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by: Charles Kohler


Charles Kohler
GPA 3.94

Adam Hrincevich

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Adam Hrincevich
Class Notes
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This 52 page Class Notes was uploaded by Charles Kohler on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1001 at Louisiana State University taught by Adam Hrincevich in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/222800/biol-1001-louisiana-state-university in Biological Sciences at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
CHAPTER 1 An nitroducten to Life n Earth Defining Life 0 Dictionary definition oflife is the quality that distinguishes a Vital and functioning being from a dead body 0 Living things are more than just the sum of their parts 9 life is difficult to define Certain characteristics define what is technically alive Characteristics defining LIFE gt19 Structure is complex Acquire materials and energy from the environment Maintain internal conditions Growth Respond to stimuli Reproduce Capacity to evolve Living Things Are Both Complex and Organized Salt organized Living Things Are Both Complex and Organized 0 Ocean Complex Living Things Are Both Organized and Complex Living Things Are Both Organized and Complex 0 Each level of complexity or structure is based on the one below it 0 Levels of biological organization in order of least to most complex illustrated in Figure 1amp2 Mos r complex Least complex NOIlVZINVSHO 39IVOISO39IOIS IO S39IEAE39I Mos r complex Cellular NerveCell Organelle P ochondrion Molecular Water Atomic Hydr gen l e is su I C Proton Neutron Electron Leos r complex NOIlVZINVSHO 39IVOISO39IOIS IO S39IEIAEI39I Mos r complex Organism Organ System Organ Tissue Leas r complex NOILVZINVSHO quotIVOISO39IOIE IO S39IEIAEI39I MOST complex Biosphere Population 7 Least complex W Herd of Pronghorns This is a good exam question NOILVZINVSHO quotIVOISO39IOIE IO S39IEIAEI39I The CELL Smallest unit of LIFE 39 x 5 cell membrane R organelles quotFe1 7quot v V Living Things Respond to Stimuli Organisms sense and respond to internal and external environmental stimuli Sensory organs detect and respond to external stimuli Light Sound Chemicals Plants and bacteria respond to stimuli as well 0 Light Attraction towards nutrients Living Things Maintain Internal Conditions Homeostasis maintenance of a relatively constant internal condition Body temperature pH of blood Water concentration 0 Automatic mechanisms maintain homeostasis Sweating in hot weather or during exercise Metabolizing more food Basking in the sun to raise body temperature Organisms still grow and change while maintaining homeostasis Living Things Acquire and Use Materials and Energy Materials and Energy required to maintain organization grow and reproduce Important materials nutrients acquired from air water soil or other living things Metabolism is the sum total of all the chemical reactions needed to sustain life Organisms obtain energy in two ways Autotrophs make own food Heterotrophs eat others All energy that sustains life comes directly or indirectly from the sun Living Things Grow 0 Every organism becomes larger over time Organism grow by producing more cells to increase their mass Bacteria grow by enlarging their cells and divide to make more individuals 0 Growth involves the conversion of acquired materials to molecules of the organism s body Living Things Reproduce Themselves o Organisms give rise to offspring of the same type reproduction The parent s genetic material DNA is passed on to the offspring creating continuity of life 0 Diversity oflife occurs because offspring may be genetically different from their parents DNA is the Molecule of Heredity DNA is the Molecule of Heredity 0 An organism s DNA is the molecular instruction manual for operating its body 0 A copy of the parent s is DNA made and passed to its offspring in a highly accurate copying process Occasional errors in copying mutation produce variety Mutation and therefore variation is essential for living things to evolve Living Things As a Whole Have the Capacity to Evolve The genetic composition of a whole species changes over many generations Mutations and variable offspring allow a species to evolve Evolution states that modern organisms descended with modification from preexisting lifeforms Natural Selection is a process where organisms with certain adaptation survive and reproduce more successfully than others Categorizing Life Organisms can be groups into 3 Domains Bacteria single simple cells Archaea single simple cells extremes Eukarya one or more highly complex cells a The domain Bacteria cellwall plasma membrane genetic material DNA l l 1 micrometer A colorenhanced electron micrograph of a dividing bacterium Bacteria are unicellular and prokar otic most are surrounded by a thick cell wall Some bacteria photosynthesize but most absorb food from their surroundings b The domain Archaea I A colorenhanced electron micrograph of an archaean The cell wall appears red and DNAis scattered inside Man archaeans can survive extreme conditions This Antarctic species lives at temperatures as low as 25 C Categorizing Life Domain Eukarya contains four subdivision Fungi Figure 18 d Plantae Figure 18 e Animalia Figure 18 f The Protist Figure 18 G c A protist domain Eukarya oral groove food contractile mouth vacuoles vacuole l l 10 micrometers This light micrograph of a Paramecium illustrates the complexity of these large normally single eukaryotic cells Some protists photosynthesize but others ingest or absorb their food Many including Paramecium are mobile moving with cilia orflagella d The kingdom Fungi domain Eukarya food is digested by enzymes secreted outside the funga body Most fungi cannot move e The kingdom Plantae domain Eukarya Thrs butter y Weed represents the owermg btahts the dormhaht members otthe km dorh Ptahtae Ftowehh btahts owe rhueh ottherrsueeess to mutuaHy behehetat retatbhshrbs wrth amma such as these beart cresceht uttermes rhwhreh the owerprovtdes foo ah e msect carhes poHen trorh owerto ower tertrhzrhg therh Ptahts are mutttceHu ar nonmome eukaryotes that acqurre huthehts by photosynthests if The kingdom Animalia domain Eukarya A wrasse rests on a so coral Animals are multicellular animal bodies consist ofa wide asso men 0 tissues and organs composed of specialized cell types Most animals can move and respond rapi ly o imuli The cora is a mem er of the largest group of animals the invertebrates which lack a backbone This group also includes insects an mollusks The wrasse is a vertebrate like humans it has a backbone Categorizing Life There are 3 characteristics are particularly useful to categorize life 1 Cell type 2 The number of cells in each organism 3 How it acquires energy Dumaim Bacteria Archaea Eukuryu 1 Kingdom Cell 1m Under discussion Pmkarymic Under discussion Prukarymic Fungi Eukaryo c Home Eukuryonc Animuua Euknrya c Ce Number Mul cenular Copyrighl 2005 Pearson Pventme Hall Inc Energy A Absorption phonosymhesis arp an scrpnan Pholosymhesis Ingesncn Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Types in the Domains Cell types names after ofa nucleus The nucleus is a membrane enclosed sac containing the cell s genetic material 0 Two cell types seen among all living things Prokaryotic before nucleus in Greek Lacking organelles or a nucleus Cell type found in Domains Bacteria and Archaea Eukaryotic true nucleus in Greek Contains a variety of organelles including a nucleus Cell type found only among members of Domain Eukarya Unicellularity and Multicellularity in Bacteria Archaea and the Kingdoms of Eukarya 0 Unicelluar singlecelled organisms found in Bacteria Archaea The protists in Eukarya Multicellular manycelled organisms found in Eukaraya Kingdom Fungi Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Animalia Ways Organisms Acquire Energy Autotrophs selffeeders Photosynthetic organisms that capture sunlight and store it in sugar and fats Includes plants some bacteria and some protists Ways Organisms Acquire Energy o Heterotrophs eat others Organisms that acquire energy through ingesting molecules in the bodies of other organisms Includes many archaeans bacteria protists fungi and animals Size of food eaten varies Scientific Principles Underlie All Scientific Inquiry 0 Biology is a scientific discipline 0 All scientific inquiry is based on a small set of assumptions or principles Natural causality cause and effect Uniformity in space and time Common perception Principle 1 Natural Causality Historical approaches to studying life 1 Belief that some events happen through supernatural forces ie Greek gods 2 Belief that all events can be traced to natural Causes 0 Evidence gathered from nature has not been deliberately distorted to fool us Principle 11 Natural Laws Apply Everywhere Natural laws are uniform in space and time o This principle is key to the understanding of biological events eg evolution that occurred before humans recorded them Creationism is contrary to the principle of uniformityintime and natural causality Creationists hold that different species were created one at a time by the direct intervention ofa supernatural being contrary to events we see happening today Principle 111 Science Assumes Similar Perceptions Among All Humans o All human beings perceive natural events in fundamentally the same way 0 Common perception allows us to accept observations of other humans as reliable Common perception is usually not found in appreciation of art poetry and music or between cultures or religious beliefs Value systems are subjective Science requires objectively gathered data The Scientific Method Is the Basis for Scientific Inquiry Scientific inquiry is a rigorous method for making observations 1 Observation of a phenomenon Development of questions 2 Formulation of hypothesis Form statement that explains observations 3 Testing through experimentation Additional controlled observations 4 Development of a conclusion Evaluation of hypothesis in light of experimental data Important Experimental Considerations in the Scientific Method Scientific experimentation tests the assertion that a single variable causes a particular observation The experiment must rule out the in uence of other possible variables Controls are incorporated into experiments Controls keep untested variables constant ammum FHES swarm aruund meat E m the upen Francesco Redl 5 experiment maggms appear m meat WWW Fhes pruguee tne magguts Keepmg rnes awav num meat wm prevent tne appearance at magguts swamquot r wt Obtam tgentteat pteees pr meat and Wu tgentteat jars Wane meat m eaen jar 4 steps a v Cuverjar uneuvereg wtn gauze Lemma Expenmentatvanapte gauzeprev nts e ryuffhes l Leave expusEd ountmueg vanames Leave euvereg fur severat days we temperaturejur severat gavs I mace u Fhes swarm aruung HES Kg Wu mm Resutts 3 and magguts appean nu magguts appear39 Cuntmt sttuattun Expenmentat sttuattun Dm us w Spuntaneuus generater pr magguts num meat gues nut neeun mes are prupaptvtne some at magguts Copyngnt 2005 Pearson Frentme Han Inc Limitations of the Scientific Method Can never be sure all untested variables are controlled Conclusions based on the experimental data must remain tentative Results of experimentation must be communicated thoroughly and accurately to other scientists for repetition Repetition by other scientists add verification that findings can be used as the basis for further studies Science is a Human Endeavor 0 Human personality traits are part of real sc1ence Scientists like other people may be driven by pride ambition or fear 0 Scientists sometimes makes mistakes Accidents lucky guesses intellectual powers and controversies with others contribute strongly to scientific advances Fleming s Discovery of Penicillin Highlights Real Science in the 19205 Copyright 2005 Fearsnn Prermce Hall Inc Scientific Theories Have Been Thoroughly Tested A scientific theory differs in definition from that of everyday usage Many people use the word theory to mean hypothesis and educated guessquot 0 A scientific theory is a general explanation for important natural phenomena It is extensively and reproducibly tested It is more like a principle or natural law eg the atomic gravitational and cell theories lfcompelling evidence arises a theory may be modified Types of Reasoning Used in Science Inductive Reasoning Used in the development of scientific theories A generalization is created from many observations Deductive Reasoning Generating hypotheses based on a well supported generalization such as a theory Three Natural Processes Underlie Evolution Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace formulated the basis of our modern understanding of evolution 0 Evolution arises as a consequence of three natural processes 1 Genetic variation among members of a population Inheritance ofthose varations by offspring ofparents carrying the variation 3 Natural Selection of individuals whose survival and enhanced reproduction are due to the favorable varations they carry Much of the Variability Among Organisms is Inherited Genetic variation arises from segments of DNA genes 0 Changes in genes mutation alter the informational content 0 Mutations arise from a number of sources UV radiation or copying mistakes in DNA Much of the Variability Among Organisms is Inherited 0 Effect of mutation No effect harmless A decrease in organism s ability to function Death of the organism An increase in an organism s ability to survive and reproduce rare Mutations occurring over millions of years and passed through many generations cause members ofa species to be slightly different Natural Selection Preserves Genes that Enhance Survival and Reproduction Organisms that best meet environmental challenges leave the most offspring Natural selection preserves genes that help organisms ourish Adaptations are structures physiological process or behaviors that aid in survival and reproduction Adaptations that are good for one environment may be poor in another Biodiversity Arises from Different Environmental Challenges Biodiversity Arises from Different Environmental Challenges o The many different habitats environments in an area coupled with evolutionary adaptive processes produce species variety or biodiversity Humans are responsible for accelerating the rate of environmental change and therefore the rate of extinction of species


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