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by: Angie Gulgowski


Angie Gulgowski
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This 26 page Class Notes was uploaded by Angie Gulgowski on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLI 2030 at Louisiana State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/222776/poli-2030-louisiana-state-university in Political Science at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
Egyptian Revolution Egypt is one of the most populated countries in the world It is bordered by Sudan in the south Libya in the west Israel and the Gaza Strip in the northeast Red Sea in the east and the Mediterranean Sea in the north In 1882 British troops took control of Egypt and in 1914 officially became a British protectorate One of Britain s primary interests in Egypt was control of the Suez Canal In 1919 as in 20102011 civil unrest was widespread around the world including Egypt In Egypt protests focused on British decision to exile a nationalist leader after his party AIWafd gained a majority of seats in the local legislature In 1922 Egypt gained its independence but British troops were still in the nation in part because of the control of the Suez Canal Fa ad I became king of Egypt Although Egypt was technically a constitutionally monarchy King Fa39adruled autocratically by dismissing the Egyptian Parliament and dismissed his cabinet at royal will The Muslim Brotherhood In 1928 the Muslim Brotherhoodwas founded by Hasan al Banna AIBanna lamented what he saw as the decline of Islam the loss of the idea of Islamic political identity He wanted an Islamic region perhaps even an empire that was governed by Islamic law The Muslim Brotherhoodstarted as a youth club of likeminded young men The notion of a caliphateis central here A caliphateis an institution that is governed by or governed based on Islamic law Different rulers or leaders have used the title caliphthroughout history therefore identifying themselves as anthe Islamic leader in a country or region Those rulers or caliphs are known as llcommanders of the believers Suni Islam says that the caliph the head of the Islamic state should be elected by Muslims or their representatives Shite Muslims believe that the caliph should be an imam chosen by God from among Muhammad s descendants During the late 1800s and early 1900s before Egyptian independence the caliph was claimed by the Ottoman dynasty After Turkey became independent in the early 1920s the caliph was officially abolished and the Republic of Turkey was founded thus embracing more of a secular government that was not founded by Islamic law This development really evolved in Turkey but alBanna claimed the nonMuslim rest for this In general he had great antipathy towards Western modernity He believed there was a need for moral reform in the Arab world He advocated a return to ancient and additional Islamic values He also believed that Western modernity was corrupting Islam Modernity In modernity people are seen as having basic human natural rights that people have by virtue of being human The right to free speech against torture against confession to privacy to housing food own weapons are examples of modernity In modern philosophy there is a lot of emphasis on individualism and autonomy Much of modern political thought sees people as having the right and ability to make their own decisions Adam Smith is often named as an example of a modern thinker because of his emphasis on the individual making autonomous decisions in the economic free market Because of this emphasis that philosophers have on inquiry autonomy and individualism modernityis often associated with capitalism and science The philosopher Emmanuel Kant described modernity as llthe freedom to use one s own intelligence He wrote the quote llEnlightenment means man s emergence from his self imposed immaturity Kant argued that llnothing is required for this enlightenment except freedom That is why modernityis so tied to both democracy to the opposition of religious orthodoxy and to the opposition of governmentbased religion The challenge in North Africa and in the Middle East is that opposition leaders and dissenters in the previous autocratic regimes that are those who both opposed dictators in the region sometimes support both democracy and a governmentbased Islamic law Even though Egypt was technically an independent monarchy it was still very much under the political economy influence of the British British troops still controlled the Suez Canal and the Muslim Brotherhoodgrew in opposition to that British influence Because of its growing strength it was disbanded by Egyptian Prime Minister alNukrashi was later assassinated in 1948 shortly after abolishing them HasanAlBanna himself was assassinated a year later The Muslim Brotherhoodparticipated in the 1952 election overthrowing the monarchy but it was banned soon after when it opposed the secular government of President Gamal Abdel Nasser During the 19705 the Brotherhood disavowed violence and emphasized their political way which came to be known as the Freedom and Justice Party In 2005 they were able to win eightyeight seats or roughly 20 of the seats in the Egyptian Parliament despite being required to run as Independents since the party itself was banned and despite widespread cultural irregularities designed to favor President Mubarak s supported candidates The Muslim Brotherhoodwas legalized after the 2011 revolution and the fall of President Hosni Mubarak PresidentMohamed Morsi currently the president of Egypt is a member of the Freedom and Justice Party the political party of the Muslim Brotherhood AlBanna Manifesto The degree to which Hasan alBannaor the Brotherhood itself as it has evolved harbors a hidden lslamist violent Jihadist agenda is debated AlBanna s own words suggest that his aims were ambitious quotlslam does not recognize geographical boundaries nor does it acknowledge racial and blood differences considering all Muslims as on UmmaThe Muslim Brethren consider this unity as hold and believe in this union striving for the joint action of all Muslims and the strengthening of the brotherhood of Islam declaring that every inch of the land inhabited by Muslims is their fatherland They believe that the caliphate is a symbol of Islamic Union and an indication of the bonds between the nations of Islam They see the caliphate and its reestablishment as a top priority subsequently an association of Muslim people should be set up which would elect the lman quotWe will not stop at this point ie quotfreeing Egypt from secularism and modernityquot but will pursue this evil force to its own lands invade its Western heartland and struggle to overcome it until all the world shouts by the name of the Prophet and the teachings of Islam spread throughout the world Only then will Muslims achieve their fundamental goaland all religion will be exclusively for Allah AlBanna s quotManifestoquot for the Muslim Brotherhood included explicit and strong support for the Armed Forces One of the political goals listed in the quotManifestoquot was quotreinforcing the armed forces and increasing the number of youth groups igniting in them the spirit of Islamic jihad He also noted that one slogan is quotstrength is the surest way to guarantee the enforcement of justicequot On the other hand his Manifesto also included the following quotthe lslam which has sanctified the use of force has also preferred peacequot quoting Allah as saying quotand if they incline to peace then incline thou to it and trust in Allahquot And even in war fairly standard rules of war for that time were expressed quotCommit no treachery do not exceed the bound do not mutilate do not kill women children and the aged do not cut down fruitbearing trees and do not finish off the woundedquot quotBe like trees among the people They strike you with stones and you shower them with blessingsquot He condemned the 1948 assassination of Prime Minister alNukrashi disassociating from it and despised some aspects of contemporary political life such as political parties One of the goals expressed in the Manifesto was quotan end to party rivalry and directing political forces of the nation into a united front One of the reasons why the Muslim Brotherhood is popular is not because of its political activity but the support of a wide array of education health and social welfare programs with significant consequences for a wide range in population For members of the movement social services are a natural extension of Islamic beliefs llIt s not aidquot said a leading brotherhood member llWe run social assistance programs because the Islamic way of life requires itquot In a New York Times story in 2007 a journalist observed that llwhile many secular critics fear that the brotherhood harbors a hidden Islamic agenda so far the organization has posed a democratic political challenge to the Mubarak regime not a theological one Indeed current opposition to President Mohamed Morsi focuses on his perceived ambivalence towards democratic practice and his alleged abuses of human rights not on his Islamist perspective Many Islamists see the Muslim Brotherhood as too powerful and too insular closed off from other groups Al Banna s brother was quoted in 2012 as saying llThere is a very big difference between the Muslim Brotherhood of the 1940s the time of Hasan alBanna and now Hasan had aspirations but they were not political He described Islam as a way of lifequot FaroukI The Last King of Egypt In 1936 Prince Farouksucceeded his father King Fa adand became the second king of an independent Egypt King Faroukis not restrained in his lifestyle He had lots of land dozens of glamorous palaces and hundreds of cars He and his family traveled to Europe frequently to engage in grand shopping sprees For example he acquires the Star of East diamond from Harry Winston but a year later he advocated and still didn t pay for it King Farouk also became known for his support for Germany in World War II Like many Egyptian citizens he resented the continued British control of the Suez Canal He formally supported the allies in World War II only in 1945 after fighting had actually ceased in Egypt and after heavy pressure from the British The late 1940s were momentous years in the Middle East In 1948 Israel becomes a state In 1949 in Egypt the Free Officer s Movement is formed which gives the military a base of political social and economic power a power they yield to this day This military power is generally distinct from and often opposed to a Salafist perspective a pro Islamist state and to the Muslim Brotherhood The military tends to be a secular institution in Egypt although it s certainly not a democratic institution That same year Hasan alBanna is assassinated In 1952 civil unrest breaks out including antiBritish riots in Chiro In July 1952 Nasser and other military officials lead a coup against the king This becomes known in Egypt as the July 23 Revolution King Farouk is forced to advocate extensively in favor of his son who s a child but in reality the military clearly have control of Egypt Suez Canal Crisis Muhammad Najib former general becomes president and in 1953 declares that Egypt is a republic Nasser and Najib had many disagreements Najib wanted to shift the government away from a military government to a civilian government He was more concerned about following public opinion and responding to public opinion His focus was on developing a democracy Nasser on the other hand believed that any talk of democracy a multiparty system or the withdrawal of the army from politics would open the door to the Muslim Brotherhood AlWafd or any of the other opposition parties to regain power In 1954 Gamal Abdel Nasser became Prime Minister and in 1956 he essentially pushed Najib out and British forces began their true withdrawal from Egypt He later nationalized the Suez Canalin order to fund the Aswan High Damafter the United States removes funding for the dam because of Egypt s increasingly close ties with the Soviet Union This was during the Cold War The canal itself was usually closed anyway but President Nasser blocked ships from the Strait of Tiranin response if Britain orIsrael invaded A cease fire is finally called several months later This was called the Suez CanalCrisis sometimes also called the Second ArabIsraeli War The First ArabIsraeli War was immediately following the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948 At this point the United Nations began to police the EgyptianIsraeli border to prevent hostilities Six Day War In 1967 tensions flare again when President Nasserof Egypt blockades the Strait ofTiran That becomes the spark for what is known as the Six Day Warwon decisively by Israel As a consequence of the Six Day War Israel took control of the Sinai Peninsula the Golan Heights the Gaza Strip East Jerusalem and the West Bank Nasserresigned after the war but resented the resignation after thousands crowded the streets in protest At that point various members of the army were held accountable for the loss to Israel Nasser really wanted a panArab region He wanted individuals to identify not primarily with their nation but rather with an Arab identity that spans country borders He established the United Arab Republic with Assyria incorporated Jordan into a defense pact and established very strong relations with Yemen Lebanon and other Arab nations His vision of the region was panArabism There were many challenges to that vision of a broader Arab identity and coalition or even confederation First many Egyptians consider themselves distinct ethnically from Arabs Second the Six Day Warsignificantly reduced Egyptian enthusiasm for a panArab perspective Thousands of Egyptians had died in the war and the issue of the Suez Canal and the loss of territory affected Egyptians much more than those in other Arab nations In 1970 President Nasserdied and Anwar aISadat became president Yom Kippur War President alSadatpresided over the strengthening of ties between Egypt and the Soviet Union and the ratification of a new constitution which identified the country as the Arab Republic of Egypt and the conclusion of the Aswan High Damthat had an enormous impact on the Egyptian economy In 1973 Egypt and Syria went to war with Israel in October during the Yom Kippur holiday in an attempt to gain back the land that was lost during the Six Day Warin 1967 It became known as the Yom Kippur War After early Egyptian success the Israelis began to push back effectively A cease fire was eventually declared and for Egypt the war was something of a vindication after the rout they had suffered during the Six Day War Because of the war alSadat also became convinced that peace was the only solution and he began to strengthen relations with the United States and weaken relations with the Soviet Union In 1975 the Suez Canalwas reopened It had been blockaded by the Egyptians since the Six Day War A year later President alSadatended the alliance with the Soviet Union Years of negotiation finally resulted in 1978 in the Camp David accords In the following year Israel finally recognized Egypt as an Arab nation The leaders of other ArabMiddle Eastern nations were horrified that Egypt was negotiating with Israel Egypt was expelled from the Arab League after signing the treaty with Israel The Mubarak Era In 1981 PresidentalSadatwas assassinated Hosni Mubaraktook his place as President of Egypt Mubarak who was the Vice President had his differences with the President AlSadat was much more in favor of strengthening ties with the United States and Europe but Mubarak favored a much slower approach He was quotelectedquot for a second term in 1987 a third term in 1993 a fourth term in 1999 and a fifth term in 2005 The reasons for his electoral success were clear no one could run against the President because the People s Assembly played the main role in each election Mubarak amended the constitution in 2005 to allow multicandidate Presidential elections in September of that year however the electoral institutions and security apparatus were clearly under the control of the President Newspapers and state television expressed identical proMubarak viewpoints AyamNour a dissident and a candidate for the opposition of President Mubarak contested the results He was restricted of his Parliamentary immunity and arrested on January 29 2005 He was convicted of forgery and sentenced to 5 years of hard labor in December 2005 The State Department of the United States issued a statement quotThe United States is deeply troubled by the conviction today of Egyptian politician AyamNour by an Egyptian court The conviction of Mr Nour the runner up in Egypt s 2005 Presidential elections calls into question Egypt s commitment to democracy freedom and the rule of law We re also disturbed by reports that Mr Nour is health has seriously declined due to the hunger strike on which he has embarked in protest of the conditions of his trial and detention The United States calls upon the Egyptian government to act under the laws of Egypt in the spirit of its professed desire for increased political openness and dialogue within Egyptian society and out of humanitarian concern to release Mr Nour from detention President Mubarak versus the Muslim Brotherhood Since the July 23 1952 Revolution the government of Egypt had been based on the military Three of the four presidents of Egypt were in the military They were founding members of the Free Officer s Movement that was at the forefront of the Revolution President Mubarak was less tied to the military than the three previous presidents but he nonetheless relied upon the military to govern In recent years discontent with Mubarak grew In 2005 clashes after Parliamentary elections with the supporters of the Muslim Brotherhood versus Mubarak s party the National Democratic Party The Muslim Brotherhood won a record 20 88 total seats the seats in Parliament By several accounts they were relatively sawy about their approach because they don t want to risk having government react too strongly to their success they actually scale back their electoral ambitions and win fewer seats then they possible could They also choose to run candidates some journalists have reported in only a small number of the seats that they could have contested PresidentMubarak continued to promise democraticreform but in response in particular to the Muslim Brotherhood s strong showing in the 2005 Parliamentary elections he began to crack down on opposition There were numerous reported human rights abuses and many reports about suppression of free speech and political dissent In 2007 and 2008 thousands of members of the Muslim Brotherhood are arrested and hundreds are put on trial The Muslim Brotherhood remains a potent force in Egypt but Mubarak s strongarmed approach and control over electoral institutions means that in 2010 the Parliamentary election is conducted in a way that significantly reduces the representation of the Muslim Brotherhood Mubarak s party won their widest victory in years in a way that can only be called fraudulent As the 2009 Wiki cables make clear serious problems remained in Egypt and the power of the military continued to sustain the government The Wiki cables also demonstrate on the part of the United States a confidence that Mubarak s regime or one like the Mubarak regime supported by the military and the Egyptian elite would continue in one way or another At worst the State Department believed the new president whoever that was to be elected in 2011 would have to extend an Olive branch to the Muslim Brotherhood US diplomats did not seriously entertain the possibility that a revolution would take place and a largely democratic election or a very close election would put a member of the Muslim Brotherhood in the Egyptian presidency and give the Freedom and Justice Party strong plurality and a large amount of seats in the Egyptian Parliament Yet with hindsight one could see that the signs were there The people of Egypt were suffering significantly with economic hardship with even basic commodities in scarce supply in some areas Individuals were concerned that Mubarak and his wife were determined that their son would become president but Mubarak showed little interest in leaving He was on record in a November 2006 speech saying that he planned to remain president llas long as I have a heart that beats and a breath in my body The United States State Department observed in a memo that due to the paranoia of the Egyptian dictatorship no other name can safely or respectfully be posed as a contender At the same time there was significant speculation about the aging ruler s state of mind In the time leading up to 2011 concern in Egypt grew about the possibility of Mubarak s son was being groomed for the presidency Virtually no one believed his son s denials in the interests in the presidency The April 6 Youth Movement and President Mubarak s Resignation In 2008 the April 6 Youth Movementis formed in support of a local demonstration for laborers They began to corporate Facebook appeals to mobilize prior democracy and labor activists on a broader scale In late January and early February of 2011 mass demonstrations were called Youth groups in particular the April 6 Youth Movement were a critical force in mobilizing protesters Night after night massive crowds of energetic protesters some from the Muslim Brotherhood secular groups other youth groups other Islamic groups went to Tahrir Square to call for Mubarak s resignation At first President Mubarak refused to leave his position At the end of January he banned Al Jazeera from broadcasting Egypt since they were providing day to day coverage of the demonstrations and the basis for the demonstrations He attempted to shut down Facebook and other Internet sites but as in Tunisia this proved virtually impossible On February 11 Mubarak resigned his presidency He remained in the country but he was eventually put on trial and imprisoned for not stopping the killing of demonstrators during the revolution Factors that Drove the Egyptian Revolution Social media and the activist of some people played a critical role in the Egyptian Revolution In 2008 a number of young people cofounded the April 6 Youth Movement initially to support workers in an industrial town who were planning to strike on April 6 2008 The movement however grew and was eventually credited for operating and maintaining the massive uprisings through blogs Facebook and Twitter The April 6 group was much different from the groups that spurred in the earlier revolutions This group was mostly composed of young professions The activists were aware of the connection to the events in Tunisia but they also saw 39 39 as an 39 39 I 39 39 quot In reality the seeds of both revolutions were really planted in smaller uprisings that occurred in 2008 Where Does Egypt Stand Now Before President Mubarak resigned the military maintained control of the government that they ve always had control of in the past Activists have always had a say and remained concerned about the role of the military especially in 2011 claiming that in the years since the revolution the army has had a hand in massacres trials tortures and disappearances often in the name of supporting democracy Many incidents of repression have been reported For example in 2011 Asmaa Mahfouz another founder of the April 6 Youth Movement was arrested for calling the Egyptian military rulers a llcounsel of dogsquot Her case was referred to military court although charges were later dropped Parliamentary elections were held on November 28 2011 and the Muslim Brotherhood s Freedom and Justice Party was the clear winner holding about a 47 of the seats From the Muslim Brotherhood s perspective this is the outcome of the years they ve spent organizing the local level providing health education and social welfare services and building institutions in support of Islamic law Election of President Morsi In 2012 former President Hosni Mubarak was sentenced to life in prison for failure to halt the slaughtering of demonstrators during the JanuaryFebruary 2011 protests Presidential elections in Egypt were held in June 2012 about a year and four months after the revolution Mohamed Morsi a member of the Muslim Brotherhood was elected in a very close election The runnerup was Ahmed Shafik a Mubarak era minister and a former member of the army The closeness of the election demonstrates both the strong support that the Muslim Brotherhood had as well as the opposition that existed towards them that a Mubarak era minister could gather strong support and almost defeat the Muslim Brotherhood candidate in an election that by most accounts was pretty free fair and fairly democratic is a testament to the polarized nature of the country at this point President Morsi s first year was stormy Activists from secular parties democratic activists and activists from other lslamist parties claimed that the government has suppressed dissent AmmedMareer was arrested on May 10 when he returned on a thirteen day trip to the United States He was charged with insighting protests in connection with a demonstration in March Other April 6 Youth Movement organizers were also arrested in the last year Bassem Youssef a onetime cardiologist has a comedy show that is essentially the Egyptian version of The Daily Show clearly designed to reflect the show Jon Stewart and Youssef have visited each other s show as guest and expressed support for each other s right to engage in political satire a right that both believe is being buttoned in Egypt Youssef has been questioned by prosecutors for blasphemy and insulting the President on his show President Morsi and Parliament passed a Constitutional Declarationin November 2012 which gave him broad powers to restrict political speech An editorin chief of a Salafist newspaper was arrested and faces trial for allegedly publishing a llfalse report that could disturb public peacequot a story that was critical of President Morsi s government As in Tunisia the postRevolutionary government faces suspicion that even if it was democratically elected it sometimes and perhaps often follows in the autocratic steps of its predecessor December 2012 saw the largest and most violent skirmishes between lslamist and their opponents until that point The Salafists are very split over the degree to which they should compromise with secular parties and the degree to which they should support the Muslim Brotherhood which tends to be a powerful entity itself The secular parties oppose all other religious parties who wish to base all of government on Islamic law Civic engagement a communitybased action aimed to improve society and the wellbeing of others which shapes and informs one s political beliefs values and behavior 0 Three components 0 Largely voluntary 0 Designed to influence a larger community 0 An activity or associated with an activity I Per aps a future or potential activity 0 Examples 0 Voting 0 Volunteer work 0 Mission trips 0 Letter to the editor 0 Involvement in schools 0 Campaign activities 0 Political discussions and protests 0 Not all civic engagement groups are entirely voluntary of paid positions 0 There are groups that sometimes goes against the interest of the community ex terrorists 0 Not all activities are obviously done physically or to the knowledge of others as long as it contributes to some form of value to the community 0 Inherently an interdisciplinary topic Notes from YouTube Video quotWhat is Civic Engagementquot 0 Very broad topic 0 Most nonviolent ways of engaging the community volunteering consumer power talking and persuasion etc w Academic dlsclp me a way in which information and knowledge can be organized taught and researched 0 Latin words discipulus student and disciplina teaching 0 Often distinguished by the following o The general topics questions theories and concepts on which scholars in the discipline focus 0 The language that scholars in the discipline use to teach and to communicate research findings 0 Methods that are used within the discipline to uncover knowledge 0 The set ofjournals which publish research in that discipline 0 Relationship of disciplines in social science 0 Economics psychology sociology political science 0 Each have clear boundaries that can exist as an independent discipline 0 Can be related to others D QnesinSociaIS nce Economics the study of how people choose to use resources Topics include money income investment land debt wealth consumer spending government spending consumer saving deficits trade taxes labor production occupationssectors Methods of the field include formal theow game theory econometrics quantitative statistical analysis and qualitative analysis both at the individual level microeconomics and at the aggregate level macroeconomics Journals include Econometrica American Economic Review Journal of Political Economy Journal of Economic Theon Most famous book written in economics The Inquiry in to the Nature and Causes of the Wealth afNatians also known as The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith published in 1776 mith argued that when individuals pursued their selfinterest they indirectly and unintentionally benefited society He wrote It is not from the benevolence of the butcher the brewer or the baker that we expect our dinner but from their regard to their own interest We address ourselves not to their humanity but to their selflove and never talk to them or our own necessities but of their advantages Meaning that people don39t often do things that benefit others but themselves Individuals are often assumed by economist particularly neoclassical economists to be rational The research of economics often assumes that when making decisions individuals are driven by selfinterest 0 Based on the idea that individuals are rational actors Gather information often assume to have perfect or full information I Calculate cost and benefits I Pursue the outcome that is most beneficial Economics has diverged from the neoclassical focus Researchers examine how t e ree market works and conditions under which regulations orfirms might be better suited to decision making Study altruism trust cooperation and even emotion Researchers in the examples often exclaimed why they entered the field non were based on material selfinterest Economists sometimes are challenged to explain why individuals do something voluntary not out of material selfinterest and would do something for the larger community not just for themselves 0 00 While activities like voting or protest may seem irrational from the strict economicrational actor perspective newer subfields within economics such as behavioral economics draws on psychology attempt to explain why individuals may not always follow what seems to be in their narrowly defined selfinterest Economists are still pretty focused on rational choice 0 Has been criticism or at least increased recognition of the limits of the rational choice approach often by scholars from other disciplines but even sometimes by economists themselves The development of the subfield of behavioral economics recognizes the limits of the rationality assumption 0 Psychology an academic and applied discipline that involves the scientific study and treatment of mental functions and disorders 0 Applied pgcholom clinical psychology where clinical psychologist work with clients 0 Several subfields of the academic field of psychology that may be relevant to the concept of civic engagement 0 Cognitive psychology the study of how the brain processes information calculates expectations reasons learns develops and uses language makes decisions processes and produces emotional reactions and retains recalls and recognizes remembrances I Daniel Kahneman is credited with being one of the founders of economics but he39s a cognitive psychologist 0 Social psychology the study of how humans think about feel about and relate to each other I Social psychologists study the influences of others on one s own behavior thoughts and feelings as well as The formation of beliefs attitudes and stereotypes about others 39 quot 39 of leadership 0 The interaction of both individual and social variables in accounting for behavior thoughts and emotions o Personali concerned with stable patterns of behavior thought and emotion which together make up an individual39s persona ity I Trait theorists attempt to examine personality in terms of a set of individual traits which are thought to influence behavior 0 Psychologists like other social scientists tend to be focused on empirical questions 0 Use Qualitative methods such as case studies and Quantitative method such as econometrics statistical analysis or experiments 0 Use experiments much more often than economists Economists are much more likely to use formal theory or game theory methods 0 quot 39 andquot or Spa c Areas of Psychological Research 0 Emotion a mental state that generally arises without conscious effort and often is accompanied by physiological changes It is a feeling and it has valence some emotions are negative and some are positive 0 Sometimes negative emotions can lead to positive consequences or positive emotions can lead to negative consequences but different emotions can be classified as positive or negative regardless of their consequences 0 Emotions can be distinguished from cognition I Involve feeling and cognition involves thinking I Emotions and beliefs thoughts cognitions are interrelated but distinct 0 Do not have valence 0 Can have a belief that something is negative but that is not the same as saying that the belief itself is negative 0 Examples of emotionEmpathy compassion gratitude forgiveness anger fear joy surprise disgust contempt sadness envy jealousy outrage frustration alienation indignation loyalty trust adoration delight 0 Some psychologists argue that emotions are innate and universal I The same emotions can be recognized regardless of social context Comment c1 BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS The branch of economics that draws 0h psychology to explain human decisionrmaking others They note that babies as young as 12 months can identify emotions and that even congenitally blind individuals have facial expressions that are readily associated by others with a particular emotion The universality studies of the early 1970s provided much evidence that at least some emot Much emphasis in this research is placed on ions are universal and innate Can belmicroex ression or facial expression Humans have both types of facial expressions The existence of microexpressions indicate that humans do not have entire control over their facial expression suggesting again that some emotions are innate and universal Scientists have identified lSEVENemotion Lhat can be recognized based on facial expressions regardless of culture Some psychologists emphasize the universality of emotions The reaction to emotions may differ from person to person and the triggers that produce particular emotions may vary Ho eve some emotions are universally associated with particular Other psychologists known as r facial expressions l emotion across cultures Emotions make sense only in particular contexts Emotions have shared social meanings and an emotional response to a person place event memory or object is guided by social norms or shared expectations l emphasize the variance in I degree and how emotions are then interpreted varied across cultures Other more extreme constructionists argue that the likelihood of a particular emotional response depends entirely on context Still others within both groups acknowledge that several emotional responses are universal but many others depend on context or culture 0 Emotions are sometimes equated with irrationality The idea of being too emotional is often associated with being less than rational From a psychologist39s perspective while emotions can be linked to irrational activity so can cognitions remember Daniel Kahneman39s arguments about how people often were not rational in conditions of uncertainty People make cognitive mistakes in calculations people are not good at estimating probability Both emotions and cognitions can be rational in one s self interest or irrational not in one s self interest 0 Emotions are relevant to motivation commitment risktaking and relationships with People are often encouraged by others to be civically engaged Appeals for engagement often evoke emotions The motivations that people have for getting involved often are related to emotions is universal to some MICRDEXPRESSIDNS Much more fleeting usually only lasting a srnall fraction of a second Comment C3 MACRDEXPRESSIDNS Last from abouta halfsecond to about four seconds and are fairly readlly recognizable by otners no r nr rnnr e y sadness and surp coNs rRucrIoNIs39rs Argue thatmany orall emotions like other conceptssuch as identity are socially constructed Comment cs PHvsloLoGchL EMOTIONAL RESPONSE The physical response ofthe body when feeling ernotlonslsucn as facial express39ons inching etc I The following depends in part of emotions remaining committed to civic engagement willing to take risks and experiencing a sense of solidarity with others who are civically engaged 0 Many emotions may be involved in protest c a oral sho I Research shows that individuals rarely blame nature for events blame people and social and political institutions o If blame can39t be assigned for the event itself it can be assigned for a lack of success in fixing the pro lem I lGrouo 39 is also relevant to protest I There can also be positive emotions associated with the realization that there is an opportunity for change cognitive liberation and there may be an emotional feeling of satisfaction when one works with others on collective goals I People may also feel frustrated or disappointed or disillusioned all feelingsemotions if a group is not as successful as expected 0 Many psychologists believe that humans have an innate capacity for prosocial behavior that is behavior that benefits the community I Tendencies can be counteracted by negative attitudes and values based on genetic predispositions personality past experiences context or culture As well some psychologists suggest that positive emotions can have more positive consequences than negative emotions 0 Barbara Frederickson winner of the Templeton Positive Psychology Prize suggests that positive emotions can help strengthen social bonds and lead to better physical and mental health 0 Linked to resiliency creativity and social integration MORAL dd unexpected event or piece ofi nformati on that 39 n rovokes a sense oroutrage in a person a d motivates involvement GROUP CONSCIOUSNESS when individuais not oniy identify themselves asa but also believe that the gro orne way and generally have an emotional response to that belief thata group is disadvantaged Heur 39cs cognitive shortcuts or rules of thumb or cues usually employed in conditions of uncertainty 0 People do not as a rule gather complete information and calculate out costs and benefits of all possible options and then choose the option that maximizes their expected utility 0 Most scholars believe that humans are boundedlv rationall I They satisfice stop a search for information not when they are sure they have the best option but as soon as they think they might have a good enough option 0 Sometimes heuristics can be very adaptive or help people make good decisions I Can also lead people to inaccurately estimate probabilities o THREEforms of heuristics representativeness availability and adjustment or anchoring I Representativeness I Availability I Ad39ustment or anchoring leads people to start with a baseline probability based on very little or no information and then adjust it upward or downward based on more information 0 Usually the outcome is biased toward the baseline probability Personality traits o Personalim refers to individual differences in pattern or thinking feeling and behaving I Focuses on TWO broad areas others then rely on those decisions 0 Understanding individual differences in particular personality characteristics such as extraversion or conscientiousness 0 Understanding how the various parts of a person come together as a whole 0 A common model of personality in psychology focuses on FIVE ma39or personalig traits that are thought to be the basis of much behavior Openness to experience curious and imaginative Conscientiousness basic sense of dependability reliable organized punctual hardworking perseverant I 39 direction of energy toward the outside world energetic bold talkative outgoing eableness warm kind sympathetic possibly generous and altruistic includes compassion I IEIIai t illi L calm relaxed stable Sociology the scientific study of human society its institutions development and origins Examines how individuals interact with each other how the networks of associated individuals and the overall social structure can help shape individual behavior 0 There is an ongoing debate over the degree to which individuals quot l or to what degree social structures influence human action nd v dually determmethe m w no o In other words even if humans were rational and psychologists would say otherwise their choices may be constrained by social context and institutions 0 Like other social sciences sociologists tend to ask and answer empirical questions although there is something of a normative basis to the field since many sociologists are interested in conducting research which can potentially be applied to social policy and welfare 0 Sociologists may conduct qualitative research or quantitative research such as econometric analyses or experiments 0 Sociological research methods include the following steps 0 Identify a problem 0 Review prior literature on the topic 0 Formulate hypot eses 0 Choose research design or method 0 Collect data and record information 6 O Interpret your results frequentlywith niany otnernienibers ofthe group o Disseminate findings Comment C12 W Where members also have agreat deal ofassoc tions with Research n Soc InE members ofother networks 0 Network a social structure of individuals or organizations which are tied connected to other mam C13 WSW d d I t individual notices and beginsto accentuate 39n 39V39 a 5 0quot organ39za 39f ns L similarities between themselves and peopiein tne o Bonding 39 39 39 39 groups i group o The effects of interaction and interdependency on civic engagement can be examined Comment 314 SOCIAL COMPARISDNJhe 0 Civic engagement has been demonstrated to diffuse across networks and the very individual notices and beginsto accentuate structure of a social network can be determined whether and how 39 thatare not in tne group 0 Social identity theon emphasizes the role of groups In society framework is particularly applicable to gender race ethnicity class etc 0 Social identity formation 39 39 9 quot 39 39 comparison lbutaisoco 0 Group identities can lead to empowerment solidarity prejudice conflict even violence belleve that outcomes for the mdlvld alsm m oup are based on the group s position in society 0 A closely related concept is Eroup a u behavior Comment C15 GROUP CDNSCIDUSNE5 wnen an individual not only identi es himselfor l l I The individual comes to believe that the group overall is facing discrimination or oppression and this provides a foundation for a commitment to work with others in the group collectively to counter oppression o Closely related theories to social identity theory are theories of inequality I elative deprivation theonl I solute deprivation theowl I 39 theo Social movements loosely organized groups of individuals engaging in political and civic activity with the goal of changing society often in challenge to existing authorities One of the most significant contributions that sociology can make to the study of civic engagement is through scholarship on social movements 0 A theory that depicts social movements is the l39esource mobilization theowl Although there is some basis for resource mobilization theory in rational choice there is also a recognition that while social movements may originate among ordinary people they cannot grow unless there is politicalcultural opportunity and resources There is a great deal of emphasis in sociological scholarship therefore on opportunity structures 0 There can be politicalopportunities with political being relatively narrowly defined 0 Examples of the political opportunity structure include Meaningful access points to political institutions How open or closed government is can groups effectively lobby protest use the courts engage in electoral politics Do groups have allies in elitelevel politics that is among government officials decision makers Are the coalitions in elitelevel government government officials fractured or united Does government have the power to repress or suppress protest 0 Cultural or would include Llldl might 39 39 works 0 Suddenly imposed grievances Something that suddenly makes the population feel as if it is being treated unfairly 39 39 of a system s 39sl vulnerabilitv or illegitimacy I Something that is very visible where the government fails to act or acts in an unfair manner 0 Availability of an innovative master frame persuasive understandable effectiv communicated reason for other people to invest in the movement RELATIVE DEPRIVATIDN THEDR lndividualsaremorelikely to resent I I n can TO anotnergroup Comment C17 ABSOLUTE DEPRIVATIDN son 7 individuals are more ikely to resent T group inepuaiity ift ey are pooriy offin an ABSOLUTE sense Comment C18 coMPErmoN THEEer u tney are cornpeting for scarce resources Comment C19 RESOURCE MOBILIZATION THEEer Depicts sociai movements as g s pting to ain resources and ar sgoais igeneraiiy tnegoai to gain rnore power or in uence in cnaiienge to existing power holders or authorities O O O 0 Another factor that shapes social movements is the set of strategies the group adopts 0 Strategies for social movements vary across time and other social movements I Dissidents in 17 h century England did not use suicide bombings although they did occasionally resort to I The women s movement in the US in the early 20 h century relied in part on protests but also worked with state legislators in a statebystate strategy I The civil rights movement of the 1960s relied on protests nonviolence and working through the courts since the legislatures were seen as less sympathetic I Other social movements have used boycotts or become involved in electoral politics 0 Two other factors that may shape social movements time and organization 0 Time I Movements when initiated can be quite different than movements that have progressed for a significant amount of time and quite different than movements that are at the end of their life cycle whether they have succeeded orfailed I They may have different audiences over time I May adopt different strategies I May generate spinoff movements I Goals of a movement may even change and become more broad or more narrow 0 Organization Some movements have access to more or different resources I Some have more or less effective ways to recruit members reach out to new audiences or create new alliances More recently social movement theories emphasized the socially constructed nature of grievances what might be objectionable in one culture is not in anot er I hese theories also raise questions about modern society on the one hand technology is advanced so communication occurs rapidly which could facilitate the growth of social movements However the pace of change the plurality of memberships and the abundance of messages could weaken personal identity and the bonds within networks New social movement theories emphasize constructionism that is social movements are very different from each other and are best understood in their own context I This can generally be contrasted to rational choice theory I Compared to rational choice theory in the newer social movement theories Comment C20 wiktions there39s more focus on wmbolic action and less 39 39 action mt symbollc Olgrlewmes grow solldarlw There39s more allowance for social movements to develop not in response to political Comment c21 INSTRUMENTALACTID and economIc InstItutIons or authorItIes but Within Civil society Amonstargeted ma partmargoa I There is less emphasis on material interest and more on autonomy Sometimes these theories 39 39 l t 39 Ii 0 Women s Rights Movement The Declaration of Sentiments written in 1848 by the Women39s Rights Convention was signed by 68 women and 32 men I It called for not only political equality but equality across dimensions I Frederick Douglass one of the men who signed the Declaration of Sentiments called it a grand movement for attaining the civil social political and religious rights of women I However as the women39s movement continued by the early 1900s the focus became much more narrow on just voting rights I The main suffrage organizations developed a statebystate strategy so that they could cater their arguments for suffrage in a particular state to that state39s political context I Women were allowed to vote in six states Michigan wasn39t one of the states at the time who allowed women to vote 0 Set up tents to encourage the suffrage in their state I Many reasons were presented for women39s suffrage across states 0 Some emphasized more in some states than in others I In states where white individuals were concerned about African American men voting or about immigrants becoming citizens and gaining more political rights suffrage is sometimes argued that giving women the right to vote or some proposed giving white women the right to vote would counterbalance the votes of African Americans and immigrants Kate Gordon who founded the Southern States Women39s Suffrage Convention argued against a national amendment and claimed that within particular states giving the right of the ballot to the educated intelligent white women of the South will eliminate the question of the negro vote in politicsThe South will trust its women and thus placing in their hands the balance of power Gordon goes ahead to predict that the negro as a disturbing element in politics will disappear o Norms informal expectations and rules and enforcement of those expectations and rules within a community 0 A key concept within sociology 0 Can encourage or discourage civic engagement I For instance an informal expectation that individuals will vote may lead to increased turnout I Conversely an expectation that individuals do not challenge authorities will reduce the likelihood of protest Social reproduction theories such as icultural reproduction theo argue schools and other institutions are not structured to encourage individuals to learn become more autonomous or more empowered I Not really institutions that are designed to encourage individuals to take an active role in influencing a society and the political system in which they live I According to the theory these are institutions that are served to reproduce the inequality present in the existing class and social system I Common during the 1960s through the 1980s but less common now PDSTMATERIALISM The transformation of individual values from materialist 39 39 ual physical and economlcvalues to new indivld values of autonomy and seltexotession 0 Comment c23 CULTURAL REPRODUCTION n linguistic economic cultural and political practices I Contemporary sociologists recognize an interplay between social institutions social identity and personal identity that is associated with degrees of inequality as well as capacity for autonomous behavior and agency 0 Social learning theowlwas more prominent in the 1970s sociAL LEARNINGTHEDRVr elp to understand how individuals are socialized how they learn the Dep CtS d V d al5 5 quotMb more aumomoufanfl much more able to in uence the course oftheir life norms expectations opportunities into a political and social system which ndwmarsare bre toream from Whatthey do and influences their approach to civic engagement from watching others I There are three ways in which individuals may experience this i l l n learnin REINFORCMENT LEARNING icarious learnin lndividualsare abletolearn to avoid actionsthat 0 Particular effic n o Social capital the features of social life networks norms and trust that enable participants to act together more efficiently to pursue shared objectives as defined by Robert Putnam a known as experimental learning Comment C26 VICAR ous LEARNING political scientist with a social psychology background lnlllvldualsol sewe Others and learn Wh ch am mightbe advantageous o In short social capital refers to social connections and the attendant norms and trusts c t c271 ommen PARTICULAR EFFICIENT 0 Social psychologists like Putnam tend to link social capital to generalized trust of others ndvduasavod costs meam hg through ma and and of the communityinstitutions overall error 0 Many scholars see social capitalism as linked to cooperative behavior norms of reciprocity and trust and to more value placed on the collective and less on the individualism all of which is thought to strengthen the foundation of democracy 0 Can be analyzed by a rational choice perspective I From a rational perspective cooperative behavior occurs because it is an individual39s selfinterest to cooperate There isn39t a generalized trust of others but individuals might trust particular others in particular situations Democracy govern ment by the people 0 So much of why people care about civic engagement rests on an expectation or assumption that increased civic engagement will lead to a better quality of life and a more effective robust democracy Characteristics of a democratic political system 0 Agenda setting generally in a democracy the mass public can identify issues that are important to them and those issues are addressed by government Marketplace of ideas a free media that will present a diversity of ideas and opinions allowing citizens tojudge which alternatives are most appealing Consent of the governed the people must be able to vote and otherwise express their preferences o O O n candidates policies government structure etc mocracy entails competition of ideas and candidates Representative voting when voting occurs it isn39t necessary that everyone tu rn out to vote but t ose who vote should be representative of the general populati I In other words the outcome should be the same as it would be if everyone voted Ma39ority rule and minority rights 0 Allowance for citizenship those who have responsibilities and obligations ie paying taxes serving in the military serving on jury duty also have rights Civic engagement is considered to be essential for democracy and democracy in turn fosters civic engagement Comment C28 ciTizENsH o In order to discuss both much 39 lquot 39 l O O O O 0 Some would argue that citizenship is about rights and the purpose of government is to protect the natural rights of citizens From this perspective what matters is that citizens are making autonomous decisions about what is best for them as individuals whether or not they participate in a community Scholars who take this view tend not to write on civic engagement because definition of civic engagement tend to focus on the community Those who write on civic engagement tend to take the view that citizens individuals should be communityminded and that it39s a good thing normatively for democracy Multiple views of citizenship I For the ancient Greeks a politos was a member of the polis 0 Had obligations including military service jury duty taxes and possible service in the Assembly Aristotle thought the state was a natural entity people were naturally socialpolitical beings In the modern world we might think of citizenship as a package of rights o In his view citizenship was not passive but it was active it was an actiVIty Gordon Wood professor of History and Pulitzer Prize winning author believed that citizens in a republic must pursue the common good rather than selfish narrow interests Aristotle He who is unable to live in society who has no need because he is sufficient for himself must either be a beast or a god he is no part of a state A social instinct is implanted in all men by nature He also believed that a bad government was one that worked only to further the interests of a narrow segment of society If a citizen was in such a setting then he had to do what was required by the state in order to be a good citizen To be a good man person one would have to work behind the scenes in order to change government forthe better Civic engagement has played a critical role in the political development of the US Alexis de Tocqueville is one of the best known writers of the day travelling from France and recording his impressions of American democracy 0 O O 0 Americans of all ages all stations in life and all types of dispositions are forever forming associations Nothing in my view deserves more attention than the intellectual and moral associations in America He observed that associations what we would call interest groups or community groups played a critical role in American life I Nothing strikes a European traveler in the United States more than the absence of what we would call government or administration There is nothing centralized or hierarchic in the constitution of American administrative power By the early 1800s there was a tremendous amount of associational growth along with religious freedom the fervor of the Second Great Awakening suffrage and political partisanship This is what Tocqueville was so struck by what made the US system in his view unique 0 He was very committed to a vision oil governmenll At the same time he tended to ignore the role of government action For example the US postal service and governmentsubsidized stagecoach companies that in part allowed associations and civic society in general to thrive DECENTRALIZED ENTrAgovernmentwhere voluntary associations of everyday citizenswho p ovided the foundation for the health of the democratic nation GDVERN M Jasmine Revolution TheJasmine Revolutionbegan with protests in Tunisia The Revolution was named after the national flowerMany believed that the Jasmine Revolution was sparked in December 2010 in the city of SidiBouzidby the selfimmolation of a young crude vendor Mohammed Bouazizi26 who had been trained as a computer technician but like many of his llfriends he had been unable to find employment Instead he supported himself his brothers and sisters by selling fruit and vegetables from a stand Bouazizi s stand unlicensed which in Tunisia roughly means that he had not paid his required payments In the morning of December 17 the local police as they had before ordered him to disband and leave But this time the officer apparently slapped him and insulted his father Enraged Bouazizi went to the local governor s office demanding an appointment and threatening to set himself on fire if he wasn t heard When he was turned away he carried out his threat The image was picked up on social media and spread across the population which grew enraged and anger that grew into protests which spread across Tunisia over the next few weeks The selfimmolation was the spark for the Jasmine Revolution but there is much more to the story Tunisia is a relatively young country It achieved independence in 1956 from France under the leadership of HabibBourgibawho became the first Tunisian president The secular nonreligious party constitutionally democratic rally controlled the country in one of the most repressive regimes in the Arab world In November 1987 Bourgiba was removed from office in concerns of his mental health Prime Minister Zine elAbidine Ben Aliassumed the presidency The Election of President Ben Ali Ben Ali went on to rule the country from 19872011 Throughout his rule family members in particular the large extended family of his second wife Leila Trabelsi controlled most of the businesses in Tunisia Some observers expected Ben Ali to retire before the 2009 election but he had the Constitution changed to allow him to run once again for reelection He won 89 of the vote in October 2009 in an election that was widely considered to fraudulent Wikileaks and Tunisia In 2010 Wikileakspublished a number of diplomatic cables from the United States some of which focused on Tunisia One of them read as follows llAccording to Transparency International s annual survey an embassy contact s observations corruption in Tunisia is getting worse Whether it is cash services land property or yes even your boat President Ben Ali s family is rumored to covet and reportedly gets what it wants Beyond the stories of the First Family s shady dealings Tunisians report encountering lowlevel corruption as well in interactions with the police customs and a variety of government ministries The economic impact is clear with Tunisian investors fearing the long arm of the family for going new investments keeping domestic investment rates low and unemployment high These persistent rumors of corruption coupled with rising inflation and continued unemployment have helped to fuel instruction and frustration and have contributed to recent protests in Southwestern Tunisia With those at the top believed to be the worst offenders and likely to remain in power there are no checks on the system Amnesty International reported in 2010 that government regularly infiltrated human rights or other independent groups in order to uncover the silence and that citizens faced criminal sanctions under law for contacting foreign organizations and pursuing objectives that were contrary to Tunisia s lleconomic security Tunisia s press ranked 164 out of 178 countries in an index of press freedom developed by the organization Reporters Without Borders The relatively independent for the National Syndicate of Journalists was disbanded when it refused to endorse the candidacy of Ben Ali in the 2009 Presidential elections A new board was quotelectedquot that quickly endorsed Ben Ali Tunisian Education and the Economy How could have Tunisia have operated so successfully with diplomatic relations with major powers including the United States and in particular France without serious challenges to government authority despite flagrant human rights abuses in some of the most oppressive practices in an oppressive region Part of the answer is that despite of the notable absence of protection of the basic civil liberties Tunisia has been in the past few decades were economically prosperous Tunisia doesn t have the kind of oil reserves that exist in its Middle Eastern neighbors so they promote tourism Europeans come in droves to vacation on the Mediterranean shore where bikinis were not prohibited Tourists also traveled to see Carthage and Roman ruins The economy grew at 5 annually In a 2000 survey of economic prospects conducted by the World Bank across 131 countries Tunisia ranked first among African countries and third among Middle Eastern countries Before 2008 the per capita income of just under 8000 was one of the highest in North Africa and GDP per capita was also relatively high before the Revolution in 2010 Almost 80 of people in Tunisia own their own home Tunisia is the only Arab country to ban polygamy Veils are not required In fact they were banned in schools and government buildings in the early 1980s the ban was revoked in 2011 Occasionally veiled women are still banned from entering schools More than 80 of adult females are literate The contraception rate is high and women make up half the student population onethird of magistrates and onefourth of the diplomatic corps Tunisians seem to accept what was almost an explicit tradeoff They sacrificed a democratic government rights to freedom of expression basic due process rights and the rights of the accused in return for a government that invested in improving socioeconomic status across Tunisians and supported variety of subsidies However in 2008 the global economy slowed and the tradeoff between rights and democracy and economic growth seemed less clear Topnotch schools in Tunisia were graduating thousands of young men and women each year but many of these individuals remained unemployed An estimated 1 out of 4 young adults were unemployed in 2010 Unemployment was growing at higher rates among the welleducated That is the group whom likely had the highest expectations of employment was actually facing more and more hardship Inequality had been rising in the last few years leading up to the Arab Spring Tunisia lacked the natural resources that might have cushioned it from the effect of an economic downturn When the global economy slowed tourism slowed When tourism slowed the economic health of the overall economy of the country dropped Decades before when significant economic downturns occurred welleducated and unemployed Tunisians would immigrate to France or to other European nations However in 2008 European countries began to restrict immigration Since 2009 thousands have fled to Italy to escape the unrest Italy is engaged in a longrunning dispute with other European Union countries about whether these individuals should be able to travel across borders to other parts of Europe France s refusal to admit some of the refugees is a particularly problematic point for Italy since France was a traditionally strong ally of President Ben Ali As mentioned earlier the Wikileaks cables had described a dinner that the US Ambassador Gudec and his wife had had with Ben Ali s daughter Nesrine and her husband El MateriThe cable stated llThe opulence with which Nesrine and El Materi lived and their behavior make clear why they and other members of Ben Ali s family are disliked and even hated by some Tunisians The excesses of the Ben Ali family are growingquot The cable continued llEl Materi had staff everywhere There were at least a dozen people including a butler from Bangladesh and a nanny from South Africa Comment This is extraordinarily rare in Tunisia and very expensivequot The cable went on to say llEl Materi the President s soninlaw has a large tiger Pasha on his land living in a cage He acquired it when it was a few weeks old The tiger consumes four chickens a day Comment The situation reminded the Ambassador of Uday Hussein s lion cage in Bagdadquot The Start of a Revolution An additional problem that contributed to civil unrest in Tunisia was there was a great deal of economic inequality not only across individuals but across regions There were particular economic problems in Gafsa and Redeyef Phosphate was discovered in Gafsa in the late 1800s Gafsa was home to one of the world s largest phosphate mines Before the Revolution Tunisia was the fifth largest exporter of phosphate in the world Phosphate production made up 25 of the Tunisian economy Millions of tons of phosphate a year were produced for other places while the minors in Gafsa could not provide for their families Gafsa s unemployment rate and levels of poverty were significantly higher than in Tunis the country s capital AdnenHajii the General Tunisian Union s representative in Redeyef coorganized the revolt of the Gafsa s mining basin in 2008 including the hunger strike and demonstrations and sitins at various public locations in response to corruption in the distribution of mining positions and jobs The protest was quickly and brutally suppressed and not many images escaped However it didn t go entirely unnoticed The protests were accompanied by protests in Paris Milan and Nantes where there is an immigrant community originally from Redeyef The country was relatively quiet was two years in part because the oppression of the opposition sent a message but in July 2010 Tunisia blocked the website of a Lebanese newspaper that published US cables that were released by Wikileaks One of the cables noted quotThe problem is clear Tunisia has been ruled by the same president for 22 years He has no successor and while President Ben Ali deserves credit for continuing many of the progressive policies of President Bourgiba he and his regime have lost touch with the Tunisian people They tolerate no advice or criticism whether domestic or international Increasingly they rely on police for control and they focus on preserving power Corruption in the inner circle is growing Even average Tunisians are now keenly aware of it and the cries of complaints are rising Tunisians intensely dislike and even hate First Lady Leila Trabelsiand her family In private regime opponents mock her Even those close to the government express dismay at her reported behavior Meanwhile anger is growing at Tunisia s high and regional inequities As a consequence the risks to the regime s long term stability are increasing The cable observed that quotTunisia is a police state with little freedom of expression or association and serious human rights problems el Generalsung quotRaisEbledquot or llPresident of the Republic which represented the anthem of the Revolution and the protests of 2011 The Jasmine Revolution had many leaders or alternatively perhaps characterized as leaderless It was the imagery of pain and frustration along with the imagery of government meeting nonviolence with violence The imagery spread over social media that sparked the mass public to revolt The government was tolerant at first in the first few days of 2011 As the four week revolution unfolded government began aggressively cracking down on opposition which was seen live on television and sent around the world on Facebook and Twitter which increased the numbers and intensity of the 39 39 y The P 39 39 39 39 guard and security forces were in place to protect the first family and they acted accordineg violently repressing some of the demonstrations much as they had in 2008 The revolution was aided by the reluctance of army to protect the President and his family Tunisian army soldiers had been deployed for years as United Nations peace keepers in Africa and therefore it was less likely than the Presidential guard security forces to prioritize protection of the First Family s power Ben Ali Steps Down Prime Minister Mohammed Ghannouchi announced on January 14 2011 that President Ben AIi had called for parliamentary elections in six months but he stepped down from office on the same day fleeing to Saudi Arabia with his wife where they live in exile Nesrine and El Materi left and reported took up residence in a luxury hotel at Paris Disney until they were asked to leave They left their tiger Pasha behind where he met his fate at the hands of the Revolution Other members of Ben Ali s family travelled to Canada Ghannouchi who inherited various positions in Ben Ali s government proclaimed himself as President but served for only a few hours and returned to his position as Prime Minister FouadMebazza the Speaker of Parliament and a member of the regime s constitutional democratic rally party was appointed as interim president Prime Minister Ghannouchi resigned just a few weeks after taking office in late February 2011 BejiCaid el Sebsi was selected as Ghannouchi s successor Mebazza and el Sebsi were both members of the former regime s constitutional democratic rally party served for almost a year providing some stability Ennahda Movement One significant division in Tunisia is between Islamic and Secular parties The Islamic Ennahdaparty or the Ennahdamovement was first named the Islamic Tendency Movement Currently Ennahdais by far the most popular party in the nation winning in the 2011 election winning over onethird of the popular vote and 41 of the seats in the Assembly The movement originally formed at the same time of the Iranian Revolution along with the Muslim Brotherhood of Egypt as an inspiration It was a descendant group standing in opposition to ban Ben Ali into the Tunisia Autocratic government During the 1980s the movement took steps to be more moderate It embraced what it called Tunisian Islam and in 1989 the party adopted the name Ennahda or Renaissance In recent years the party has explicitly abandoned the label llIslamists and instead adopted what is seen as the more moderate quotIslamicquot label Founder and leader RachidGhannouchi who returned from exile in London shortly after Ben Ali was deposed has recently said that llAll Tunisian people can survive peacefully within a moderate version of Islam which can be compatible with democracy Monce VIarzouki an opposition leader in the human rights advocate had returned to Tunisia from his exile in France shortly after the departure of Ben Ali Tunisian voters went to the polls in October 2011 for the purpose of electing an Assembly to write the constitution Turnout was about 6070 in this Tunisia s first democratic election In part because of its strength in the country and in part because parties that were even more conservative refused to participate in the election Ennahda won a clear plurality but not the majority of seats in the Assembly On December 12 2011 Marzouki formerly of the relatively left wing Congress for the Republic party was elected by the Constituent Assembly as the interim president He appointed HamadiJebali of the Constitutional Islamic Ennahda Movement as Prime Minister In March 2012 Ennahda declared that it would not support making Alafia law a foundation of the Constitution Nonetheless observers expressed concern that the ruling party often advocates a conservative form of Islam Its roots are conservative Islamic thought and some have claimed or argued that while Ennahda advocates a moderate Islamic approach in front of a large audience speakers adopt a more radical rhetoric when speaking to smaller audiences within mosques Individual party members have been quoted as supporting the mosques and some party members continue to call themselves slamists and to describe Ennahdaas llGod s partyquot The country is reeling from the February 6 2013 assassination of ChokriBelaid a prominent opposition figure who served as a strong critic of both former President Ben Ali because of his corruptive and repressive policies and current party Ennahda because Belaid supported a secular approach In response to protests over the assassination and after his failure to create a government Prime Minister Hamadilebaliresigned on February 22 2013 After Jebali s resignation concerns about Ennahda deepened after MoncefMarzouki Tunisia39s president and RachidGhannouchi Ennahda s leader nominated Ali Laarayedh the Interior Ministerto form a new government Laarayedh a founding member of Ennahda is generally seen as a conservative and is held responsible by many for failing to quell the violence in Tunisia in the two years following the Revolution There has been much debate among scholars and political observers over whether the commitment to Islamic fundamentalism has always been present in Tunisia whether if it was part of the fabric of the society and has been present across decades even centuries or whether it has been imported in recent years from elsewhere as more of a global movement of Islamic fundamentalism Salafism Salafismhas been associated by some observers with littlest stripped and pure ethnical approaches to Islam and in the West As such it has been with those who espouse violence SalafisJihadis advocate Jihad against civilians as a legitimate activity of Islam Other interpretations of Salafismsee it as a larger school of thought that developed in the late 1800s as a reaction to the spread of European modernist ideas a perspective that is opposed to modernity within Muslim society that does not favor violence Salafis means predecessor and Salafis Muslims in this viewpoint see themselves as closest to the prophet Muhammad that is practicing the most authentic true and pure vision of Islam It is opposed in individualism to modernity and philosophy of modernity but from this perspective it is conservative but certainly not considered physically violent Some observers argued that Salafismwas imported in the few years or decade preceding the Tunisian revolution in 2009 as part of a larger movement exemplified by such groups as Al Qaeda but others argued that a small minority of Tunisia were always inclined for Salafismand that the regime of Ben Ali made it more likely that radical groups would persist or even crashed where more moderate political groups were less likely to be present Civil Liberty Debates There have been a lot of debates about free speech or the degree in which debates can take place in Tunisia There have been some cases of censorship OlfaRiahi was charged with criminal defamation when she posted an item on her blog accusing Tunisia s Minister of Foreign Affairs of misusing public money and having an extramarital affair A military tribunal sentenced AyoubMassoudi former advisor to Interim President Marzouki to a suspended prison sentence of four monthsfor imputing the representation of the army He had accused the army chief of staff of dereliction of duty for failing to notify him soon enough of the plan to extradite the former Libyan Prime Minister to Libya Two bloggers JabeurMejri and Ghazi Beji were sentenced in the spring of 2012 to seven and a half years in prison for publishing material offensive to Islam Weld El 15 was sentenced to two years in prison for insulting police after he posted a song entitled llPolice are Dogs He had been sentenced in March 2013 for two years and he emerged from hiding in June 2013 in hopes of getting a more lenient sentence at a retrial The retrial produced the same verdict and sentence Two artists Nadia Jelassi and Mohamed Ben Salemwere arrested for art that was seen as insulting to Islam The sculptures of veiled women among a bed of rocks were interpreted by Salafist protesters as advocating the stoning of Muslim women On May 3 Nabil Karoui the owner of a television station was fined about 1500 American Dollars for broadcasting an animated television series Persepolis which was denounced as blasphemy to some slamists The film was based on Marjane Satrapi s graphic novel published in the United States as The Complete Persepolis The book was banned in several Chicago public schools because of what parents and administrators saw such strong content It is the autobiographical story of a young Iranian woman It was interpreted by Tunisian courts as being hostile to Islam Government has taken an action against violence committed by Salafis Six Salafis were sentenced to five years in prison for torching an important Sufis shrine in October 2012 Sufi is defined by those who follow it as the inner mystical dimension of Islam Individuals who follow Sufi belong to groups or congregations formed around a master They see themselves as the original true pure and real version of Islam but they re opposed by Salafists and Mohave Muslims Sufis have a number of shrines at which they prey Dozens of those have been destroyed since 2011 most by arson Many believe that Salafis Muslims who generally oppose shrines are responsible In some cases Salafis Muslims have attacked shrines Veils are not required in fact they were banned from schools and government buildings in the early 1980s and the ban was revoked in 2011 Occasionally veiled women are still banned in schools but there have been protests against one such incident in April 2012 The Union and the Phosphate Industry Another source of contiguous politics is the phosphate industry Phosphate is one the natural resources that Tunisia does have Before the Revolution Tunisia was the 5 h largest exporter of phosphate in the world Twentyfive percent of the Tunisian economy was driven by phosphate but the central regions in which phosphate is produced are much poorer than the coastal regions Inconsequently the phosphate industry has faced significant slowdowns in production In 2010 the main phosphate company produced 8 million tons but in 2012 less than 3 tons were produced However shortly before Ben Ali fled the country the union gave up its support for him and it began to serve as one of the few institutions within civic society which could help sustain the 2011 protest movement It has done so for the following two years but it has been a challenge for the union to strike a balance The union has organized several regional and national strikes to protest such developments as the government including only the 2011 and not the 2008 protesters and not their families in reparations and compensations program They also organized strikes in response to Belaid s assassination as well as protests but strikes and protests also mean slowing down phosphate production which in turn may hurt workers particularly in Gafsa It means an overall slowdown to the tourism industry and Tunisia is very dependent on both the phosphate and tourism The union is a secular organization that opposes the Salafis movement In January 2013 Ennahda members were appointed to key positions in the largest mining plant There was civil unrest and the union faced the challenge of working with the Ennahda dominated government while at the same time stressing the union s philosophical and practical position of supporting workers rights Civil Unrest The country still faces a good deal of political violence and civil unrest In September 2012 the US Embassy was attacked by crowds in response to a video made in the United States that was seen as mocking the prophet Muhammad As noted before political violence struck in February 2013 when Belaid was assassinated In response to the assassination and his inability to form a government the Prime Minister resigned his position late that same year Additional protest broke out in May 2013 when the government prohibited the radical ring of the Salafis movement from holding their annual meeting Also the government has discovered some terrorist activities in the mountainous area near the border with Algeria At least two soldiers have been killed The government has disbanded as least one cell of Al Quada Many observers believe that the discovery of terrorist cells has increased the Ennahda government s interest in cracking down on Salafis who may engage in violence Conclusion Tunisians have a great deal of pride in their country They see the Revolution as a demonstration of the power of the people Certainly the overthrow of Ben Ali after decades in power was significant The progress the country has made toward democracy in a diverse and pluralistic society has been nothing short but outstanding and clearly has had some effect on other countries in the region There is much to be accomplished in Tunisia economically socially religiously in terms of religious divisions and politically establishing the basic political structure The constitution that officials optimistically said would be written by the fall of 2012 is still being worked on A fair amount of violence and struggles over the economic foundation and religious adversity and the state s approach to civil liberties are all points of contention The rebellion that developed into a revolution that spread beyond Tunisia s borders has taken unpredictable paths It continues in some ways and there are many possible outcomes that could come in the coming years months weeks and even days that could have an effect on their society


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