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by: Charles Kohler


Charles Kohler
GPA 3.94

B. Christner

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B. Christner
Class Notes
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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Charles Kohler on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 4125 at Louisiana State University taught by B. Christner in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/222792/biol-4125-louisiana-state-university in Biological Sciences at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
PROKARYOTIC DIVERSITY BIOL 4125 SPRING 2012 Brent Christner 282b Life Science Building of ce 225578 1734 xnerlsuedu brentxnernetBIOL4125 Why should we care about microbial diversity Subtopic Environmentallsocietallscientific relevance Genetic diversity of life Origin and evolution of life Biogeochemical cycling Animal husbandry soil fertility global warming Infectious disease Emerging pathogensantibiotic resistance Microbial fermentation Food and alcohol production Microbial degradation Energy production and bioremediation Aquatic microbiology Water quality Oxidationreduction reactions Ore mining biofouling of petroleum Biotechnology GEMs pharmaceuticalantibiotic production Geological timescale and major events in Earth s history y F W Precambrian 9 409 A xix g 1 l Archean Proterozoic Harlem 050103124 agozosaw 39 billion years of microbial evolution 90 of life s history is microbial History of the Earth as a single calendar year Event Age Ma Calendar date Earth formed 4550 1 January Oldest rocks 3800 1 March First fossils 3500 25 March 02 in the atmosphere 2000 24 July Multicellular life 680 7 November Dinosaurs extinct 65 26 December 31 December Neanderthal man 0042 115516 PM 31 December Recorded history 0005 115925 PM Life of a student 31 December 20 years 000002 11595986 PM Nothin39 in bioo makes sense except in the light of evolution Theodosius Dobzhansky Biology Molecular and Organismic 1964 Determining microbial phylogeny is not simply the extension of evolutionary srudy to all life on this planet Rather than its providing the few missing pieces in the Vreat uzzle of evolution bacterial evolution in effect is the puzzle Carl Woese Bacterial Evolution 1987 Haeckel39s 3 kingdom phylogeny 1866 Plims ammals and mlfroorgi fqms The 5 kingdom classification scheme Plante Prnl39lll ES SEER w m 1quot Animale Plants Protists Fungi Monera M s mmyh nu nher mm mh aw quotquot quotquot M I PJJIL J 7m 1 http lltolweb orgtree Most of the genetic diversity resides in the microbial world B t 39 a b ac erla m a a E i a 33 e a 5 r o 3 9 5 E 61 O 61 x 5 go 335 00 L 395 b 390 3 r 05 Q 91 o E 0Q 6 0 91 6390 ogogo c g 392 Chic05mm 029 3 Methanospir ium Leplonema Clostridium mparire Gp 1 low temp 39rlus GD 39 JquotOMYe reba jg ume psL 31 12 2 low 907me He had 3 Armwoge pyrodgfpxoi s emp views 24 09 9 go 900r 090 0 A h 6amp0 Edda u 9 90 0 30 2 13 906 3 A a 34 9 01 changes per site E Small Rlbosomal Subunlt 3 9 is I I I I 6 Involved In protein syntheSIs 3 i3 33 m as m PRESENT IN ALL LIFE 2 cc 390 3 Eucarya m 5 a 63 m 9 6 2 Pace NR Ivvl oucnuc LIUJO l I lU Total oversimplification of a food web Humans f Carnivores f Herbivores f Autotrophs f Decomposers y ssewogq 5USBGIOU The efficiency of carbon and energy transfer is only 10 between trophic levels From an ecological perspective the Earth is a microbial planet the microbial world is immense NOTE there are 1000000000 times more microbes on Earth than stars in the Universe Environment of cells a g 6832 4 Aquatic habitats 12 x 1029 22 160 Soil 26 x 1029 26 640 x 103 Oceanic subsurface quot H V Terrestrial subsurface u A TOTAL 46 x 1030 350550 NA Prokaryotic carbon 60100 of the estimated carbon in plants Data from aWhitman et al 1998 PNAS 956578 6583 b Curtis et al 2002 PNAS 9910494 10499 To a great extent microbiology is taught as a body of preexisting facts and the student is not aware of the way in which current theories have developed out of the past Thomas D Brock Milestones in Microbiology 1961 Notable Milestones in Microbiology Year Event 1676 Antonie van Leeuwenhoek describes bacteria 1799 Lazaro spallanzanl attempts to disprove spontaneous generation 1861 Louis Pasteur demolishes the spontaneous generation theory 1866 Ernst Haeckel introduces the term ecology 1883 Robert Koch develops method to culture and isolate bacteria 1887 Sergei Winogradsky develops the concept of chemoautotrophy 190 5 Martinus Beijerinick characterizes bacterial nitrogen and sulfur transformations describes hlS work as microbial ecology 1953 James Watson and Francis Crick solve structure of DNA 1980 Carl Woese describes archaea and proposes 3 domains of life 1985 Kary Mulis invents the PCRwhiIe driving down the road 1995 Complete sequence of a bacterial genome 2004 Craig Venter uses genome sequencmg to examine Sargasso sea microbiota and identifies 12 million previously unknown genes Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Minor city official in Delft Holland 1 Microscope building was a hobby r In 1676 visualized bacteria in rain snow seawater and the scum on his teeth Refers to them as wee animalcules First to see blood cells and living sperm Kept his construction methods a secret Published observations from 1674 to 1723 Did not speculate on the origin of microbes or their relationship to disease N m Lens Epechnen holder Focus raw Handle Above quot w Replica of van Leeuwenhoek s microscope It is amazing that van Leeuwenhoek was able to visualize bacteria since he built microscopes with a single lens rather than the compound type used today Louis Pasteur Father of Microbiology and Immunology Chirality and stereochemistry Development of the germ theory Microbial origin of fermentations Anaerobic metabolism Disproved spontaneous generation Developed Pasteurization Microbes as agents of disease 18221895 Treatment and prevention of rabies His scientific approaches intuition and breadth of accomplishment mark Louis Pasteur as a giant among scientists Spontaneous Generation Living organisms spring forth from nonliving materials Aristotle hypothesized that decaying material could be transformed by the spontaneous action of Nature into life The theory held for 20 centuries k Van Helmont39s mice recipe place grain cheese and old rags in a container and store in a quiet dark place After a while mice will appear Vitalism life cannot be explained by physical principles Beliefs were based on untested interpretations of the world Observation When meat rots there are a lot of flies around Conclusion Rotting meat is the source of the ies Concept was not questioned until mid 17th century Experimentally examined by Spallanzani and others By 1860 the debate was so heated the Paris Academy of Sciences offered a prize 2500 francs for experiments that would resolve the conflict Pasteur s experiment with swannecked flasks Air forced Dust and out open microbes end trapped in bfnd Liquid remains sterile indefinitely Liquid cooled slowly Nonsterile liquid Neck of flask poured into flask drawn out in flame Liquid sterilized by heating The Institut Pasteur Paris France No more shall the theory of Liquid ppedso Microbialgmwth spontaneous generation ever microbeladen dust in Ii uid after q rear Its ugly head again contacts sterile liquid short time Robert Koch Formulates Koch s Postulates 1 A specific microorganism must be present in all cases of a disease 2 The organism must be obtained via pure culture 3 When inoculated into a fresh host the organism will cause disease 4 The organism must be obtained via pure culture from the infected host Work with impure cultures yields nothing but nonsense and Penicillium glaucum Develops simple and reproducible method for isolating pure cultures in 1881 Introduces the pure culture paradigm The farreaching implications or me Koch plate technique are obvious to all bacteriologists Perhaps no technique has had such an important influence on the development of the eld Thomas Brock biography of Robert Koch The ability to culture microorganisms in pure culture ushers m at cm w me significant advances are made in microbial pathogenesis genetics molecular biology and biochemistry However this approach severely limits the species which microbiologist s studied and our perception of the microbial world was based on species which enumerated under laboratory conditions


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