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by: Cassie Koepp


Cassie Koepp
GPA 3.61

K. Sullivan

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K. Sullivan
Class Notes
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassie Koepp on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2051 at Louisiana State University taught by K. Sullivan in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/222793/biol-2051-louisiana-state-university in Biological Sciences at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
Aerobic respiration Electron transport chain In aerobic respiration the pair of electrons from NADH is passed through a series of intermediates middle men to oxygen NADH is oxidized back to NAD oxygen is reduced to water Oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor There are several types of intermediates that pass electrons from NADH to oggen so these are electron carriers avoproteins cytochromes quinones ironsulfur proteins These components make up an electron transport chain ETC In prokaryotes the ETC is in the c oplasmic membrane In eukaryotes the ETC is in the quot 39 A la were ATP is made power house of the cell Electron transport chain series of membrane associated electron carriers that carry cytoplasmic membrane electrons from the prima electron donor to the NADH terminal electron acceptor NADI During electron transfer electron transport systems cytoplasm pen pusm conserve some ofthe released energy for the synthesis of ATP Different organisms have different ETC cw Some have more than one ETC for different growth conditions R 12 02 J cm H H20 Electrons are passed from one compound to the next At each step some energy from the electrons is used to push hydrogen ions across the CM into the periplasm or the outside of the CM Hydrogen ion gradientproton motive forcechemiosmosis This creates a hydrogen ion gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane outside becomes more acidic or positively charged then inside the CM Outside of CM is now more acidic and more than the cytoplasm cytoplasm periplasm H H Thls grad1ent 1s a source of potential energy H ADP P H H Ht ATPase 39 H ATP H ATPase enzyme which adds a phosphate group to ADP to make ATP Ht ATPase does this by allowing protons to cross back into the cytoplasm Energy is released by reducing the hydrogen ion gradient this energy is used to make the high energy bond of ATP Oxidative phosphorylation process of using the hydrogen ion gradient to make ATP which is the main way organism make ATP for respiration Substratelevel vs OXidative Phosphorylation Substratelevel phosphorylation ATP is made by transferring a high energy phosphate group to ADP OXidative phosphorylation Energy from a hydrogen ion gradient is used to make ATP When does each occur Find out if an organism grow by anerobic what substatateb0th Respiration and Fermentation summary Fermentation glucose to pyruvate to fermentation productselectron from NADH used to reduce pyruvate Net gain 2 ATP glucose Respiration glucose to pyruvate then pyruvate is oxidized to C02 in TCA cycleelectron from NADH are transferred to oxygen though the ETC up to 38 ATP glucose Anaerobic respiration Same process as aerobic respiration start with glycolsis Electrons from NADH are passed down an ETC losing energy at each step Energy is used to move protons across cytoplasmic membrane to periplasm Energy from hydrogen ion gradient is used by ATP ase to make ATP oxidative phosphorylation Difference final electron acceptor is some compound other than oxygen not sure ab this In anaerobic respiration electron acceptors other than 02 such as nitrate ferric iron sulfate and carbonate can function as terminal electron acceptors for energy generation Insert figure from moodle Chemolithotrophs use inorganic compounds such as hydrogen sulfide hydrogen gas ferrous iron and ammonia as primary electron donor didn t Aerobic or anaerobic respiration takes place it just starts with an inorganic instead of organic molecule Phototrophs use light to form a proton motive force iphotosynthesis Insert figure Alternatives to glycolysis Pentosephosphate pathway EntnerDoudoroff pathway Pentosephosphate pathway Named for phosphorvlaed pentose 5 carbon sugars ribulose xylulose and ribose that are formed from G6P Used for production of precursors metabolites needed in anabolic reactions Net 1 ATP glucose Ribulose 15bisphosphate used in Calvin cycle is made by phosphorylating a precursor from this pathway EntnerDoudoroff pathway Glucose to pyruvate using different enzymes than glycolysis Net 1 ATP glucose and percuser metabolites Used by few bacteria like Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcusfaecalis Gluconeogenesis production of glucose from nonsugar precursors almost a reversal of glycolsis Some cells can make glucose from amino acids glycerol and fatty acids using this pathway Glycolysis in reverse Uses most of the same enzymes as glycoysis There are 4 unique enzymes used in this pathway Requires large amounts of energy Biosynthesis Anabolism ll precursor metabolites in E coli 6 from glycolysis 3 from TCA 2 from pentose phosphate Anabolic pathways convert precursors made in glycolysis TCA etc into building blocks monomers such as amino acids and nucleotides Monomers are polymerized to form macromolecules proteins amp nucleic acids amp structures LPS bonds For an they must be biosynthesized from simpler components a process called anabolism 0 Solid lines catabolic pathways 0 Dashed lines anabolic pathways 0 Compounds written in lowercase precursor metabolism I NUCLEOTIDES LPS amp AMINO ACIDS Lps 777777777777777 g1ucose5phosphate4gt a riboseSpho phale Pentose Phosphate Cycle PEPTIDOGLYCAN amp f v c rl rl o 7 y39h A rh rh c LPS AMINO ACIDS glyceraldehyde3phosphate x 3phosphoglycerate quotgt AMINO ACIDS amp PHOSPHOLIPIDS phosphoenolpyruvate AMINO ACIDS vatequotx PHOSPHOLIPIDS pym l acetleoA AMINO ACIDS 4 W oxaloacetate Metabglwl twmgv A TCA Cycle uketoglutarate 7777777 77gt AMINO ACIDS lt7 4 The Phototrophic Way of Life Phototrophs use light as energy source 2 types of photosynthesis Anoxygenic no oxygen generated at the end of photosynthesis Most photosynthetic bacteria are anoxygenic phototrophs All prokaryotes Oxygenic water is split to produce oxygen C 39 la and photosynthetic eukaryotes plants are oxygenic phototrophs Diagram on moodle Pigments of photosynthesis chlorophylls in oxygenic phototrophs bacteriochlorophylls in anoxygenic phototrphs located in photosynthetic membranes where the light reactions of photosynthesis are carried out Photosynthetic eukaryotes have chloroplasts that contain the photosynthetic membranes known as thylakoids Since photosynthetic prokaryotes do not have chloroplasts the photosynthetic membranes are the c oplasmic membrane in many bacteria chlorosomesg line up and attach to CM in green bacteria or Thylakoid membranes in cyanobacteria have them but they are not in chloroplast The ultimate in lowlight efficiency is found in the chlorosome of green sulfur bacteria and C hloro exus Can grow deep under water but still collect enough light for photosvnthesis most efficitent light quot quot organism Can grow at lowest Antenna chlorophyll molecules harvest light energy and transfer it to reaction center where the conversion of light energy to ATP occurs Different pigments absorb different wavelengths of light organism have several different types of chlorophylls each will absorb diff wavelengths of light There are several different chlorophylls and bacteria chlorophylls each with a unique absorption spectra Different species have different pigments making it easy for two organisms to coexist in a habitat without competing for light energy 39J and I J 39 quot39 accessory pigments that absorb light and transfer the energy to reaction center chlorophylls ATP made in rxn centers Chlorophylls can only absorb certain wavelengths of light Accessory pigments allow organisms to capture additional wavelengths of light organisms don t have to compete for light Carotenoids also play an important photoprotective role in preventing photooxidative damage due to toxic forms of oxygen to cells DIDN T In photosynthesis a series of electron transport reactions in the photosynthetic reaction center of phototrophs results in the formation of a proton motive force and the synthesis of ATP instead of starting w glucose these organisms store light for energy Anoxygenic Photosynthesis Photosynthesis that does not produce oxygen as a byproduct DO I need to know Anoxygenic phototrophs include members of the following bacterial phyla o Proteobacteria pruple sulfur and purple nonsulfur bacteria gram o Chloro exus green nonsulfur gram o Chlorobium green sulfur gram o Heliobacteria gram positive 0 Rhodobacter species are used for studying anoxygenic photosynthesis most studied They use photosynthesis in the light respiration in the dark and grow in the presence or absence of oxygen Oxygenic Photosynthesis Algae and cyanobacteria use electrons from H20 to reduce NADP for C02 xation producing 02 as a by product Two separate light reactions in oxygenic photosynthesis photosystems I amp II Photosystem I resembles the system in anoxygenic photosynthesis no oxygen is generated here Photosystem II splits H20 to yield 02 Autotrophic Fixation The Calvin Cycle Autotrophs use C02 as sole carbon source don t need a sugar Convert C02 into organic carbon compoundsC02 xation Many that x C02 use the CalvinBenson cycle Calvin cycle C02 ribulose 39 39 39 39 RibisCo are used in cycle to eventually make glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate then fructose6phosphate Take carbon dioxide gas aand make it into something they can use in glycolsis requires large amount of ATP F6P goes into glycolysis Glycolysis amp TCA occur just as mentioned previously starting with F6P Several autotrophic prokaryotes that use the Calvin cycle for C02 xation produce cell inclusions called carboxysomes storage for RubisCO that store molecules of RubisCO o The Calvin cycle is an energydemanding process in which C02 is converted into sugar o Hexose sugars can be used by the cell or put into storage polymers like glycogen starch or polyBhydroxyalkanoates Autotrophic Fixation Reverse Citric Acid Cycle and the Hydroxypropionate Cycle Green sulfur bacteria use the reverse citric acid pathway for C02 xation NEED TO KNOW Green nonsulfur bacteria such as Chloro exus use the hydro u 39 pathway to x C02 Chloro exus is the oldest anoxygencic phototrophic Bacteriaso the hydro pathway was maybe the rst pathway developed to x C 02 Possibly the rst attempt at autotrophy in anoxygenic phototrophs Chemolithotrophy Energy from the Oxidation of Inorganic Electron Donors Chemolithotrophs oxidize inorganic chemicals as their sole source of Energy Most are also autotrophs Some are mixotrophs although they are able to obtain energy from the oxidation of an inorganic compound they require an organic compound as a carbon source Use inorganic compounds such as hydrogen sul de hydrogen gas ferrous iron and ammonia as electron donors Most of the time oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor so aerobic respiration takes place it just starts with an inorganic instead of organic molecule Moodle diagram Chemolithotrophs metabolism Most are aerobic Examples of chemolithotrophy 1 Hydrogen Oxidation Hydrogen bacteria Oxidize the hydrogen gas thereby generating a proton motive force and ATP synthesis These chemolithotrophs are also autototrophs and x C02 Via the calvin cycle cytoplasm peanasm H Generate energy by oxidizing hydrogen gas Electrons from hyrdrogen are passed down an ETC to oxygenwhich is the nal electron acceptor so water is made Ithink aerobic repiration diagram this one is different in that no NADH hygrogen bacteria no not oxidize NADH to make the proton motive force they use hyrogogen gas to get energy for protonmotive force Hydrogen ion gradient in formed ATPase uses potential energy from this gradient to make ATP Example Ralstom39a If organic compounds are present most hydrogen bacteria will grow as Chemoorganotrophs but if organic compounds are absent they grow chemolithotrophically and fix C02 by the calVin cycle 2 Oxidation of Reduced Sulfur Compounds Sulfur bacteria Oxidize reduced sulfur compounds such as H2S and S0 to sulfate SO42 Sulfate is exported to the enVironment where it reacts with hydrogen ions to form sulfuric acid When sulfur is oxidized electrons are donated to ETC where electron acceptors is usually oxygen aerobic organisms Causes hydrogen ion gradient which ATPase uses to generate ATP only diff is what is it that donates electrons to ETC not but the sulfur stuff These chemolithotrophs are also autotrophs and use the ClaVin cycle to fix C02 Most are aerobic so oxygen is the final electron acceptor Ithink Example Beggistoa 3 Iron Oxidation Iron oxidizing bacteria Chemolithotrophs that generate energy by oxidizing ferrous iron Fe to ferric iron F53 Most are obligately acidophilic organe color is due to the oxidation of Fe2 4 Nitri cation Nitrifying bacteria Can convert NH3 9 N03 oxidize inorganic nitrogen aerobically oxygen nal electron acceptor by process called nitri cation Ammonia NH3 and nitrite NOZ39 are the most common inorganic nitrogen compounds used as electron donors Nitrosifyers oxidize ammonia to nitrite which is then oxidized by nitrite oxidizers to nitrate Most nitrifying bacteria are also heterothroph able to use glucose or other organic carbon source Nh39 nitrosifyersN029 No3 Metabolic Diversity Anaerobic Respiration pay attention to what is nal Anaerobic respiration uses molecules other than oxygen as nal electron acceptor Obligate anaerobes solely use anaerobic respiration Some facultative anaerobes like denitrifying bacteria use aerobic respiration in the presence of oxygen but when oxygen is depleted switch to anaerobic respiration Nitrate Reduction and Denitri cation nitrogen forom soil to nitrogen gas Nilrule N031 Nitrate redunase Nilrile N0 N 2 itrite redunase Nilrit ox de 10 N ilric oxide reductase Nilrous oxdel120 gt to the Nitrous oxide redunase Dinilrogen N2 converts nitrite to nitric oxide Denitrifying bacteria EX escape from environment nitrate is the electron acceptor Electron transport process in the membrane of Ecoli When 02 or N03 is used as an electron acceptor and NADH is the electron donor Reduce nitrate N03 to gases such as nitrogem N2 nitrous oxide NZO and nitric oxideNO ETC process is same as aerobic respiration Difference electrons are used to reduce nitrate instead of oxygen Gases released atmosphere denitri ca on ecole converts nitrate to nitrite Pp cwuplamxc NADH m 11 avupmtem NAD cytuplasm penplasm Now ZH NOI H20 2 Sulfate Reduction Sulfatereducing bacteria use sulfate as an electron acceptor anaerobic respiration converting the sulfate to hydrogen sulfide How would the above ETC diagram be different for sulfate reducers Sulfate is the final electron acceptor 3 Methanogenesis Biological production of methane CH4 from C02 plus H2 or from methylated compounds and end up producing methane Methanogens strictly anaerobic Archaea capable of methanogenesis Energy is produced using proton and sodium ion gradients so it doesn t always have to be the hydrogen gradient Besides inorganic nitrogen and sulfur compounds or C02 a variety of other substances both organic and inorganic can function as electron acceptors fro anaerobic respiration Metabolic Diversity Nitrogen Fixation Nitrogen xation is the reduction of atmospheric N2 to ammonia NH3 Most organisms must use oxidized nitrogen compounds No2 NH3 from the environment as nitrogen source Some can use nitrogen gas nitrogen f1xationconvert it into NH3 which is used to make organic compounds minority does this 40 ATP consumed for each N2 fixed so not a way to make ATP Occurs in some prokaryotesvery few not in eukaryotes Nitrogen fixation requires an enzyme complex called nitrongenase Nitrogenase is inhibited by oxygen so organisms that x oxygen have to prevent this Easiest x Many organisms only x N when growing anaerobically Aerobic nitrogen xing bacteria prevent the oxygen needed for respiration from interacting with nitrogenase by rapid removal of 02 by repiration have a quick metabolism oxygen used immediately producing 02 retarding slime layer for not fast metabolism compartmentalization of nitrogenase in special cells some species of cyanobacteria have heterocyst where nitrogen xation occurs every 10 cells one will become heterocyst and x nitrogen and take it to places Others Rhizobz39um are intracellular symbionts within plants Rhizobium provides plants with N plant protects bacteria and keeps nitrogenase from being destroyed by oxygen


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