms of EM 0 EM includes migration due to flooding tsunami earthquakes landslides volcano eruptions drought climate change tornadoes hurricanes excessive pollution nuclear disaster etc I So BROAD that it is difficult to govern or come up with legal terms I Volcano or tsunaminot coming back hurricane or earthquakeyou might be able to come back 0 Notice these include both manmade and natural phenomenon I Acceptance of migrants depends on the cause of the disruption 0 There are 2 competing views on EM the environmentalists v migration scholars I Environmentalists call for additional refugeelike protections because they see it as wholly devastating and what people protected in a broad range since it is a broad category I Migrationists no direct connection from climate to migration prefers a holistic approach They see when the climate changes it affects agriculture etc and need to move when environment causes serious changes Really depends on where they live and what exactly is happening 0 IOM definition of EM llpersons or groups of persons who for reasons of sudden or progressive changes in the environment that adversely affect their lives and living conditions are obliged to leave their habitual homes or chooses to do so either temporarily or permanently and who move either within their country or abroad I Doesn t necessarily have to be movement to another country can be internal migration Most E migrants stay within their countries because they don t HAVE to move very far can move to next town or just 20 miles away 0 Governance regimes I Refugee lawprotection but they are not persecuted So if you are not persecuted then you are not refugees you are migrants and migrant protection laws are very vague and can be extremely unhelpful I Human rights law protections Makes a little more sense signed by ost countries in the world Whether in transit are not you are still entitled to certain rights Remember that just because you have a right to something doesn t mean the government has the responsibility to provide it In practice these rights can seem meaningless I Statelessness but issues with llsinking islands People have a right to have nationality but do not see it in practice as it is stated by law Has to have a territory a functioning government that can make treaties with other governments I Environmental law obligations to not harm another s territory how to know direct responsibility Whose carbon output is responsible If you can t assign responsibility how do you govern the issue I Disasterhumanitarian short term help I Development concrete projects have been absent Haiti needs to develop a solution to rebuild and be able to sustain another major earthquake if it were to happen again o Is there any governance regime which should be working on this I Human rights covenant and actually enforcing it somehow I How far deteriorated does one s home have to be before one is justified as an environmental migrant How bad does the situation need to be before someone deserves government intervention I Is any one driver more or less priority over others 0 Disaster Induced Displacement and Resettlement 2 reading 1984 tornado Paul 0 Migration v Displacement how can we understand the difference What does the language tell us 0 Displacement may signify that it was not of your choice and that it may be temporary additionally displacement is more passive than migration It s something that happens to you such as weather 0 What makes environmental migration different from displacement conceptually There is a sort of time arrangement for hurricanes you leave because of the possible threat however you are not technically displaced until the hurricane has destroyed your home o Disasters have both direct and indirect effects I Direct 0 Physical damage cost of restoration loss of human life effect on the health of victims I Indirect 0 Disruption of trade reduced spending power in community increased vulnerability of survivors and out migration all money available to you goes towards rebuilding or maintenance makinga big hit to the areas economy 0 Disaster displacees usually move within national boundaries into cities temporarily Often displaced citizens move to local big cities because its fairly easy to find employment housing etc o This happens in both developed and nondeveloped countries Based on Paul s study what factors lead to migration after a disaster I Loss of infrastructure nowhere to live work or feed yourself can you still sustain yourself at home 0 Why did people move into disaster areas I Economic advantages such as contracts to rebuild property prices come down philanthropy attention to the area by prominentfamous people falsified claims by poor people moving to the area acting as if they are from there and try to get free aid 0 What can we learn then from the Bangladeshi response to this tornado I Appropriate response aid government and NGO S can keep outmigration to a minimum 0 But the lack of aid for Haitians after their disastrous earthquake lead to the mass outmigration to the Dominican Republic Wolmeski 0 Why would a government use resettlement instead of disaster aid 0 There s a temporal issue of not knowing how long a famine will last A tornado could happen anywhere but we know more about famines through weather patterns and make appropriate decisions based on this knowledge 0 Resettlement is for longer term issues that will not allow the citizens of the area to sustain themselves 0 What should be required in a resettlement site 0 A location that is similarfamiliar to what the people already had but want better o For the wealthier do they have to use all of their savings to rebuild and take on the burden themselves or will the government still help the wealthy Who deserves the aid Should the poorer people be the only ones that the government helps out o Metekel Ethiopia 0 By the Sudanese Border Sparsely populated Full of malaria meningitis and bilharzia It s hot and humid It s soil is shallow and little grown there little ability to farm there I Was this site suitable Absolutely Not I What went wrong 000 o The government used a survey from 1964 0 People from dry cool climates send to live in a humid shrub land 0 2124 mortality rate with over 50 infant mortality 0 Government closes colleges and sends healthy students to build huts there 4000 ill every week with half contracting some sort of illness 0 Resettlement and Environmental Impact 0 This region was already out of cultivatable land if we understand indigenous practices of crop rotation The region was already cultivating at capacity so by increasing the population drastically there was not the ability to sustain everyone 0 Both the new huts and fire wood were made of local wood which take a long time to replenish which means the area is ultimately unsustainable o The rights to much of this land was taken from the Gumuz people and was put under government control and regulations 0 What was worse famine or resettlement o No right answer but at least trying to live in resettlement Monday October 172011 MISSING NOTES October 19 2011 o Risks and Reconstruction Cernea o Risks and Reconstruction Model I More often than not displacementresettlement leads to poverty I Most populations were already poor or marginalized o What we see are indigenous people living on the edge of poverty are often those moved I While development projects affect the environment they are completely man made keep in mind these are all humans making these decisions The risks are 0 Landlessness o What does it mean You have to buy your food instead of growing it Leaves you not being able to selfsustain 0 Land is the foundation of societies communities and commercial activities identity is harder to maintain when you lose land o It leads to pauperization and poverty 0 Joblessness 0 Short term work and underemployment is usually the norm once you get moved and resettled you see a lot of this because if you were in a small village and you were a Dr and now you are moved and you cannot find work you have to do something to get by 0 Can change the family dynamic as to who has to work If the typical breadwinner cannot find works someone has to the wife or children Big disruption in education for the children 0 Homelessness 0 Loss of familiarity and feeling of security Losing their community ties losing closeness with family and friends No home to ever go back to the home and town and community are under 610 ft of water 0 Loss of cultural personal space and privacy 0 Resettlement provides lower standards than one previously had Trying to keep costs down home values according to quotfairquot market value cannot equally replace the previous home I This often happens because the politicians making the decision to displace people may not value the place to be displaced o Marginalization o Tends to be pushed aside by the quotmain group To be put into an inferior subgroup o The path of downward mobility hurts one economically and psychologically Loss of tangible and intangible assets Hurts pride that you cannot be economically safe and loss of culture of losing who you are 0 Sense if injustice and emerges When people lose their economic status they see it as a form of injustice 0 Increased mortality 0 Stress psychological trauma I Not enough money food space environment I Stress makes you more prone to disease I Unsafe water and poor sewage removal leads to parasitic diseases and epidemics I Lack of quality food I Effects the weakest first the elderly and children 0 Food insecurity o Nourishment below the levels necessary for normal growth and development 0 Becomes ones primary need and concern 0 Loss ofaccess to property and services 0 Loss of forest land grazing land communal water burial grounds Loss of the ability to hunt feed your goat community water crypts underneath the 610 ft of water within the dammed area 0 Loss of public services safety nets 0 Social disarticulation o What does ones social status mean Status within family and group of friends you lose that place when there is a huge disruption of your community 0 Loss of spatial temporal and cultural community 0 Close to marginalization except social disarticulation is more on a personal loss level I Does this model assess all necessary components for success 0 Not really its unrealistic to be able to grasp the importance of every single thing to severy single displaced person I To what extent does a government need to care about emotional and community needs in addition to structuralphysical concerns October 24 2011 o Refugees o UNHCR Origins I After WW2 there were 20 million refugees in Europe I IRO was formed to assist those in their return home I Declaration of Human rights addresses asylum in article 13 and 14 right to leave and seek respectively I UNHCR is formed in 1951 as a person High Commissioner and an office Definition of Refugee 1951 Convention owing to wellfounded fear of persecution for reasons of race religion nationality membership in a particular social group or political opinion is outside the country of his own nationality and is unable to owing to such fear is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country or who not having a nationality and being outside the country of his former habitual residence as a result of such events us unable to or owing to such fear is unwilling to return itquot Article 1 section2 o This is more or less a response to stop what Hitler did to encompass a WIDE range of people to specifically stop the particular problems of European persecution Non refoulment quotNo contracting State shall expel or return a refugee in any manner whatsoever to the frontiers of territories where his life or freedom would be threatened on account of his race religion nationality membership of a particular social group of political opinion Article 33 0 this definition only applied to those displaced before 1951 until the Cold War 0 So who were these refugees o Romagypsies mostly a group of white people 0 A protocol was added in 1967 which eliminated the time of displacement clause superseded the 1951 definition 0 The 1967 clause is what really made the difference because of its specificity and overall reach This allowed for nations to accept quotrefugeesquot from Communist 0 states which became a tool of Cold War politics US definition 0 Asylum seeker in the USA when applying for a status 0 Refugee outside the USA when applying for a status The process 0 An application for Asylum ins submitted to a government agency and reviewed by an official 0 Rejected asylum seekers are allowed to stay in many countries without any status or rights as some are wary of deporting them 0 Abuse some people apply for asylum in places where they get a work permit knowing that they will be rejected but using that time as a temporary job migration 0 However if no work permit is given they are wards of the state while they wait and are perceived of as lazy 0 Safe third country if a country declares a country to be free of persecution anyone applying for refugee status from that country is rejected outright If a seeker has gotten into a third country through there they are often sent back for application 0 Tanzania is the top refugee hosting country 20022006 0 USA is the 35 h ranking of refugee hosting country 0 Who is not a signatory to the convention Sahara Guyana western sahara Libya Syria Jordan Iraq Saudi Arabia eritream oman qutar UAE india Nepal Mongolia Uzbekistan Bhutan Pakistan Bangladesh north korea Burma Thailand laos Vietnam Indonesia malayasia tonga Vanuatu Kiribati Maldives October 26 2011 refugee law o UNHCR 1954 o OAU Convention 1969 o Cartagena 1984 o Refugee Definition 0 Article 2 refugees are obligated to behave and conform to the laws of their new country of residence 0 Refugees are entitled to O O 0000 O O O 0 Freedom of movement article 26 Right to current identity papers and travel documents article 27 and 28 Reasonable fees article 29 Transfer of assets article 30 Article 31 states should not impose any penalties on refugees for illegally coming into their territory quotprovided they present themselves without delay to the authorities and show good cause for their illegal entry and presence What does quotwithout delay mean I Could take awhile to get to a police station they might not know the process to claim their status How about quotgood cause Article 32 a contracting state cannot expel a refugee without going through the due process of law and even then should allow a refugee a reasonable amount of time to seek legal admission in another country How much time is quotreasonablequot for a criminal I In a legal document this can be very discretionary Who would want to accept a refugee criminal I In the bigger picture the quotcriminalquot is still a human with rights to not be killed or persecuted in their home country Article 332 Refoulement s limit is if that refugee is a danger to the security of that country 0 1969 Organization of African Unity Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa o It accepts the 1951 definition but adds llrefugee shall also apply to every person who owing to external gt 39 foreign 39 or events seriously disturbing the public order in either part or the whole of the country of origin o In what ways does that expand the 1951 definition I This expands the 1951 law by saying that there are many things beyond your control that don t necessarily amount to persecution but still have the right to safety 0 Cartagena Declaration on Refugees Colloquium on the International Protection of refugees in Central America Mexico and Panama 1984 0 Definition 1951 1967 OAU 1969 llpersons who have fled their country because their lives safety or freedom have been threatened by generalized violence foreign aggression internal conflicts massive violation of human rights or other circumstances which have seriously disturbed public order I US would probably never do this because it broadens what the refugee is SO much that it would overwhelm the system 0 General Exemptions I If one has voluntarily reavailed himself the protection of his nationality I Reacquires his nationality if lost I Has a new nationality and protection I Has voluntarily gone back to his original country I If the persecution has stopped 0 Additional Exemptions I If one has committed a crime against peace a war crime crime against humanity I This crime was committed outside the country of refugee prior to his admission I He is guilty of said crime I Or has been guilty of other serious crimes against the principles of the UN usually felonies o How is the OAU Convention different from Cartagena 0 They come from a different place and are developed to the needs of their people 0 Such as natural disasters being included in Cartagena o Is refouleing a person who had previously committed murder ultimately disallowing hisher human rights if not granted asylum somewhere October 28 2011 o Refugee protection in the EU 0 Levels of refugee law I National laws I EU laws 0 Still ongoing result of 2 main historical things 0 O O 0 Establishment of the EU Was purely economic but established a geographic freedom to move within the Union The abolishment of internal borders made management of external borders more important This is how European asylum came to light The number of economic and forced migratns has gone up within the EU but the llfortress Europe has made it hard to get in this begs the question does Europe provide protection for foreign refugees Geneva convention of 1951 ifa person is recognized by international law as a legit refugee then within the EU nations are more likely to have to take them In Common system of asylum provided standards for admittance within the EU Not as quotcommonquot as it should be as certain countries look at certain other countries refugees negatively Established in 1990 s The temporary directive of protection To deal with large The directive of influxes of emigrants Defines refugees as persons who don t have safety Grants temporary citizen rights but in practice it is less common directive has NEVER been enforced even the last few months with people fleeing the Arab revolutions were not protected in practice Complementary protection 2004 grants protection for those that don t meet Geneva standards but are still in need of international protection Protection from serious harm death penalty torture threats to civilian life due to military threats The past few years this was used for Iraq Afghanistan and Somalia When asylum seekers file an asylum application it is the sovereign that decides to grant it or not Asylum can be denied if you were deemed to be in a safe part of the country You can be also be denied if you move to a secure state they just tell you to stay there or can even be returned to the state of origin Although the country denying asylum cannot send a person back to their country where they will receive unsafe benefits 0 Issue of burden sharing between EU countries Coun tries such as southern Europe get many more migrants due to their location Such as Italy Greece and Malta European countries wanted to relieve burden of a large influx of migrants So they created a burden sharing process 0 O Asylum shopping WS o elgium was convicted of violation of human rights for sending someone somewhere they weren t supposed to I Conditions of reception Europe has introduced minimum standards for conditions Once you file for asylum you have ccertain rights minimum standards such as food and a place to sleep Reception centers where asylum seekers receive these rights and legal advice There are not sufficient amounts of reception centers people end up in the streets Even though they have a rights and the countries are bound by European law to provide this some don t or cant I Most important problem for asylum seekers October 31 2011 o Asylum O O O O O O O Spontaneous arrivals in Europe have been on the rise since the early 1970s this is linked to the internal conflicts and human rights abuses in Africa Asia latin America and the Middle East I Asylum is an old problem It began to come in mass in the 70s This brought about questions about obligations toward these people they could have found an alternative closer to home I What obligations do far away countries have Should it matter if they have a legitimate asylum claim should it matter where they claim it The fall of the Berlin Wall also initiated more asylum claims and over whelmed the system Before it came down people did not have the physical ability to move I This wall coming down opened up the ability to move Germany revoked its unqualified guarantee to asylum and other nations added restrictive measures I Even with good intentions sometimes the system simply cannot handle the mass influx of asylum seekers so they have to put restirctions to limit their responsibility With legal channels closing many sought out smugglers thus reinforcing skepticism I Many asylum seekers begin being smuggled because they are afraid they wont be accepted leading the perception of others to categorize them as illegal immigrants Was the Dover Express quote of llHuman Sewage justified in this environment I Misconceived because migratns who actually migrate are hard working smart etc What are four measures taken to solidify llfortress Europe I Countries sought to adopt nonarrival policies I Diversion policies shifted asylum seekers to other countries and thus the responsibility I Governments opted for a restrictive application of the 51 Convention O O I Deterrent measures were introduced an automatic stint in a detention center and no employment papers Temporary Protection Status after the conflict in Ugoslavia the EU countries tried a temporary protection status which expected those with the status to go home after the conflict was over I In 2001 after the Bolkan genocide the country doesn t have time to process one by one so the country takes them all in mass and allows a temporary solution so they don t have to kick the people back to their countries immediately Basically for armed conflicts and human rights violations I Subsidiary protection 2004 0 Its another way that they don t want to give you permanent status but give you something to protect you 0 Defined as serious harm that can come to you if you get sent back such as torture execution threats of armed conflict It excludes certain parts of the country that are not in conflict saying if you cannot get far away enough from the conflict within your own country then your asylum claim if legit From the 1970s though the 1990s the US permanently resettled more than 2 million refugees more than the rest of the world put together I We took in 2 million immigrants more than the world combined but 13 million were Indochines Vietnam korea combodia etc so because the US was in wars with these countries that s why they allowed them in llYou break it you buy itquot policy The US office for the coordination of Refugee Affais expanded US efforts in the branch considerable policy making in this area El Salvador and Guatemala v Nicaraguan asylum seekers I El Salvador and Guatemala right wing government was supported by the US so the US wanted the people to stay their and live under their rule While in Nicaragua the US was helping overthrow the leftist government and allowed the refugees in since the US didn t like their government Cubans v Haitians I The US has an open door policy toward Cubans 0 Allows them to come in so the Americans can llstick itquot to Castro 0 When lboat people began to come in Cubans were allowed asylum and Haitians were sent back 0 Coast Guard was able to pick up people in International waters and send them back because they had not reached the US border to claim asylum yet 0 Why is interdiction important here November 7 2011 0 Because it decides the role politics plays and shows the power the US government has It s that we so much don t want to do this that US will flex its muscles and not allow it to happen In 1990 the US adopted a TPS for those escaping ongoing conflict and natural disasters In 1996 US barred people with laggravated felonies from asylum thin included minor offences such as shoplifting Canada had led the way on asylum issues introducing lfast track procedures of those most obviously in need if there something obviously bad going on Canada will fast track your asylum New Zealand takes in as many by percentage as Canada but its geography is difficult 0 New Zealand doesn t have the space of Canada or the US Japan gives much money to help but its cultural and bureaucratic barriers prevents petitioners 0 Japan gives the highest percentage of GDP to help but it can be necessarily impossible to get into Japan I but should Japan be allowed to do this I mean by burdening other countries should they HAVE to give more money 0 Livelihoods and Remittances 0 Case studies of 5 areas of IDPs in Darfur and how the conflict affects livelihoods 0 Migration and trade have been a major part of livelihoods in this region for hundreds of years I Fur IDPs Livelihoods before livestock farmers who also raised oranges and mangoes and each family had a male member who worked in Khartoum and send back money After food aid supplies much of the family s income women go to work as domestic servants and food aid is also sold for other needs Firewood needs to be purchased as women are often raped while in collection 0 When the man can no longer provide there becomes an idleness that affects the psychological structure of the community As a caregiver the women can become the sole breadwinner and through the idleness of the man there becomes an issue of the man trading food aid for alcohol To go out to collect firewood puts people in danger because they are O Zayadia Rem itta nces leaving the security within their camp So they have to buy firewood instead of cutting it down Before herders and millet farmers 25 of men migrate to work After closing of the border has restricted any labor migration people are sustained by food aid Prior to the conflict almost 40 of income was through remittances Systems of remittances o Hawala intermediary system based on trust Ultimately give your cash to some stranger to bring your money back to our family 0 Hand carried physically delivering the money yourself preferred method But you could be robbed on the way especially if people know your migration route 0 Banks used by professionals and regular migrants Because they have the paperwork to open the account whereas irregular migrants don t have the paperwork to open an account I There is a big shift in the lives of migrant s livelihoods going from A LOT to do to nothing to do Complete shift in the way the community works How do you recover once you make these significant changes Can you Once this becomes your daily process you are unlikely to change processes again This shifts the power of the community members and is hard to shift the power back We can conceive of remittances as Household income Hard earned transnational family livelihood Macroeconomic flow Potential dirty money Development finance Business opportunity This issue areas is often divided into 2 sectors Crimesecurity Socioeconomic development 0 Intermediaries often facilitate the transfer of money such as couriers specialized money transmitters bus taxi drivers banks post offices mobile phone companies etc O 0 November 92011 0 What would you take China 0 000000 0 Money debit card My vehicle My dog Stats IN 2006 Mexican migrants sent back 20 BILLION and spent 948 million in fees In 2007 developing countries received official remittance of 251 BILLION DOUBLE official aid and 2339ds of direct investment Unrecorded remittances account for much more The cash that goes back across the borders is even higher than the official banking numbers Remittances relate to fee market principles of lself reliance It is also considered a lthird way as communitarian assistance to selfhelp in a way migrants are becoming their own foreign aid Remittances are increasingly being seen as untapped potential to advance the availability of credit to fully benefit communities Policy measures generally fall along 2 lines I Neglect I Heavy handed control where s the money come from Idea is war on terror and how the terrorists gettransfer their money Major development organizations have really begun to explore the value of remittances Identification license social security card birth certificate Phone Clothes My Spanish dictionary Nonperishable foods my files with personal information bank info laptop 0 What would you take to Canada 0 0 Winter clothing blankets November 11 2011 o Borders 0 Steiner o Pecud and Guchteneire 0 Building walls is the oldest method of keeping outsiders out llGood fences make good neighbors 0 Do you agree 0 What did you learn about the Berlin Wall Was a way to keep people in and became a dividing line for ideological border of communism v freedom Strong way of saying keep away from us and our way of life and that they wanted nothing to do with us 0 What are the unintended consequences of walls 0 Shutting people out forcing people in o Alienation of your people from the rest of the world 0 Negatively affects diplomacy 0 Disconnect between families that lived on the other side 0 What is the difficulty with deportation o Unethical 0 Do you do this by force 0 How do you physically force someone that doesn t want to leave what do you physically do to force them back across the border 0 Stat to deport 11 million people you would need 20000 buses I Are the expenses of deporting all of these people worth it 0 And if so how do you find them no ss id etc 0 Legal as well as illegal aliens get deported if so many are barred from coming back 0 How can one get deported The bar is much lower than for citizens I Speeding minor drug use jumping a subway turnstile DUI shoplifting urinating in public etc 0 So what else to do I Discouragement through film 0 Show all the negative aspects of the place to discourage immigrants from migrating there Propaganda to discourage just like don t drink and drive for Americans doesn t work on us so will it work on migrants I Is it a good solution I Proposition 187 in CA strong discouragement 0 Barring illegals from public education nonemergency healthcare and service providers had to report them 0 This was legally overturned I Proposition in AZ requires public officials to check the immigration status of anyone applying for public benefits 0 Such as workers comp I Homeland security program to train local sheriffs they get paid per immigrant they detain Could recapture the same illegal over and over again for more money detain any person suspicious to possibly be immigrants I What about the five men in NC who faced deportation due to fishing wo a license I Employer sanctions ineffective why 0 Employers were able to avoid punishment or were punished too lightly 0 There is a lack of resources and political will to implement sanctions politics are generally business friendly and allow things to go under the radar o Borders used to stop everything now it is mostly people 0 The economic approach I Migrants should be chosen for economic reasons only not family unification useless I Overstimulation of brain drain anybody who has an opportunity should go o The social dimension I How many people would realistically migrate wo borders I What would you abandon your family and home if the borders to Canada and Mexico were lifted November 14 2011 Guest Speaker 0 Somalia Operations 0 Fearless Charities I Started in 2005 talk to everyone I Work exclusively in active war zones failed states Somalia yemen etc I Specialize in system design I Team of 6 people working 11 active cases I Average fearless charities agent 0 29 years o MAPHD I Chris VanDuyne 0 Education 0 Bar bouncerP National Guard 0 Looking to change the world 0 Trip to Somalia started the charity 0 Met tribal leaders arms dealers terrorist all kids 0 Fearless Charities main focus areas are in service delivery and system design mostly in healthcare supplies 0 We recently travelled to Haiti to look at transportation issues 0 0 Transportation department and government is gone No control no government left I Taptap replaced buses No bus stops generally every descent road became a bus stop and this causes massive transportation problems Takes 3 hours to get from north to south of the city I Freakonomics on the guys at the top make the real money Now let s turn to Somalia 0 President was on US terrorist list for 3 years prior to becoming president Piracy becomes a legit means to make money 0 So what happened to Somalia 0 O O O 0 Somalia used to be a well managed state it was orderly and there was a stable dictator led government in charge After he was overthrown in 1991 the world did nothing to help So what would happen if the US government ceased to exist There are multiple routes that people follow to get out of Somalia The most common route out of the south is the travel across the plain to Dadaab refugee camp in Northern Kenya Of course there is a lot of internal migration and displacement largely following the grazing land that is shown here the major transportation routes in the country follow these grazing routes as well as the rivers that supply water to the region I They take arms money family id if they have it I 2 major encampments that will take people from anywhere And one in Kenya that will take anyone Economic migration people that leave Somalia by boat to go to Saudi Arabia to work in the oil field Many die walking through the dessert trying to find a local city Where is the first place you go in a disaster Hunger I Some of the most urgent problems with food security are appearing where the most obvious problems would occur Somalia generally ecperiences 2 rainy seasons a year one major and noe minor The major rainy season provided basically no rain So Somalis is really the KING of human migration studies we ve covered I Due to ethnicity famine war economics chain migration internal displacement November 21 2011 His security forces terrorists Hires the less radical terrorists to protect him others pay bribes to get through Migration and Security Koser Labeling anything a security threat come with certain implications in terms of laws 0 O O norms policies and procedures Each of these labels has different meanings could be prevention bombings violence airports etc Preconceived notions that sort of change the way security is viewed and dealt with Looked at in a sort of terrorist sense when it could be having an alarm in your home or a guard dog It justifies greater surveillance detention deportation and other restrictive policies Thinking in terms of worse case scenarios rather than someone stealing your wallet Tends to get blown out of proportion and therefore it seems to try to justify detention centers tapping phones that immigrants could be suicide bombers etc s migration a security concern Unibomber Oklahoma City bomber etc Many American citizens have done things far worse than migrants the 911 planes were in America legally Most migrants that scramble through the border to try and get a landscaping jobs probably don t have the resources to be a terrorist There is little evidence that migration populations have any greater concentration of terrorists or criminals than the regular population This attitude only creates animosity This diverts attention from the dangerous circumstances which cause migration 0 Building a fence on the border doesn t deal with the bigger problem of drug running Mexican governance problems etc Security is not only defined by movements that can bring potential danger but by the social and economic welfare of it citizens as well Early American exclusionary acts had specifically to do with race not security same as with Australia this included quotas trying to engineer the proportions of race in US How are ethnic neighborhoods rationalized into security concerns 0 Them v us Culture differences are they talking about us in their language Conspiring Lack of transparency creating a barrier that pits us against them November 28 2011 0 Final essays are comprehensive and short answers are since the midterm Blue book 0 Diasporas some connection with the homeland doesn t necessarily have to have a political influence in the new area but often they do 0 Diaspora it is an umbrella term for temporary or permanent migrants in two or more locations whose orientation is toward a homeland and maintains a group boundary over time Like Cubans living in Florida still consider themselves Cubans I They are often active in their new communities and with each other they remain connected to the homeland even though they are associated with the new place they are in o Diaspora Engagement the bottom up grass roots translocal activities of migratns and their associations 0 What is an HTA Hometown association allows migrants from the same cityregion to maintain ties to and materially support their places of origin 0 At the national level their organization can alter politics and demand a formal status I They are a voting bloc they stick up for certain issues and vote accordingly 0 Examples I Cubans in Miami one of the top two diasporas in America 0 Came over because it was a quick trip welcomed the Cubans due to hatred for Castro I Indians in Great Britain 0 British had a huge stack in India and were fully organized there A lot of Indians then moved to Britain I Muslims in Dearborn MI 0 THE diaspora of Muslims in America Large communities where you can see the impact that these people have on their new area I Chinatowns 0 They are all over the country I Can you think of others 0 Little India in Singapore 0 Somalia s in Maryland 0 LSU alumni gathering in other states micro Diaspora 0 Political Implications I States that cannot enforce taxation will woo remittance senders and channel their contributions into the public coffers Haiti doesn t have stable systems for taxing their current public so they strive for remittances from their migrants in order to have an income I Some states coopt well positioned Diasporas as lobbyists or ambassadors to speak for their country I Regional cooperation has been formalized by the EC and AU I There are sometimes conflicts between residents and nonresidents many keep their voting rights in their homes The ones that still reside their don t want people voting there because they feel like they may have lost touch with what has been going on there I Why should those who chose to leave still get a say in the governance of a territory Migration and Development Diaspora communities can assist in development through remittances Or supplies loans etc This way those who have left can assist the economic development of that place which may halt corruption in government I It s a form of soft diplomacy It s a way the new country having influence on the old country such as ifa Cuban sends stuff home to Cuba which may help the American brand I Diaspora communities can be seen as stakeholders in a political constituency They can in a sense be a lobbyist for their former nation thus changing policy in the new land with relations of the former land Israel I They are also a resource to their home country Connections can be a resource for people to ascertain in difficult times such as leaving during wartime to go to some relatives home to escape November 30 2011 0 Short answer and 2 comprehensive essays Settlement and Resettlement httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvg2VD0ljkBMampfeaturefeedu A struggle for al araquib Land rights in this case go back to colonial law Then most Bedouin fled or were expelled when Israel was established the rest were relocated to the Northern Negev desert O O o The Israeli government nationalized much of what was the Bedouin land and thus Jewish settlers have slowly moved onto what was previously Bedouin territory El Evangelical groups sending money to fix the forests and land in order for Jesus to come back for the apocalypse or whatever The political connection is for the Christians to not get upset for the sensitive subject of Israel 0 The government wants the Bedouin to move into several townships and push then to do so by preventing basic services and demolishing their homes El They are agricultural people and have no skills to move into the rural area and actually compete with others Any place they move to is destined to become a slum they don t have any education in order to survive this move 0 The Bedouin are internally displaced persons and their traditional villages are considered illegal El Because they haven t moved over international borders the international community cannot legitimately help them as refugees even though they are being prosecuted o This community has no international legal recourse for their treatment Final 7 short answers pick 5 from the midterm forward Essay class material and one normative make case On Detention center tornado relocation European vs American asylum Tornado Disasterinduced migration 0 Generate large and small scale migration from the affected area 0 Some move back home while some stay in the new location 0 2004 destroyed businesses crops houses livestock and trees 0 Tangible and intangible effects and primary and secondary categories 0 Outmigration would be secondary indirect and intangible I Trade disruption reduce spending power increased vulnerability of survivors 0 Crop damage is a primary effect and food shortage a secondary I Physical damage restoration cost death poor health 0 Nowhere to work live or means to feed yourself 0 Rural people affected usually move to rural areas with no skills to truly compete for jobs 0 Many times disaster aid doesn t not reach and benefit the victims especially the most vulnerable and most damaged Often not enough aid o In this study the victims mostly thought that there was enough and good enough aid 0 Often drought erosion and flash flood victims receive little attention and aid as they are viewed differently than large disasters 0 Less people begin to migrate when they receive proper aid 0 Personal attachment to the area often persuades the affected people to move back home Development induced displacement 0 China role of state in displacement o Coercive displacement for development 0 Political persecution resulting in controlled displacement 0 Massive labour dislocations 0 Disaster induced displacement 0 China resettled an average of 800000 per year for 40 years against some ppls will 0 3 gorges resettlement 12 million involuntary 0 Force them and then call it incoluntary o Submerges 1600 enterprises factory towns leaving slack to urban employers that can fail 0 Urban those resettled are mostly in poverty after resettlement unemployment high only 13 of resettlers get their prvs life back within 30 years 0 Rural given bad land at high elevations on eroding slopes 0 Compensation was budgeted at 40 million while estimates were up to 195 million 0 Natural resource extraction industrial parks and infrastructure projects highwaysm bridges dams o Hurts host population as well 0 No tracking of DIDR world bank estimates 10 million displaced per year due to DIDR 0 Not common in industrialized countries in Europe and north America today 0 Indigenous women and other groups cultural alienation dispossession of land and resources lack of consultation insuffient living standards human rights abuses and lower living standards 0 Children often have to be drafted to labor market sooner halting their education and slowing the overall growth of the region 0 Need a more socially and environmentally and transparent decision making process Stricter regulations on the dam projects resettlement policies protecting the rights of displaces Binding policy has been slim o Risks are 0 O O O O O O O Landlessness buy food not grow it un self sustaining lose home feeling and identity Joblessness short term work and underemployment Shifts who in family works disrupting education of kids Homelessnessloss of familiar and security personal space community Resettlement provides lower standards Marginalization indigenous pushed aside by majority lose tangible and intangible hurts economically and culturally changes who you are Increased mortality stress psychological trauma not enough anything unsafe water bad sewage bad food bad for kids and elderly Food insecurity poor nourishment becomes main concern Loss of access to property and services common lands grazing land communal water burial ground loss of public services and safety net Social disarticulation huge disruption in community loss of culture personal level of marginalization 0 Everyone has different values and thus hard to realize what was lost to one person and how much they valued that Detention center 0 While being processed in new country 0 J walking or other simple offenses could stop your citizenship 0 States can prohibit movement of refugees in interest of national security 0 Denied refugee should be allowed reasonable time to seek status into another country 0 Human rights treaties say no one should be arbitrarily arrested illegal and unjust o Refugees have good reasons to enter illegally o ECHRlF says one may be detained in case they are liable to be removed lack of liberty of movement here 0 Many asylum seekers are quotillegalquot entrants but how else do they get in go straight to the INS or get food shelter etc first 0 Does however keep them in one place seems like a good plan to appease the citizens o 19 case approval 0 6 no show to hearings 0 Christmas island 0 Removes them from Australia to other countries messes up entire process 0 400 capacity 1116 ppl there 0 Not functional bc overcrowding and poor conditions for extended and arbitrary amount of time Need to stream line the process otherwise you are harming the basic rights of humans They are not criminalspersay and thus should not be treated like them deserve as humans basic and adequate necessities of food shelter clothing medical etc SPEAKERSEU VS AM ERICA 0 EU 0 National laws AND EU laws 0 Establishment of EU was economic but also established freedom to move around Abolishment of internal borders made external borders more important 0 Fortress Europe makes it hard to get in 0 1990s temporary protection directive to deal with large fluxes of emigrants Any person wo safety is a refugee Grants temp rights but is not common andnot enforced Even arab springs ppl fleeing recently weren t covered 0 Complementary protection2004 protects those out of Geneva standard serious harm death execution penalty torture military threats etc Iraq afghan Somalia 0 Can be denied if your area of the bad country was quotsafe or if you were in another country first South eu gets more refugees due to location burden sharing 0 Has reception centers food shelter but some don t have resources to provide all this 0 KAREN HOOK AMERICAN ASYLUM Really helped those from communist countries only in the 50s in 80s began to change with carter trains asylum officers for 7 weeks to stop terrorists from entering CubansHaitians floating ca rs Patriot act makes more difficult fingerprints name check criminal background check through Interpol in asylum seeking process Officers screen and judge makes final decision no fee to apply couple months waiting for interview no translator or atty provided by US Cant come thru Canada bc that is asylum llshopping n interview they address issues of prvs country After interview they get final decision in 2 weeks No monetary benefits while waiting no permission to work totally on their own Then if not approved they turn over to INS Fradu unit bigger after 911 Mostly Chinese ppl fleeing bc of 1 child rule and forced abortion or religious reasons 30000 to get out of china Lured to work in brothels excluded from regular communites takes 310 years to pay debt and if they don t their family in china will be killed Survival migration Purpose to provide international protection of states that cant or don t Often seen as voluntary and economic migrants but this is not the case as most of them are in political situation that cant provide decent rights Existential threat with noaccess to a domestic remedy or resolution Often refugees get basic security but little liberty but excludes subsistence Should be viewed as persecution since it s the government that is hindering your ability The understanding of survival migration is important bc new drivers behind reasons for migrating aren t addressed by current international refugee protection laws They have rights under the law but there is no valuable system to ensure their rights leaving dire consequences for the refugees Too broad and lack of application by receiving states Environmental migration No internationally recognized definition of EM Environmentaclimate refugeedisplace Gilgameshtorahbible all examples of this Flooding tsunami earthquakes landslides volcano eruption tornadoes hurricanes pollution nuclear disaster climate change etc Manmade and natural some can go back some are forever devastated Temporary or permanent 2 competing views 0 Environmentalists see it as wholly devastating and cant ever go back and want pplproteted in broad range since it is a broad topic 0 Migrationiss see it as no connection from climate to migration see it as affecting agriculture and that affecting the migration patterns Not a refugee bc not persecuted and thus a migrant and thus no real migration protection out there 0 So human rights protection makes more sense but this doesn t mean the govt HAS to provide anything Meaningless o In theory have right to a nationality but don t see it in practice Disaster and humanitarian help is only temporary Need a human rights covenant and a way to actually enforce it Resettlement o Govt sometimes use resettlement instead of aid Resettlement is for longer term issues when citizens cant sustain themselves 0 If govt is going to force you to move they need ot be positive that they will be able to provide you with at the least comparable situations Refugees o UNHCR origins 0 After WW2 20 million refugees in Europe 1951 convention based on hitlers actions to allow people leaving persecution from race religion nationality political affiliation etc to leave WIDE range of problems to solve here 0 Non refoulment cant expel a refugee back to country of persecution o 1967 added overall reach especially communist regimes o Refugees are entitled to 0 Free movement identity papers reasonable fees transfer of assets 0 Must present ones self without delay and show good cause what is without delay and good casue Very inspecific o 1969 Africa adds about rights to safety 0 US wouldn t do this bc it allows so many in it would overwhelm the system Livlihoods and remittances In 2006 mexicanmigratns sent back 20 BILLION and spend 948 mill in fees 2007 remittance saccounted for 251 billion in aid double official foreign aid 0 Doesn t include unrecorded remittances This reduces aid to foreign countries Zayadia herders and farmers 25 migrate to work then borders close trust remittances or travel to bring it back as illegal immigrants cant get bank accts to send money home 0 Big shift in structure of familycommunity life and the psychological effects on the people and women rising as head of household Accounts for hshld income transnational family livelihood macroeconomic flow dirty money devlpment finance business opportunity Borders Shuts ppl out alienation from the world bad diplomacy disconnect bw family on other side 0 11 million illegals would mean 20000 buses to get them out What is the financial cost to find them and make them leave 0 Speeding minor drug use DWI urinating in public can all lead to getting migratns deported AZ requiring all social programs to check for citizenship statues of receivers Paid to send illegals back leads to corruption Brain drain but if you want to leave for opportunity there is nothing wrong with that Borders ceasing to exist wouldn t make people migrate I would leave and those that are pporcant leave anyway Somalia speaker Haiti no govt or control left Taptap replaced buses Massive traffic problems President of Somalia was on terrorist list for 3 years world did nothing to help after dictator was ousted King of migration studies due to ethnicity war economics chain migration internal displacement Hires radical terrorists he trust to protect him while there Migration and security By naming security it is seen as a greater threat through surveillance detention deportation and other restrictive policies Thinking in worst case scenario often blowing things out of proportion and thus justifying detention centers tapping phones migratns being suicide bombers etc Many security threats here were by American citizens unibomber school shootings murderers The migrants from 911 were here legally most migrant sthat scramble across the border aren t going to be terrorists terrorists have money and can get here legally Building a fence doesn t fix drug running problems nor stops people from getting in o Often this is about xenophobia and the current people that americans have something against Jews Mexicans muslims etc Diasporas 0 Connection with homeland not really political but sometimes is o Describes migratns with an orientation towards their homeland like Cubans in Miami 0 Diaspora engagement bottom up grass roots local activities of migrants and their associations that try to improve their homeland 0 At national level they can alter politics and demand formal status A voting block that sticks for certain issues 0 Chinatowns little india in signapore lsu alumni gathering in florida 0 States will woo remittances from their ppl that have left when they don t have enough tax money Some hire lobbyists to speak for their country in another land 0 Dispute over voting rights in homeland when they are not even living there 0 Can assist econ devlpmt in homeland thru remittanceloans etc Settlement and resettlement Bedouin forced to leave and relocate away from home but they refuse to go so Israel simply destroys their belongings and homes and they start over again and again Evangelicals send money to plant trees for the return of jesus Bedouin ppl are agricultural and have no skills survive in rural areas destined to become a slum bc they wont be able to make it with no education in order to survive in modernized worlds Internally displaced and are considered illegal but bc they haven t moved across national borders the international community cannot legally help them as refugees even tho they are being persecuted


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