New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Charles Kohler


Charles Kohler
GPA 3.94

D. Longstreth

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

D. Longstreth
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Biological Sciences

This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Charles Kohler on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1201 at Louisiana State University taught by D. Longstreth in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see /class/222805/biol-1201-louisiana-state-university in Biological Sciences at Louisiana State University.

Popular in Biological Sciences


Reviews for BIOL FOR SCI MAJ I


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/13/15
Lecture 19 Guide November 3 READINGS pgs 297302 305310 in Campbell Biology 9th edition MASTERING BIOLOGY Online Homework 18 due before class at 1130 am Continue from Organelle Inheritance in Lecture 18 Inheritance of Organelle Genes genes in mitochondria and chloroplast are transferred by cytoplasm 1mitochondrial inheritance Mitochondrial myopathy Always passed from mother to children both sexes never from the father to children 2 chloroplast inheritance in plants Evolution and Inheritance 1 1859 Darwin postulates differential survival because of natural selection of quottraitsquot 2 1865 Mendel publishes first mechanism for inheritance 3 1910 Morgan shows quotgenesquot reside on chromosomes Molecular Basis of Inheritance 1 Eukaryotic chromosomes composed of protein and deoxyribonucleic acid DNA 2 1910 to 1940sprotein thought to contain genetic information Early Experiments Griffith 1928 genetic trait transferred between pathogenic S and nonpathogenia R bacterial strains Q36 pa LiveSceH Live as Deaaseeii Wufdezds and hver M d Manse hves muse ieS Muusehves Mme was Avay at Al 1944 tested protein DNA and RNA as some of genetic information Extracted protein DNA arid RNA from pamogeruc ceHs Inacuvated each type Added combinations of inactivated ad activated moiecuies to nonpathogenic ceHs Transformahon oniy occurred Winn activated DN Hershey and chase 1952 1nnnin tin 39 39 J39 39 quot new Virus 2 only protein and DNA in a phage Figure 15 3 phage ori bacterium 3 protein or DNA associated with synthesis of new virus by bacteria Hershey and chase Experiments Experiment Part 1 a Labeled phage coat protein with 355 b Is 355 incorporated into bacteria A U c viral protein not in bacterium Experiment Part 2 a Labeled phage DNA with 32 b Is 32 incorporated into bacteria l39 ii c viral DNA is source of genetic info Ddcmining stnictune of DNA buckgnund info in 1952 1 DNA strand was a polymer of nucleotides containing 4dirrerent bases 2 E cliargarr snowed in DNA the amount of adenine equaled tliymine and guanine equaled cytosine in humans about 307 A and 307 T 207 e and 207 c Nucleotide sugdn pliospliuto base Review ngenuusbzse guanmE 2 punne Nucleic A g oP o cH o o H ll NN o o H bimmy f DNA somem 1 James Watson US teamed with Francis Crick in Cambridge England 2 Maurice Wilkins showed Watson and Crick x ray diffraction data from Rosalind Franklin 3 Watson and Crick deduced basics of DNA Nature Paper 1953 Watson and Crick proposed a structure for DNA Structural Features of DNA 1 Two nucleic acid strands form sides of a quotladderquot 2 Two strands are antiparallel strands joined by hydrogen bonds between bases quotrungsquot 3 Purine always pairs with a pyrimidine AT and GC H 5 Hydrogen bond 3 on d i 3 AQW 339 5 amp Base pairing in DNA hydrogen bonds H x w H 0 cm i E i H H N BugII Sugar gt7 R N H 0 Sugar 0 Sign 4Ladder is twisted into helix 5 One turn every 10 bases Historical Conclusion 1 Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1962Watson Crick and Wilkins awarded 2 Watson published The Double Helix in 1968 Other Important Players Rosalind Franklin 19201958Outstanding xray crystallographer 0 Con ict with Maurice Wilkins 0 Watson and Crick needed her Xray data 0 Died of ovarian cancer Linus Pauling 19011994 Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1954 Spoke against nuclear tests and arms proliferation Nobel Peace Prize in 1962 Proponent of mega doses ofVitamin C to prevent flu and colds DNA Replication Watson and Crick 1953 quotIf has not escaped our affen an that the spec39fc parng we have posfuafed I39mmedafey suggests a passbe copyHg mecham39sm for gene c materwquot 1 Sequence of bases holds the information 2 One strand is the template for the complementary strand Replication Overview 1 Complementary nucleotides form new strands 2 2 duplicate DNA molecules formed each with an old and a new strand semiconservative Replication Mechanisms ecoli 1 Helicase separates DNA strands at several points 2 Primase constructs RNA primerwhen helicase separate into 2 strands it comes in and puts down a few RNA bases 3 DNA polymerase III adds bases to 339 end of a new strand matches to bases put down by primase 4 DNA polymerase I replaces RNA primer with DNA 5 Ligase bonds DNA pieces QUESTIONS work questions 2 4 and 11 011 pgs 303 304 in the text Before 1940 many scientists believed the information for genes that resided on chromosomes was not found in the DNA of eukaryotic cells In what type of molecule did they think the information was stored and why 2 Brie y describe the experiments of Grif th 1928 and Avery et al 1944 What was Avery s conclusion about inheritance 3 What type of structure is a bacteriophage and how does it get its name What kind of molecules are found in the type of bacteriophage studied by Hershey and Chase and how is the bacteriophage reproduced 4 Describe how Hershey and Chase demonstrated that DNA contained the genetic information in their bacteriophage 5 What were two key features of DNA structure that were known in 1952 before the structure of the complete molecule was described How are nucleotides bonded together to make a DNA strand Explain what is meant by the description 5 t0 3 or 3 to 5 for a nucleic acid 0 In what year did the rst publication that correctly described the structure of a DNA molecule appear Who were the authors Who shared the Nobel prize in 1962 for determining the structure of DNA What was Rosalind Franklin39s contribution to understanding DNA structure What is the general structural difference between a pyrimidine and a purine What pyrimidines and purines are found in DNA l 9 What type of bonds form between pyrimidines and purines found in the nucleotides making up two DNA nucleic acids What is the specific way that bases are paired when nucleic acid strands are bonded together A DNA molecule can be described as a ladder How many strands of DNA make up a single molecule What makes up the sides of the ladder and what makes up the rungs of the ladder Why is the molecule termed antiparallel Describe the three dimensional structure of the DNA molecule How is genetic information stored in a DNA molecule 10 Why is DNA replication tenned semiconservative What is the general functions of the following enzymes helicase DNA pol III pr imase DNA pol I and ligase What does the abbreviation quotpolquot stand for August 25 Biology 1201 0 Domain Eukarya quotProtistaquot 0 000 0 Very diverse eukaryotic organisms that are not plants fungi or animals Many singlecelled species Mostly aerobic Autotrophic and heterotrophic Examples Flagellates euglenoids ciliates diatoms slime molds 0 Domain Eukarya Plantae 0 00000 O Eukaryotic cells with walls containing cellulose Mostly aerobic Mostly autotrophic photosynthesis Multicellular Mostly immobile Major source of food for other organisms Examples mosses ferns pines owering plants 0 Domain Eukarya Fungi 00000 O Eukaryotic cells with walls containing chitin Aerobic and anaerobic Mostly multicellular Heterotrophic saprophytes amp parasites Important recycling agents Examples sac and club fungi molds yeasts 0 Domain Eukarya Animalia O O O O O O Eukaryotic cells without cell walls Multicellular Aerobic and rarely anaerobic Heterotrophic Many possess nerve and muscle tissue Examples sponges worms mollusks insects vertebrates fishes amphibians reptiles birds mammals 0 Early Earth 0 O O O 0 Around 45 billion years old I Formed by a condensation process Water covers Earth s surface Virtually no oxygen All organisms were aquatic organisms graph I First cells 35 BYA I Oxygen accumulates 27 BYA I First eukaryotic cells 21 BYA I Multicellular eukaryotes 12 BYA I Plants fungi amp animals colonize land 05 BYA Chemical Structures amp Properties 0 Matter I Anything that takes up space and has mass 0 Element see Table 21 I Substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions 0 Compound I Substance that consists of two or more elements combined in a fixed ratio 0 Atomic Structure I Figure 25 I Proton red I Neutron black I Electron blue 0 Atomic number I Number ofprotons 0 Mass number I Number ofprotons amp neutrons 0 Atomic mass daltons I Same as mass number most of the time o Isotopes I Same atomic number different mass number 0 Same number of protons but different number of neutrons o Radioactive isotopes I Nucleus decays energy amp mass are lost 0 Carbon 0 98 o 1 0 Trace radioactive 0 Potassium o 933 0 Trace radioactive o 67 I Important biological tools 0 Trace biochemical pathways 0 Determine rates of synthesis 0 Identify cellular locations 0 Electron Configuration in Atoms I Electrons fill sequential quotshellsquot around atoms 0 Shell 1 two 0 Shell 2 eight 0 Shell 3 eight I Atoms bonding properties depend on the distribution of electrons in electron shells 0 Chemical Bonds depend on electrons in the outer shell and electronegativity o Valence shell I Outermost shell containing electrons o Valence electrons I Electrons in outer shell 0 Electronegativity I The tendency of an atom to pull electrons towards itself 0 Electron orbitals I 1s orbital I 2s orbital I Three 2p orbitals o 2 electrons per orbital o Unpaired electrons determines atomic reactivity o Electronegativity 0 Oxygen I 35 relative scales 0 Nitrogen I 30 0 Carbon 0 Hydrogen I 21 0 Types of chemical bonds between atoms 0 Covalent bonds I Atoms share electrons equally 0 Polar covalent bonds I Atoms share electrons unequally o Ionic bonds I Electrons transferred 0 Hydrogen bonds I Not as strong as the other bonds I Weakest bonds 0 Van der Waals attractions I Not important in bigger structures 0 Chemical Reactions making and breaking chemical bonds 0 Reactants 9 products 0 All atoms must be accounted for 0 Reactions go to completion or equilibrium


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.