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by: Nia Greenfelder


Nia Greenfelder
GPA 3.58

J. Hanor

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J. Hanor
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This 30 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nia Greenfelder on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 1003 at Louisiana State University taught by J. Hanor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/222779/geol-1003-louisiana-state-university in Geology at Louisiana State University.




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Date Created: 10/13/15
Expanding Earth Hypothesis video clip shown in class on this by Neal Adams in 2005 how to test if his hypothesis is accurate do continents t together like suggested stated there was no subduction so if we nd subduction it will disprove hypothesis sea oor looks smooth in the video pictures so how do we explain midocean ridges Australia has to move to China to close the Paci c according to the video which doesn t work out after being researched Theory of Plate Tectonics Sea oor Spreading must look for formation of new ocean crust and old crust spreading apart to support this hypothesis Evidence to back this up 1 Median Rift Valley Magnetic Stripes Earthquake Activity Lava owsinew basaltic material is created Hydrothermal Activityiit is hot at the crest of the midocean ridge cold sea water gets pulled in and turns hot and is then pulled back up cooling the Earth Sea oor Vents organisms live around where this hot water is pulled back up Subduction Zone Evidence to back this up 1 Oceanic Trenches Island arcsitwo ocean plates one plate is subducted forming this and volcanic arcs Continental Volcanic Arcsiocean plate subducts under the continental plate Earthquakesioccur typically in zones slanted in towards the continent picture drawn in class showed this occurring at a trench below a volcano 5 Seismicimaging of DownMovingSlabs Measuring Plate Motion Satellite Global Position System tells where you are the time it is and if you remain in one position is can tell you what direction you re moving the plate under you and how fast Driving forces of Plate Tectonics Mantle Convection Earth loses heat as a result of hot material coming up and moving back down forcing Earth to lose heat We don t know how deep cells exist This is similar to a pot of water on a stove that is heated enough to where the water is hot on the bottom and cool on top the water turns to make the cool part come back down which slightly cools all the water in the pot Elk59 59 Climate and Climate Change Cimatewveather over long periods of time Focusing on temperature warm vs cool and precipitation wet vs dry South Louisiana has a warm and wet climate Heat Budget where does the warm come from why does it cool Greenhouse constructed to trap heat Source of heat sun9some of the light is re ected back into space some passes through the glass and interacts with the soil and some gets converted into heat The presence of glass is important because it traps heat With Earth the atmosphere acts as the glass and turns light to heat greenhouse gases Also with Earth the sunlight is re ected back into space and if there are clouds or ice present they too will re ect light back into space Circulation of Atmosphere and Ocean transports heat and moisture from one part of Earth to another which controls the distribution of life forms on Earth Greenhouse Gases Most abundant gases in the atmosphere are nitrogen oxygen and argon which aren t greenhouse gases Carbon dioxide C02 Methane CH4 and Water Vapor H20 are all greenhouse gases Volcanic activity can create carbon dioxide and methane Power Point Portion of Notes Permian 260MY to Today The breakup of Pangea these notes will be posted on Moodle but we won t be responsible for them Albedo is the re ection of sunlight back into space Oceans and forests converts light into heat which radiates into the atmosphere Greenhouse gases act as insulters Known as the Greenhouse Effect Clouds help contribute to it If hit directly the sunlight goes back into space Greenhouse gases contribute too water vapor is the most significant Carbon dioxide and methane are the other two greenhouse gases If we didn t have any greenhouse gases in the atmosphere our surface temperature on Earth would be 31 degrees Celsius cooler about 60 degrees Fahrenheit cooler Today our average temperature is 25 degrees Celsius So it would be 14 degrees Celsius without greenhouse gases Water freezes at 0 degrees Celsius We would have a frozen planet for the most partisalt in the oceans might keep some parts liquid Variations in Heat Budget of Earth Variations in 1 Solar Luminosityibrighter the sun the more sunlight we can see the more heat energy generated the solar luminosity was 15 lower in Precambrian 2 Orbital Elements a circular orbit vs ellipticaldoes both quotcircularigets same amount of sunlight throughout the year ellipticaligets certain amount of sunlight at two times of the year and another the other two times of the year b tilt ofaxz39s c precessioniEarth spins like a top 3 Greenhouse Gasesiwater vapor When it s water we get more water vapor into the atmosphere which absorbs more heat which gets more water vaporifeedback effect Carbon dioxideiremoved through plants volcanic eruptions create carbon dioxide Methaneiproduced by microbacteria 4 Albedo ofthe Earth If you have thick ice sheets the albedo increases and re ects more sunlight into space cooling Earth and vice versa Creates a feedback effect Climate Box Ch139is Scotese Role of Atmosphere and Ocean Circulation on Climate Looking at the North Pole to the Equator and then dividing that into three sections 030 degrees gets heated up on the equator and air rises up because less dense and then cools off at 30 degrees and circulates back down the equator is also wet so rain occurs think jungle makes a counterclockwise movement 3060 degrees air moves straight up and then comes down therefore the air is dry and warm at the 30 degrees think desert makes a clockwise movement 6090 degrees cool wet climatic zones air has lost all moisture gets cold so cool and dry at 90 degrees makes a counterclockwise movement So at 0 degrees it is warm and wet jungles and rainforests at 30 degrees it is warm and dry deserts at 60 degrees it is cool and wet forests and grasslands and then at 90 degrees it is cool and dry ice Temperate climates Today we have a strong climate gradient hot at the equator and cold at the North and South poles Triassic period weak climate gradient not a huge difference going from the equator to the poles It was pretty much arid and there was a tropical belt here and there Otherwise it was pretty much warm Coriolis Effect Between 030 degrees there is a wind direction on the surface to the Earth that ows East to West driving ocean water that way From 3060 degrees the wind direction goes from West to East From 6090 degrees it goes again from East to West Above the equator the ocean current moves clockwise below the equator the ocean current moves counterclockwise and then there is another ocean current that circles Antarctica Climate along the Asia coast is warmer than the waters around North America Also the climate along Australia is warmer than the climate of South America due to the circulation of ocean current If continental plates move the climate can change Effect of Mountain Building Air above water is warm and moist which is forced to rise up over a mountain range The air cools off and water vapor creates rain The air is then forced back down and is now dry and warm closer to the surface So there might be a forest over a mountain range and then a desert on the other side of the range due to the dry warm climate Climate Proxies Cool Dry Climate Glaciers makes till and tillite my Stones layered lake sediment ne sediment has a pebble in it ice probably moved out onto the lake and then dropped into the lake creating this pebble Warm Dry Climate Evaporites formed in oceanic and continental settings Calcium Carbonate cements in this climate which is called Calcrete Wet Warm Climates Coal deposits need a lot of rain to keep plants growing Bauxite is aluminum oxide Laterite is red soils that leech out everything but iron Cool Wet Climates Coal and Tillite are formed Power Point Portion of Notes Heat Budget 1 Solar luminosity 2 Orbital elements 3 Greenhouse gases 4 Albedo clouds ice volcanic activity Water vapor is the most signi cant greenhouse gas Albedo the amount of light re ected back into space the lowest albedo is the Mediterranean highest albedo is Arctic ice snow What effect did the eruption of Krakatoa in 1883 have on the climate of the Earth It lowered global temperatures for several years What famous painting was inspired by the eruption of Krakatoa Edvard Munch The Scream 1893 Circulation of the atmosphere 1 Convection occurs 2 Coriolis effect drives winddriven ocean circulation Average annual precipitation is affected The Gulf Stream is part of the ocean circulation Louisiana has a similar climate as Southeastern Asia Warm Temperate climates have crocodiles palms and mangroves Crocodiles go back to the middle cretaceous period Cenozoic Time Scale Cenozoic is divided up into two periods Quaternary and Tertiary Then they divided up Tertiary up into Neogene and Paleogene Epochs Holoceneientirely recent Pleistoceneimost recent Plioceneimore recent Mioceneiless recent Oligoceneifew recent Eoceneidawn of the recent Paleoceneiearly dawn of the recent Tropicaliwarm and wet Cool Temperateicool and wet Warm Temperateiwhere crocodiles live Aridiwarm and dry deserts Coldicool and dry ice glaciers Key Aspect of Historical Geology is the Record of Life on Earth Classi cation of Life Producers vs Consumers whether life form creates its own food autotrophs or dependent on another life formorganic matter for food heterotrophs Producers quotphotosynthesisicarbon dioxide water and sunlight energy needed to drive chemical reaction produce organic matter and oxygen chem0synthesisicarbon dioxide hydrogen and the energy from a chemical reaction produce organic matter methane byproduct and water can live in dark places Consumers quotRespirationiafter we eat this process occurs Eat organic matter Breath oxygen Produce carbon dioxide energy and water vapor Basic Building Block of Life Cellisome have a nucleus which houses DNA humans others don t have a nucleus and the DNA is scattered throughout the cell Kary0nnucleus Eutrue Pr0before Eukary0teshave a nucleus Pr0kary0teshave no nucleus Kingdoms 0f Organisms Prokaryotes single cell Kingdoms l Archeobacteria old most primitive life forms Extrem0phileslive in extreme environments either hot or cold or acidic environments Producers or consumers 2 Eubacteria true Producers and consumers Cyan0bacteriacreates a blue color in their environment Need sunlight Live on the surface of human bodies and in intestinal tract over 10 of dry weight of mammals are eubacteria Eukaryotic Kingdoms 3 Fungi Consumers Mushrooms multicellular yeast single celledimake alcohol bread cheese quotD r lved in quot39 in organic matter 4 Plants Producers Photosynthesis Multicellular Classif1cation9vascular tubes vs nonvascular coating on rock like moss 9reproduce by spores or seeds produce owers or not r 5 Animals Consumers Multicellular Invertebrates no spinal cordisponges corals worms arthropods jointed leg vs vertebrates spinal cordifish amphibians reptiles mammals Protists Everything else Most are unicellular Some are plantlike photosynthesize Example is algae diatom Some are animallike consumers Example is amoeba foram All siX kingdoms are well represented in the fossil record 0 Power Point Portion of Notes VolcanoEXplorer htt3dscdiscove Evil i1aiath Vll Luai vuipauu vii 39 39 Climate Proxies whether the leaves found in fossil record have jagged or smooth margins Paleoclimate Maps created by Chris Scotese Did climate change during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Climate changed continuously during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic geologic fact Did the climate changes which did occur during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic limited to a speci c area of the Earth No all areas of the Earth experienced a continuous change in climate Local Example Louisiana deposition of the Louann Salt in the Middle Jurassic arid conditions and isolated ocean basin lead to Louann Salt What conditions favored deposition of Louann Salt during the Jurassic Two conditions a restricted ocean basin and an arid climate What was the climate like in LA after Jurassic Became warm temperate Life and Fossils Chapter 4 Classi cation of Organisms Study of the classi cation of organisms Taxonomy Kingdoms are divided up into Phylum Class Order Family Genus Homo human Species Sapiens wise Biological Species is a group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring Paleontological Species ancient species inferred from preserved physical traits Types of Fossils and How They Form Fossilany evidence of ancient life could be a footprint chemical or skull Babcock any evidence of life preHolocene younger evidence than preHolocene is considered a subfossil 1 Body Fossilsiremains of ancient organisms or something that tells us what the organism looked like ex shell leaf impression 2 Trace Fossilsievidence of activity of ancient organisms dinosaur tracksihow far apart tell whether running or walking worm burrows 3 Biomarkersimost elusive chemical fossils fatty acids pigmentsichlorophyll How Body Fossils Are Formed Not everything that is living today will be preserved as a fossil Study of the processes of fossilization is taphonomy means burial study living organism dead organism soft parts could be eaten and or decomposed by bacteria to be preserved rapid burial has to occur or there has to be no oxygen or a very salty environment hard parts like shell and bone could be dissolve or erosion could occur or they could be buried Taphonomic filterneed to look in book to find Forms of Alteration of Dead Organism Body Fossil Recrystallization replacement wood can be replaced with silica 2 Formation of Molds and Castsidon t see original material but there might be a mold or cast left behind 3 Permineralizationifilling in of pore spaces 4 Carbonizationiorganic matter has oxygen and hydrogen driven out of it and all that is left is carbon wood turns into coal if all that is left is carbon Power Point Portion of Notes Archaebacteria can be in the form of slime and hydrothermal vents which perform chemosynthesis Eubacteria are E coli and decomposers of animal dung cyanobacteria create stromatolites Fungi are decomposers and example is Ordovician fungal spore Plants can be mosses ferns leafy and reproduce with spores conifers or owering plants Plantlike protist diatom Animallike protist foram Multicellular protists algae What is a coprolite Fossil dung dung stone What is a foram An animallike protist that can t produce its own food Environmentithat which surrounds us Physical aspects temperature rain Chemical aspects oxygen no oxygen Ecology Eco house study of environment Diversity of life forms number of different species in an environment high diversity in a rain forest Food Chainifood web Example nutrients elements essential for life such as carbon nitrogen and phosphorus energy r A plant 3 gt consumer herbivore can be like a rabbit Decomposers J3 bacteria fungi consumer carnivore can belike a fox turn back into nutrients If you don t have one link then the other links can t function properly Ecological Niche position of a species in an environment where is it habitat what does it do produce food herbivore carnivore Example polar bearcold environments carnivore could be more than one species of polar bear in the same ecological niche Earth History 3 Major Themes 1 Physical Evolution of the Earth which we will call Plate Tectonics 2 Evolution of the Earth s Climate Atmosphere 3 Evolution of Life Forms Geologic Time Revisited 1 Phanerozoic 2 Proterozoic 3 Archean Precambrian 4 Hadean 1 Age of the Earth 46 BY before the Hadean 2 Oldest Rocks 43 BY between the Hadean and Archean 3 Be innin of Modern Plate Tectonics 23 BY between the Archean and Proterozoic 4 Beginning of Life with Shells 05 BY between the Proterozic and Phanerozoic Age of the Universe Astronomers say it is 1518 BY Age of our Gala Astronomers say it is less than 10 BY Age of our Sun Astronomers say it is 46 BY Star Supernova catastrophic eXpansion9Solar Nebula collapses into this9Sun and Planets solar nebula cooledpretty quick process Where does the age of earth come from if the age of the oldest rocks isn t that old It comes from the oldest meteorites which date back to 46 BY Formation of the Earth 1 Accretion of Solidsiparticles glob together mostly homogeneous and composed of space debris Heat from Radioactive DecayiPotassium Uranium Thorium and Aluminum 26 heat reducer contributed to this heat Earth Meltsitwo liquids formed iron liquid more dense and becomes core and a silicate liquid becomes mantle Basaltic Crust Formsitop layer of earth is formed Formation of the Moon750 MY after crust formation hypothesis that the earth s orbit was inhabited with a mars size planet called Theia in Greek mythology she gave birth to the sun and moon which eventually collided with earth most of Theia is absorbed by the N L we Earth and a molten blob composed of Theia and Earth is thrown into space and becomes our moon Power Point Portion of Notes Archean age rocks can be found in Minnesota and Canada Iron meteoritesican t date well Allende meteorite 19697contains organic matter and diamonds that can be dated 45 BY is what Allende dates the birth of earth as can even buy a piece of the meteorite Moon s core is smaller in portion than Earth impact events during the Hadean can be seen on the Moon Who is Harrison H Jack Schmitt of Apollo 17 quotThe only geologist to visit the moon Evidence of cratering on Mars What did it look like during the Hadean Two opposing views molten earth view and then a cool earth with water looking towards a hot moon Evidence from to support the water view Zircon Oldest known mineral grain was zircon and dated 44 BY discovered in Wisconsin Oldest known rock was found on Hudson Bay and again supports water theory What is the age of the oldest known rocks Approximately 43 BY Where are they found Eastem shore of Hudson Bay continued from Test 3 notes Early Reptiles AmniotesiLate Pennsylvanian Diversif1ed into two groups 1 Eureptilia9Archosaurs include crocodiles and dinosaurs 9 turtles snakes 2 Synapsids together vaulted 9 Theraspids mammal vaulted 9 mammals Permian until you see the turtlessnakes group and the mammals group which happened during the Triassic Jurassic and Cretaceous quotTheraspids and Synapsids are known as mammallike reptiles During the Permian the Theraspids and Synapsids were dominant and then during the Mesozoic the turtles snakes and Archosaurs became dominant Permian Extinction Event What became extinct 80 of marine species including trilobites marine plankton including plantlike protists such as diatoms and acritarchs were hit hard these were the base of the food chain so animallike protists such as forams and radiolaria don t have anything to eat thus the small sh don t have food if the formas and radiolaria die and so on 75 of families of tetrapods Plantsigymnosperms were hit hard How long early estimates say 510 million years today geologists say 12 million years What caused it 1 Asteriod ImpactiNot much evidence 2 Massive Volcanic Eruptions in Siberiaiknown as supervolcanos about 3 million cubic kilometers of lava imagine a lava ow that s 3000 ft thick and 1000 miles by 1000 miles laterally thought to have been caused by a mantle plume which caused melting on the earth s surface release of volatile gases lots of carbon dioxide sulfur dioxide plus oxygen causes sulfuric acid which makes acid rain chlorine gas which causes hydrochloric acid is what caused the extinction by warming everything not the lava 3 Hydrogen Sul de Poisoningirotten egg smell9005ppm don t have to know olfactory nerve paralyzed at about 150ppm and when rises to 1000ppm immediate death occurs Ocean Circulation quotAtlanticiwell oxygenated due to dynamic circulation Permian Paleotethys Oceanishows what happens if this circulation is turned off wind circulation might occur a few hundred meters but will become stagnant oxygen on surface gets used up when there is no oxygen in the ocean water dissolved sulfate gets turned into hydrogen sulfideikills life off Permian time this ocean was located on the right side of Pangea by the equator and was land locked by a land bridge gets destroyed Mesozoic Mass Extinction wiped out the dinosaurs Cretaceous Jurassic Triassic Mass Extinction Themes Plate Tectonics North America Life Climate Triassic Rift Basin a Types of Rocks in Triassic Rift Basins 1 Red Bedsisediments sands with iron oxides intruded by diabase basalt which cooled for a longer period of time so get courser grain sills and dikes 2 Diabase sills and dikes Middle Jurassic quotFormation of Gulf ofM exico due to thinning ocean crust from rift basin LouAnn Saltiup to 1 km thick equal to 3000 ft largest accumulation of evaporites in the world Northern limit of Jurassic salt is in Arkansas above Louisiana Southern limit is in the Gulf of Mexico Rifting of North and South America created a passive continental margin sediments deposited on top of salt Shelf is moving south was in midLouisiana during the Cretaceous and today it is below Louisiana Sal It 1 Less dense than other sediments 2 Behaves as a viscous liquid can ow when you bury it forming salt domes example similar to this is a lava lamp Economic Importance of Salt Domes 1 Source of salt 2 Traps for oil and gas Western US No continentcontinent collisions but lots of island arc collisions with microcontinents Late Cretaceous Laramide Orogenyiproduces a foreland basin Cretaceous Interior Seaway Life becomes diverse in seaway and coastal lands surrounding it Mesozoic LIFE Reptiles land air sea Mammals Plants Inve1tebrates Reptiles End of Permian extinction Theraspids mammallike reptiles hard hit Archosaurs ruling lizards survived become dominant in Triassic Primitive Archosaurs 1 Dinosaurs 2 Pterosaurs wingedlizard 3 Crocodiles only one still alive out of the three Power Point Portion of Notes What famous military battle occurred in a Triassic rift basin Gettysburg Mesozoic Life Reptiles ArchosaursiEarly Triassic flrst dinosaurs found in Late Triassic 9 Eoraptori dawn thief Main Groups of Dinosaurs terrible lizard Based on hip structure Saurischiai lizardhipped Two types of Saurishchia a Theropodsi beastfoot include T ReX Allosaurus Velociraptor bipedal stand on two feet all carnivores b Sauropodsi lizardfoot include Diplodocus Apatosaurus quadrapeds herbivores 2 Omithschiansi birdhipped quadrapeds herbivores include Triceratops Stegosaurus Hadrosaurs Dinosaursigreat diversity in Jurassic and Cretaceous approximately 1000 species indentified to date reproduced with amniotic eggs in shells laid in nests some very social so traveled in herds some had feathers all terrestrial quotOther Mesozoic Reptiles l Pterosaursi winged most famous Pterodactyli wing finger 2 Marine Reptiles a Ichthyosaursi f1sh lizard b Pleisiosaursi nearly lizard c Mosasaurs Power Point Portion of Notes What was a favorite food of Tyrannosaurus rex The Hadrosaur duckbilled What are the things on top of a Stegosaurus called thagomizer When did the Tyrannosaurus rex live Late Cretaceous even though stared in Jurassic Park What happened to Sue and her excavator after she was excavated Land owner les lawsuit Sue s remains con scated by the FBI Excavator goes to prison Sue goes on the auction block Sold to the Field Museum Chicago for 83 million dollars Reptiles Birds9evolved from feathered Theropods lizardhipped a Stegosaurus would be bird hippe 9Appear in Jurassic Earliest Known BirdiArchaeopteryx Ancient Wing has bird features such as feathers and wings but it also has reptilian features like teeth and a reptilian tail Confusiusornis Confusios Bird no teeth very short tail sexual dimorphismimale had longer tail feathers than females Jurassic large number found in China By the end of the Mesozoic birds looked like modemday birds Some Paleontologists refer to birds as Avian Dinosaurs Mammals Have body hair females produce milk for feeding young all have middle ear bones that transmit sound 3 Kinds of Mammals All appeared in Mesozoi l M onotremesilay eggs most reptilian of the mammals ex duckbilled platypus 2 M arsupialsishort gestation time keep young in a pouch ex kangaroo possum 3 Placentalilong gestation time young more fully developed ex humans elephants rodents Terrestrial Food Chain Base Plants Late Paleozoic Spore Plants such as the Lycopods Early Mesozoic Gymnosperms become dominant like pine trees Late Mesozoic Angiosperms become dominant these are the owering plants Advantages seed pods stores food for the seed seeds are food for animalsianimals will spread the seeds fertilized by insects Herbivores Camivores Marine Food Chain Base Plantlike Protists producers new type Coccolithsimade of calcium carbonate White Cliffs of Dover are made up of the remains of coccoliths Herbivores like microscopic shrimp Camivores Invertebrate carnivore Ammonites End of the Cretaceous Extinction Best known extinction because that s when the nonavian dinosaurs become extinct things like the ammonites become extinct quotExplanations l Meteorite ImpactiChicxulub Crater created a giant tsunami dust gets thrown up into the atmosphere which blocks out sunlightiknown as perpetual nigh 2 Massive Volcanic EruptioniDeccan Traps in India like what happened in the Permian 3 Large Drop in Sea Level KT Boundary Event geologists are trying to get rid of the T which stands for tertiary but doing to keep the K which stands for Cretaceous Power Point Portion of Notes Where is Sue the T rex presently located Field Museum of Natural History Chicago Based on the assumption that the length of the first chevron bone of dinosaurs is indicative of gender as presented in lecture is the skeleton of the Allosaurus in the atrium of the Geology Building more likely that of a female or male dinosaur If it s half the length of the second chevron then the dinosaur is female if it s the same length then it s a male What caused Sue s death Most likely killed by another Tyrannosaurus What was the cause of death of Repenomamus l Volcanic ash 2 Choked to death 3 Killed by parent psittacosaurus Cenozoic Plate Tectonics 1 Atlantic continues to open between North America and Greenland 2 Spreading switches Greenland stays close to North America and then Europe and Greenland spread apart Laramide Orogeny Late Cretaceous to EoceneiNorth America is being pushed East Paci c Rise is pushing a plate underneath North America so subduction occurs in the form of a vertical uplift created the Rocky Mountains 4 North America overrides East Paci c Rise which causes the Miocene Uplift of Colorado Plateau Effect these Tectonics have on Louisiana 1 During the Miocene the Ancestral Mississippi River forms carries sediment from Rocky Mountains into the Gulf of Mexico 5 Land Bridge between North America and South America occurred about 3 million years ago E Cenozoic Life Base of Terrestrial Food Chain Plants Angiosperms owering plants Angiosperms were dominated by trees and shrubs which were the food of herbivores Herbivores quotBrowsersiate trees and shrubs In the Miocene Appearance of grasses quotGrazersiate grasses Problems with eating grass Grass contains particles of silica act as an abrasive wearing down their teeth quotHorses were browsers in the Cenozoic and today are grazers with long teeth Camivores Top carnivores of Early Cenozoic Birds Dz39atryma canoe beak 6ft high 3001bs Mammals l Monotremes 2 Marsupials 3 Placentals Diversified during the Cenozoic By Eocene all modern mammal types present Most successful in number of species rodents and bats quotUngulatesieconomic importance food and or domestic work animals walk on fingernails hooves Two kinds 1 Odd number of toesihorses rhinos Eocene 2 Even toealicattle pigs sheep camels Oligocene more efficient processors of food so dominated over oddtoed Plate Tectonics and Mammals Remember a land bridge developed between North and South America There is a Great Migration which introduces pigs cats and dogs into the South and armadillos opossums and monkeys into the North Late Pleistocene large mammals of North America includes the diarwolf and sabortooth tiger Power Point Portion of Notes Where is there a display of Tyrannosaurs mating Museo Jurasico de Asturias Causes of KT crisis Lowering of sea level massive basalt eruptions a bolide asteroid Hi I m Walter Alvarez what am I famous for Discovering the iridium anomaly that led to the impact hypothesis 1 went to school with Dr Hanor and was in the Geology Club together Who is going to go first Shallow marine organisms plants Animals that require a lot of plants for food Large animals that feed on planteating animals Who is going to survive Plants that can reproduce from spores or seeds Organisms that can go into a resting state cysts hibernation Small animals that feed that don t require a large biomass to feed on What is convergent evolution Where two or more very different groups taxa of life forms evolve similar characteristics ex Ichthyosaurus Final Exam Dec 10 1230230 NonRenewable Resources Coa19starts off as terrestrial plants in a swamp environment which are buried and heated up turning into coal lengthy process introduce carbon dioxide into the atmosphere by burning coal Oi19need a source rock composed of the remains of protists and bacteria which ourished in a marine environment which is buried and heated up turning carbon into liquid crude oil then the oil migrates through sediments fractures etc need a trap to trap the oil then need a reservoir rock with lots of pore space to store oil Louisiana has shale as its source rocks Salt domes are examples of a trap Also a lengthy process Theory of Biological Evolution Origin of Species changes in DNA with each succeeding generation can occur through mutations sexual reproduction change in environmenticauses natural selection Darwin best explanation of what science is telling usitheory Powergoint Portion of Notes Is grass a regular part of your diet Yes grass as food for humans rice corn wheat What is the principal difference between a mastodon and mammoth what they ate mammoths were grazers and mastodons were browsers What is the largest oil eld in the world AlGhawar in Saudi Arabia Why will we never run out of crude oil or natural gas Because it will become so expensive no one will be able to afford it What effect would the complete melting of the ice caps have on Louisiana Sea level would rise 200 feet Where in Louisiana would you move Say if you had 24 hrs to do so Clinton LA Rocks shown in class which we will learn more about Komatiite Ultramafic lots of magnesium Archean Lava Flow very dense spinifex texture Sedimentary Rocks Quartz Si027of ten forms a sixside crystal chertimicrocrystalline quartz was created by volcanic uid The Formation of Earth and how it has changed Earth Di erentiateal originally homogeneous and then changed into a mantle and core it changes again into a core mantle and basaltic crust Origins otAtmothere and Oceans l Degassing of interior of Earthiwater carbon dioxide nitrogen but not oxygen along midocean line ridges or volcanoes are gassy 2 Cometsicomposed of ice with silicate pieces within them source of replenishing water on Earth Large Impactsiliquefied portions of the Earth s crust Two Kinds ofArchean Crust l Oceanic crust produced at spreading centers composed of komatiite and basaltsinow have mostly been destroyed hot lava ows with low viscosity characterized by their spinifex textureilike needles Continental crust protocontinentsihave two main kinds of rocks 1 greenstones metamorphosed basalts and sediments 2 granitoids granitelike N Making of Granitoids mafic rock magnesium iron silicates basalts felsic rocks feldspars and lots of silica Fractional melting analog of the processstarting material is going to be a container of chocolate chip vanilla ice cream apply heat and the ice cream will partially melt and at room temperature the chocolate chips will not melt but will sink this is called differentiation the chocolate chips represent that mafic part and the melted vanilla part is the felsic liquid if the felsic liquid cooled after you poured out the melted material there would be the felsic liquid left and then the chocolate chip part would be left in the original container Partial Meltingbasaltic crust is on top of the mantle there might be a plume of hot material that rise up into the mantle and you get partial melting of the basaltic crust Then some felsic magmas might form Modern analog Iceland sits on basaltic crust over a mantle plume and there is partial melting forming under Iceland as well as felsic magmas Fractional crystallization using the same analog of the processliquid ice cream and chocolate and you cool them the chocolate moves downward and becomes the mafic rock and the felsic liquid is pushed upward plume that goes into crust melts everything and once everything cools off again there is a separation between the mafic and felsic material Weathering magnesium and iron weather out first leaving felsic material behind Archean Plate Tectonics Not as much continental crust during this time as today If you just have basaltic crust you have convergent plate tectonics between the two ocean plates that create island arcs Island arcs weather and produce sediments which metamorphose to form greenstones If you have a series of oceanic crusts being subducted then you have a chain of island arcs and fuse together forming a greenstone belt An example of a greenstone belt is the Barberton Mountain Land Greenstone Belt located in South America these rocks are 34 BY What we see with some ofthese greenstone belts they may have acted like a heat blanket causing heat to build up underneath the belt while there is partial melting of the ma c material which forms granitelike bodies known as granitiods Power Point Portion of Notes Pillow basaltsiformed by submarine lava ows Where does the term spinifeX come from the SpinifeX bush Low solar luminosity hydrothermal activityiArchean summer s day Where do komatiites get heir name quotThe Komati River South Africa Much of the biological record of the Archean has been destroyed Archean Crust there is oceanic crust composed of komatiitic and basalts while continental crust is composed of greenstones metamorphose sedimentary and volcanic rocks and granitoids These greenstones and granitoids form protocontinents Archean Sedimentary Rocks cherticomposed of microcrystalline and quartz chert sandstonesiearliest sandstones mudstonesiparticles of clay minerals banded iron formationiBIF alternating bands of iron oxide and chert Uncommon Sediments limestonesicalcium carbonate uncommon in the Archean because made from organisms with shells which weren t around during the Archean period few carbonate producing organisms during this time quartz sandstonesigrains are made up of quartz early Archean didn t have much quartz evaporitesisea water was twice as salty as today but in order to get a deposit must have continental shelves or shallow basins which weren t around until the Proterozoic period may never have been deposited in the Archean Archean Ocean Evidence for Water 1 Pillow Lavasilave cools in form of blobs only happens with submarine lave ows 2 Sedimentary Rocksineed water to make have crossbedding or ripple marks which show a water environment Salinity 0f Archean Sea Water dissolved sodium chloride then today half of sodium chloride that exists on Earth is dissolved in oceans and half is in evaporates such as the LouAnn near Louisiana so the sea water of the Archean would have been twice that of today Archean Atmosphere oxygen poor in general detrital pyrite backs up the oxygen poor theoryiiron sul de material is what detrital pyrite is and today it is unstable creating rust Archean Life Only Prokaryotes 1 Carbon Spheresiblobs of carbon which are in metamorphose sediments in Greenland that date back to 38 BY ago isotopically light carbon like Cl2 or Cl3 which bugs eat so bugs eat light 2 Body Fossilsifilamentous microfossils in chert found in Archean sediments in North Pole Australia between 3435 BY 3 Stromatolitesikind of a trace fossil in that the actual body parts aren t always preserved made up of calcium carbonate so they are a type of limestone calcium carbonate precipitated by cyanobacteria type of Eubacteria which produce their own food through photosynthesis so live in shallow waters colonies grow upward and can extend for milesthese are the first examples of reefs Proterozoic 25 055 BY 1 Modern Plate Tectonics 2 ClimateiTwo Major Glaciations Snowball Earth 3 LifeiRise of Eukaryotes and MultiCellular Organisms Proterozoic Plate Tectonics 1 Assembly of ProtoNorth America 2 Assembly of First Supercontinent Rodinia Terms we will be using 1 Cratoniderived from a word meaning strength stable region of a continent 2 Orogeniunstable region area of mountain building or metamorphic 3 Aulocogenifailed rift 4 Precambrian Shieldiarea where Precambrian rocks are exposed e g Canadian Shield Proterozoic Plate Tectonics of North America 1 Formation of Laurentiaiform from 56 Archean cratons fused together by Proterozoic orogens one of the cratons was known as the Superior Craton iLake Superior the oldest craton was the Slave Craton Wopmay Orogen is on the Slave Craton Archeani first documented example of continent ripping apart 2 MidContinent Rift an aulocogenioccurred on the southern continent of Laurentia 3 Grenville Orogeny 4 Assembly and Breakup of Rodinia Power Point Portion of Notes Where have scientists recently discovered evidence of life in the Barberton Mountain Archean Pillow Lavas What is Dr Hanor s favorite mineral Baritebarium sulfate very dense and used to keep wells from drying out Proterozoic Physical Geology Laurentia St Lawrence River in Canada Core of nowday North America Composed of Archean cratons and Proterozoic orogens Superior isn t the oldest as the book says the Slave province is Formation of North America 1 Wopmay Orogen a Failed Rifticalled an Aulocogen b Successful Riftifault lines occur sands are deposited by rivers on top of the Archean then limestones precipitated by bacteria and form stromatolites on top of the sand turbidites ne grain sediments coming off of slope form c Ocean Basin Closes d Orogeny MidContinent Rift also an aulocogen created a split which is now both Canada and North America 3 Grenville Orogeny Affected everything from Northern Canada to Texas Formation of SuperContinent Rodinia Northem South America was next to Canada and North America while Western Africa was below all of these masses on the right side on the left side was Antarctica and Australia Rodinia broke apart and there might have been a second supercontinent that formed probably down in the Southern Hemisphere however there is a lack of evidence to support this claim N 4 Proterozoic Life Archeanionly Prokaryotes Proterozoicifrrst evidence for Eukaryotes in list below 1 Biomarkerichemical fossils steraneionly produce by Eukaryotes and traces where found in Proterozoic rocks 2 F irstBody F ossilsiplantlike protists singlecelled found known as Acritarchs Acri confused important because they are producers 3 Prokaryotesistromatolites very diverse Late Proterozoicimulticelled softbodied animals that are represented by trace fossils and impression in sediment probably early forms of animals like worms jellyfrsh sponges probably eating Acritarchs End of the Proterozoici rst skeleton fossil made of calcium carbonate tubes probably made by worms Diversityihow many species are living in an ecological niche in the environment Proterozoic Climate Late Archeani rst glacial deposit of tillite Early Proterozoici rst global glaciations or rst Ice Age Late ProterozoiciSuper Ice Age occurs also called a Snowball Earth removal of carbon dioxideiliquid water freezes creating ice and snow Removal of Carbon Dioxide can be done by 1 Removal by Organisms carbon dioxide and water create organic matter and oxygen but if we bury the organic matter we remove carbon dioxide 2 Rock Weathering carbon dioxide and water create carbonic acid which in addition to granite will create claysiif you bury clays you remove carbon dioxide from atmosphere Supercontinents around South Pole would prove a Super Ice Age Precambrian Atmosphere Archean high carbon dioxide low oxygen Proterozoic variable carbon dioxide increasing oxygen Most oxygen is produced by organisms probably stromatolites contributed the most thentoday plants do Banded Iron Formations BIF consist of alternating bands of iron oxide and silica red chert mostly formed during the Middle Proterozoic most iron used in everyday things comes from BIF Geochemist of Iron metalic iron Fe iron plus twoivery soluble iron plus three is made by iron plus two and oxygenivery insoluble iron oxide can be created Power Point Portion of Notes Why no major evaporite sediments in the Archean Few restricted marine shelves or basins to evaporate sea water What was the salinity of seawater during the Archean May have been twice the salinity of modern seawater How much of Earth s present continental crust is underlain by Precambrian crust Most of it What s the origin of the name Rodinia Russian for Motherland What caused all of the orogenic activity around the margins of Laurentia multicontinent collision Geochemist continued Banded Iron FormationsBIFs iron two is soluble iron three is insoluble Proterozoic Oceans no oxygen in seawater or atmosphere weatheringiadd iron two into the ocean hydrothermal activityisea oor vents discharge iron two into seawater cyanobacteriaiproduce stromatolites photosynthesisiproduce oxygen in addition to organic matter needs sunlight so don t live deep in the ocean iron two and oxygen combine to form iron three which is insoluble precipitates out as iron oxide when there was no more iron to precipitate out the concentration of oxygen in the atmosphere would have increased now we have weathering iron silicate with oxygen in the atmosphere which produces iron oxide form a type of continental sediment called a red bed on the basis of its color Before 2 billion years ago we get BIF s After 2 billion years ago we get real beals Proterozoic New type of sediment called evaporites these weren t seen in the Archean due to steep sides Evaporation of seawater caused precipitation of evaporites which could form on shelves in the ocean Glaciations Very Early Proterozoic rst global Ice Age Late Proterozoic Snow Ball Earth iremoval of carbon dioxide Hot House Earth iaddition of carbon dioxide hot and cold alternation occurred at least three times during the Proterozoic Power Point Portion of Notes Canadian Shield is exposed Precambrian rocks Where can I nd rocks of Proterozoic age in the United States Enchanted Rock Llano Uplift TexasiGrenville age Fossil preservation in Precambrian rocks generally poor Faunas are not very diverse Rocks are old Bacteria protist animals Prokaryote habitats DeepSea ventsichemosynthesis Shallow marine conditionsiphotosynthesis Ediacara faunaimetazoan multicelled animals name comes from Ediacara Hills Australia Fossils of the first animals were found where Ediacara Hills Australia The earliest fossil shells were found in the Latest Proterozoic What is the probable location of most of the continents in Late Proterozoic Around the South Pole even though the slide showed the continents to be near the equator When did ice ages occur in the Proterozoic Very Early Proterozoic and very Late Proterozoic What was the principal source of oxygen in the Proterozoic atmosphere Cyanobacteria What is the age of most of the iron ore used in manufacturing Proterozoic Paleozoic 250my httpjanuccnauedurcb7 Paleozoic is divided up into Cambrian Ordovician Silurian Devonian Mississippian Pennsylvanian together called the Carboniferous Permian Themes that will be covered Tectonics of Laurentia Life on Earth Climate Changes Tectonics of Laurentia Landmass Gondwana was located at the South Pole going up on the right side past the equator on left side moving right Laurentia slightly above equator Avalon slightly below Laurentia Baltica under Siberia Siberia above Baltica and cut in half by the equator Laurentia rotates over time 3 Major 0rogenies which occurred on presentday East coast of North America 1 Taconic Orogeny named after the Taconic Mountains of New York Ordovician time period on the right side of Laurentia moving right there is a trench due to subduction next to an island arc and on the other side of the island arc is the Iapetus Ocean gets destroyed followed by Avalon or Avalonia and above to the right of Laurentia is Baltica 2 Acadian Orogeny Devonian time period both Baltica and Avalon move to the left and slam into Laurentia this mass now is called Euramerica gets its name from Acadie 1604 French came over and settled in Canada calling it this 3 Alleghenian Orogeny Euramerica collides with Africa South America Gondwana extremely large mountain building event occurred from the Mississippian time period to the Permian time period Appalachian Mountains Eastern Canada and Eastern US represents the Taconic Orogeny collision of island arc with Laurentia Acadian Orogeny microcontinent and the Alleghenian Orogeny continentcontinent collision Ouachita Mountains are close to the Appalachian Mountains Interior Part of Laurentia On the right side of Laurentia was the Appalachian Basin and moving in some was the Michigan Basin and the Illinois Basin slightly below the Michigan Basin then the Permian Basin more on the lower left side of Laurentia Michigan and Illinois Basins Intracratonic Basins Presentday Michigan literally sits within the Michigan Basin developed on top of the mid continental rift so sediments formed which accumulated from the Cambrian to the Jurassic Michigan Basin was surrounded by a shallow sea so that evaporites began precipitating out creating a layer of evaporites most table salt used today in US comes from this salt was buried and preserved by having different layers pile on top of it Presentday Illinois sat slightly above to the left of the Illinois Basin Pennsylvanian time period coal was preserved by younger sediments being deposited on top Some of the organic matter has been converted to oil and gas from other Basins Sedimentary Basins are important repositories for salt coal oil and gas Permian Basin Ouachita Mountains are located near the bottom right side of presentday Texas Basin if on the left side of presentday Texas this is a Foreland Basin quotImportant repository for salt oil and gas Paleozoic Life Life already discovered by the end of the Proterozoic Archeobacteria Eubacteria Protists Animals Have not found fungus and plants yet Base of the Cambrian Originallyifirst shelled organisms BUT Late Proterozoic worm tubes were found SO NOW defined as first appearance of a trace fossil burrows in sediment produced by phycodes which is a deposit feeder Earliest Cambrian Small shelly fossils over time organisms get larger Large shelled animals Middle Cambrian Cambrian Explosion great diversity in life Life in the Cambrian was con ned to the oceans so only marine organisms no fresh water organisms no terrestrial organisms All invertebrate groups of animals developed at this time Cambl ian Devonian Marine Base of food chainiArcheaobacteria Eubacteria made stromatolites Plant like Protists Acritarchs and Diatomsisecrete shells made of silica which look like disks H erbivores including animallike protists such as forams shells made of calcium carbonate and radiolaria shells made of silica animals such as sponges corals mollusks Carnivores top carnivore of Early Paleozoic were the Cephalopods sh M0bility of Marine Organisms Planktoni Drifters example protists 7 5 m39 S example r39 39 r J sh quotSessileiFixed usually on the sea oor example corals which form colonies sponges stromatolites increased in diversity until the beginning of the Paleozoic when it decreased sharply because animals like trilobites ate them allifound today in extremely salty conditions Pelagic7 0pen Sea quotBenthz39ciLive on the sea oor some are sessile while others are mobile benthic organisms example trilobite Reef Builders include corals sponges and stromatolites quotM 3D framework built by organisms usually made of calcium carbonate Important because 1 Climate Proxiesiplus or minus thirty degrees of equator usually sessile so if the water becomes colder they will become extinct 2 Oil and Gas Reservoirs Trilobites member of the group called Arthropods jointed foot invertebrates wellpreserved in fossil record so can be used for biostratigraphy deposit feeders source of food for carnivores like sh and cephalopods eyes9made of calcite crystals which focus light on some kind of lensiso had a good idea of light and darldcontrasts became extinct at end of Paleozoic but Arthropods live on craw sh insects Cambrian Life Preserved in the Burgess Shale Burgess Shale is the earliest fossil chordate Two Types of C hordates l Notocordistiff material runs down the length of the animal no shell 2 Vertebrateispinal column is made of bone or cartilage which replaced the notochord earliest ones appear in the early Cambrian which were primitive sh earliest sh was jawless and by the Ordovician these sh diversify tremendously and when we get into the Devonian it is so diverse that it is known as the Age of Fish a Jawless Fish b Spiny sh with jaws c Placodermsi Plateskinned sh d Fish with cartilage rarely preserved for skeletons ex sharksiteeth usually preserved e Fish with bones for skeletons l Ray nned shi n attached directed to body most sh 2 Lobe nned shi n attached by a short lobe precursors to amphibiansimove us onto land Power Point Presentation What produced the most famous angular unconformity in the world in Scotland The Acadian orogeny Did trilobites help to preserve sedimentary bedding No they destroyed it Where is the Burgess Shale located Burgess shale locality British Columbia Canadaiwestem Overview of the Terrestrial F 39 Plants Invertebrates Insects Ve1tebrates Plants N0n vascular vs Vascular tube Nonvascular example would be moss Vascular example would be a blade of grass Spores or Seeds How a plant reproduces 4 Main Kinds of Plants 1 Nonvascular which reproduce by sporesiex mosses 2 Vascular which reproduce by sporesiex fern lycopods wolf foot 3 Vascular which reproduces by seedsiex gymnosperms naked seed 9pine trees ginko bloba 4 Angiospermicovered seed all owering plants This order is based on when they show up in geological time First spores appeared in the Late Cambrian grew at like paper First vascular land plant appeared in Late SilurianEarly Devonian didn t have well developed root system starting off example Rhynie Chert community of photosynthesizers in Scotland Plants Cynaobacteria Algae Fungi Devonian91ycopods develop during this time and are dominant plant well into the Carboniferous characterized by extremely large dragon ies due to production of lots of oxygen during this time Late Paleozoic seed plants develop appearing in the Late Devonian but don t become dominant to Late Paleozoic example is gymnosperms like Glossopteris Invertebrates Devonian9 Lobefinned Fish f1n9feet f1sh9tetropods 4 feet and largely aquatic9amphibians Amphibian spends part of its life on land and part in the water example frogs salamanders Reproduction in Fish and Amphibians female lays eggs in water male comes along later and fertilizes these eggs Amphibians were the dominant land animal until the Permian Reptiles9developed an amniotic egg egg incased in amnion to bring forth young lambs which shields it from the environment so that it thinks it s in water can also have a shell around the amnion quotAmniotesianimals that have amniotic eggs female carries egg around internally and internal fertilization occurs mammals are amniotes not just reptiles becomes dominant terrestrial animal during the Permian Early Amniotes diverged into several groups of reptiles Theraspids mammalvaulted had a differentiation of teeth such as having incisors canines molars Synapsids together vaulted most spectacular of these is the dimetrodon two large teethi sailback lizard dominant during the Permian Archosaurs ruling lizard precursors to the dinosaurs and crocodiles dominant during the Triassic Paleozoic Extinction Events End of Ordovician lce Age Gondwana on South Pole 1 Ice forms sea level drops plankton and nekton benthictrilobites and corals are all victims 2 Melting ofice End of Devonian spread of forests carbon dioxide atmosphere plants carbon dioxide removed Earth cools Ordovician750 of marine genera extinctirelated to cooling event Devonian750 of marine genera extinctirelated to spread of plants on continents which caused cooling Permianilargest extinction 8085 terrestrial and marine species extinct when life on earth almost died Power Point Portion of Notes Why didn t Cambrian animals eat their veggies quotThere were no plants in the Cambrian What type of plant is the principal source of coal in Pennsylvanian sediments Spore trees such as Lycopods Why did placoderms become extinct Because sharks became the top predator and placoderms were unarmored in the back part of their body Name of a fossil that represents a transition between sh and amphibians Tiktaalik


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