INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY BIOL 4154
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassie Koepp on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 4154 at Louisiana State University taught by M. Hellberg in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see /class/222810/biol-4154-louisiana-state-university in Biological Sciences at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
92711 Class Polychaeta 0 Back to Burgess Shale gt500 My 0 Closer to arthropods or mollusks Parapodia Acicula Dorsal cirrus Notopodium top ap Neuropodium bottom ap 0 Ventral side Setae more on neuropodium than noto Locomotion amp Respiration o Parapodia plus lateral division by septa o Exaggerated aps help with gas exchange Polychaete Feeding 0 TONS of specializations o Raptorial Predation 0 Chase their food 0 Eversible pharynx o Sclerotized jaws 4 prongs that look like talons or fangs which are hard and claw like 0 Toxins 0 Surface dwellers have a hardened look and larger parapodia I Diopatra use antennae and palps to catch prey o Burrowers have smaller Parapodia and make mud galleries I Glycera o Scavengers o Nonselective Deposit Feeders o Swallow mud or sand I Swallow anything and let the digestive system sort it out o Blobby pharynx sometimes aided by cilia o In tubes Bamboo worms 0 In burrows Arenicola o Selective Deposit Feeding 0 Lay tentacles or cirri onin substrate 0 Food particles carried to mouth by cilia o Tentacles at surface 0 Tentacles below surface ice cream cone worms 0 Dab with two tentacles Family Spionidae 0 Suspension Feeding 0 Remove food particles suspended in water 0 Pinnule feathery blades and Radiole stemlike part Gas Exchange 0 Thru Parapodia o Branchiae anterior gills 0 Lateral trunk gills 0 Closed circulatory system 0 Blood pigments ironbased but different proteins so red green and Violet Reproduction 0 Most dioecious 0 Most freespawning o No distinct gonads o Gametes made in peritoneum 0 Collect in coelom o Shed Via nephridiopores Asexual Reproduction 0 Replacement of lost parts facilitated by segmentation o Epitoky o Atoke and epitoke o Epitoke o Specialized for swimming and sexual reproduction Trochophore Larva 0 bearing hairs 0 Swimming distinct ciliary structures 0 Rounded diamond shape to them 0 Preprototrochal region gt prostomium o Posttrochal region gt peristomium o Teloblastc growth adds in front of pygidium BombThrowing DeepSea Polychaetes 0 Capsules they drop that explode after a few seconds a green orescent color Nontraditional Annelids 0 Up to 1990 s two separate phyla Now 0 Family Siboglinidae formerly Phylum Pogonophora 0 Class formerly Phylum Echiura Family Siboglinidae o 120 species 0 Deep sea vents o No mouth 0 No anus o No gut 0 Up to 3 m long 9ft Hydrothermal Vents 0 First found off Galapagos 1977 at 2500 m o Spew hot gt375 C H2S o No light but abundant endemic fauna 0 Animals feed on bacteria or have symbionts that can use reduce H2S 0 Similar communities 0 Methane seeps off Florida 3200 m and Louisiana 700 m 0 Whale falls Bodies o 3 parts 0 anterior section spongy and has tentacles I trophosome o 2quotd section the Trunk is the longest part which contains cilia setae and papillae 0 Tiny tailend in the 3rd section opisthosoma o Siboglinid Feeding Class Echiura 0 Spoon worms 0 120 species 0 Tube dwelling Spiral cleavage trochophore No segmentation Body Ciliated proboscis o 1 pair anterior setae Perianal setae A two segment polychaete Most deposit feeders fat innkeeper worm Urechis Mucus bag feeder l to 5 pair metanephridia No specialized gonads All dioecious Bonellia Larval default female Land on female proboscis gt male Males live in female metanephridia tiny and gutless o Parasite that makes sperm 92911 Peanut worms 400 species Benthic marine worms No segments Introvert Characteristic striations lattice look and have papillae Deposit or suspension feeders J shaped gut Two coelomic cavities One pair metanephridia Urn cells Dioecious Freespawning Pelagiosphaera larva o Clitellum I Part that forms the testes or ovaries 0 Permanent gonads o Hermaphrodites Subclass oligochaeta o Earthworms most nonleech freshwater annelids TubifeX o 3500 species 0 No Parapodia fewer setae sometimes perforated septa Nonselective Deposit Feeders 0 Most terrestrial oligochaetes eat soil and leaves 0 Up to 10 per acre 0 Turn over gt 10 tons soil per year 0 it may be doubted if there are any other animals which have played such an important part in the history of the world as these lowly organized creatures iDarwin o Freshwater oligochaetes also eat decaying matter Excretion 0 Most with typical metanephridia o Enteronephridia in two families 0 Nephridiopores open to gut not outside Subclass Hirudinea o Leeches o 500 species many in central US 0 Some wait in drinking ponds 0 Some terrestrials track by warmth o Leeches swarmed in incredible profusion in the streams and damp grass and amonth the bushes they got into my hair hung on my eyelids and crawled up my back I repeatedly took upwards of a hundred from my legs where the small ones used to collect in clusters on the instep the sores Blood Feeding 0 Increase weight 6X 0 Can t digest blood 0 Proteins gt symbiotic bacteria A I J39I I Hirudotherapy o Leech kennels o Leech canister Nonblood feeding 0 Most invert predators not bloodsuckers Leech jaws o Tripartite 3way cookie cutter Inchwomring o No setae o Coelom lled by muscle 0 Like elephant trunk Swimming 0 Nervous output well characterized Circulation 0 Closed circ system in some 0 Reduced to haemosoel in others 0 Both active predatorswhy change Leech metanephridia o duct a solid mass of cells 0 9 ultra ltration Leech reproduction o Protandric hermaphrodites o No asexual reproduction o Brooding and marsupium in some Leech I J39 J Clitellum Posterior sucker Anterior sucker Loss of septa 10411 Arthropods dom1nate in terms of o species 0 distinctive forms families 0 individuals 0 Total biomass Arthropod Basics 0 Segmented o Tagmatized o Hardened cuticle o Chitin hardened exoskeleton How does outer shell change biology o Muscles respiration locomotion limit size circulation molting gt vulnerability 0 Consequences o jointed exoskeleton o jointed appendages o longitudinal muscles circular muscles absent 0 gas exchange limited across cuticle specialized organs 0 reduced coelom o no open metanephridia o no cilia o Uniramous vs biramous o Uniramous one branch coming off the base 0 Biramous a couple branches coming off the base I EX Walking leg and gill lament on a crab Arthropod Basics 0 Add segments by teloblastic growth 0 No conserved larval form o 5000 foss1l species 0 Most abundant and diverse animals of Paleozoic 550275 mya o 3 parts 0 Cephalon head segment 0 ThoraX mid section w repetitive legs 0 Pygidium nal segment 0 Gnathobases legs gill branch spiny limb base JLJUj39J39 7 i9 0 3rd pair appendages mandibles o Retinula with 8 cells Snypamorphy 0 Class Myriapoda millipedes amp centipedes 0 Class Insecta 0 Class Crustacea Class Crustacea o Craw sh crabs shrimp barnacles isopods rolly pollies krill lobsters o gt45000 species 0 5segmented head 2 pair antennae 0 One may be biramous Telson the ap of tail that is directly below the anus the middle ap of the 5 aps or tail Body covered by Carapace o CephalothoraX 0 Tail 0 Abdomen o Molting Motling 0 Normally o Xorgan in eyestalk secretes molting inhibitory hormone MIH o Yorgan secretes nothing 0 Molt signal 0 X organ secretes nothing 0 Yorgan secretes ecdysone 0 Early premolt start to dissolve connection between underlying layers and builtin cracks ll with uid 0 Molt build new layer that isn t hardened o Postmolt calci cation of new cuticle Diversity of Feeding o Predation mantis shrimp Excretion 0 As ammonia o Modi ed metanephridia Nauplius larva 10 6 ll Sublclass Ostracoda 0 Body reduced inside shell Subclass Copepoda 0 Extremely important for the ecosystem o Mainly marine 0 Both benthic and planktonic gt8500 species Head amp thorax fused Last 4 segs Without legs Caudal rami Plankton from spongebob is a copepod Sublclass Cirripedia Bamacles gt 1000 speecies Marine Sessile Naupliar larva Very abundant Salton Sea in California Anatomy 0 Basic anatomy Shrimp glued on its back 0 No antennae 0 Six thoracic legs cirri for feeding o No abdomen 0 Plates don t molt Stalked gooseneck bamacles Hermaphroditic Copulators Sublclass Malacostraca Craw sh Appendages on th abdominal segement attened to uropods 75 of described crustaceans Order Stomatopoda Mantis shrimps 350 species Raptorial leg 2quotd thoracopod The best predators have the smallest lenses in their compound eyes Compound Eyes In crustaceans insects and horseshoe crabs Composed of subunits o Ommatidia PiXilated Cornea o Rhabdomere o Apposition eye 0 Protective pigment o In species active in bright light 0 Struggle in dim light 0 Sensitive to motion 0 Superposition eye 0 In low light species 0 Less sensitive o Phylogenetics variation in ommatida shape 0 Square facets in crustaceans o Hexagonal in insects Stomatopods eyes special because 0 On independently moving stalks 0 Color perception 0 Depth perception with each eye individually Order Amphipoda o gt6000 species 0 Mainly marine o No carapace 0 Eyes sessile o Laterally compressed o 2 pair legs with chelae claws o Gammarid amphipods o Freeliving or in tubes 0 Almost 13 in Lake Baikal o Caprellid amphipods 0 Skeleton shrimp 0 Cryptic on hydroids algae o Hyperiid amphipods o Planktonic Order Isopoda o gt4000 species 0 Dorsoventrally compressed o Sessile eyes 0 No carapace o Invaded land 0 Book lungs on 51h abdominal segment 0 Rolly pollies Order Decapoda o Largest most familiar and tastiest o gt10000 species 0 Craw sh crabs shrimp lobster 0 Five pairs walking legs 0 Welldeveloped 10 l l l 1 Other Crabs o Hermit crabs 0 Coconut crab 0 Rolls around coconuts and smashes them open 0 Located in tropical paci c Order Euphausiacea o Krill o Carapace does not enclose thoracic limbs o lt100 species but massive Antarctic biomass Subphylum Mandibulata chewing mouth parts 0 Class Crustacea 0 Class Insecta 0 Class Myriapoda Uniramian features 0 Uniramous appendages o Trachea respiratory structures a series of tubes 0 Malpighian tubules Class Myriapoda Millipedes centipedes amp kin 13000 species Little tagmatization One pair antennae Unwaxy cuticle o No compound eyes Order Diplopoda o Millipedes 0 10000 species 0 Cylindrical body 0 Calcified cuticle in many 0 Brightly colored gt release poisons o Collar first segment by the head of the millipede o Diplosegments o Benzoquinones from repugnatorial glands o Repel mosquitos 0 Used by capuchins nonhuman use of natural products Order Chilopoda o Centipedes 0 Really aggressive very smart and fast 0 Nocturnal predators o Dorsoventrally attened 0 One pair legs per segment 0 All With odd segments 0 lst trunk appendages fangs Excretion in Myriapods o Uric acid 0 Malpighian tubules 0 Pump large amounts of ions into tubes which draws water in With it with moves along concentrations of other things also pumps out ions 0 Pump in K and C1 in tubes in gut H and H are pumped in and water and K are diffused out Respiration in Myriapods o Trachea air comes directly from outside and splits down to tracheoles o Spiracle can open and closegttracheagt tracheole Myriapod Reproduction o All gonochoristic o Males transfer spermatophore o Nuptual web in centipedes Class Insecta Hexapoda o 1 million species described 0 Grasshoppers ants moths bees ies eas termites beetles butter ies dragon ies mantises cockroaches Silver sh o 3 tagma head thorax abdomen 0 Most with two pairs of wings 0 Compound eyes 0 Most terrestrial small Why so successful 1 Early terrestrial invasion a 390 mya 40 my prior to reptiles 2 Modi able mouthparts a Labium fused 2quotd maxillae a synapomorphy i Feeding mouth part 3 Specialization on plants 4 Flights a Avoid predators capture prey exploit patchy resources migration Insect Flight 0 Speeds to 30 mph 1000 body lengthssec 0 Large insects ap like birds 0 Small insects twist amp ap like treading water viscosity of air due to low Re Origins of Wings 1 Gliding Not correct 2 Thermoregulation 3 Skimming and gas exchange in on water Order Coleoptera Beetles Why so many beetles o Phylogeny split a LOT of times The social life of Ants o 1 QueenMother ant that reproduces for the entire colony 0 Order Hymenoptera along with bees amp wasps 0 Family Formicidae 80 my old 10000 species Half insect biomass o Eusociality 0 Strong morphological variation 0 Division of labor 0 Reproduction restricted to a few or one Castes 0 Queen reproductive 0 Minor workers build amp maintain nest 0 Media workers forage for food conduct raids remove wastes amp corpses 0 Major soldiers defend nest o extreme castes o Supermajors o Repletes honeypots store honey in potlike things Why accept worker status
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