INTRO BIOLOGY LAB
INTRO BIOLOGY LAB BIOL 1005
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassie Koepp on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1005 at Louisiana State University taught by E. Wischusen in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/222814/biol-1005-louisiana-state-university in Biological Sciences at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
BIOL 1005 Report Worksheet Name Brenna LeBlanc Section 3 or 4 Group Members Sophie Johnson Danielle Stirrat and lzzyChoquehaunca Lab Topic Variation and Sexual Reproduction INSTRUCTIONS 0 Each group member must turn in a separate worksheet The worksheets are not group work and should be written individually 0 Type your responses inside the boxes using complete sentences Please DO NOT delete the text inside or outside of the boxes Check your grammar and spelling I certify that the writing in this assignment is my individual work and is my intellectual property It does not contain the ideas or writing of other individualsauthors Brenna LeBlanc Sep 24 2013 Author Date INTRODUCTIONWhat is the experimental guestionand general biological siqni cance to science and societv Is there a change in the genetic makeup ofa population overtime Helpful hints When explaining the biological significance try to think outside the box of the lab Why is the study important in a general way to science and society The biological significance is often related to the key concepts we discuss in recitation HYPOTHESES What are the null and alternative hvpotheses Null There will be no variation between leaves ofthe same species Alterative There will be variation between leaves ofthe same species Helpful hints Mention what variable you manipulated or tested and the response variable METHODS Describe the key methods and experimental design We looked for variation in 25 leaves from 25 different oak trees by measuring the height width number of veins and weight of the leaves BIOL 1005 Report Worksheet Helpful hints 1 Describe the key materials and methods used the types of measurements number of replicates etc 2 For experiments describe the control and treatment groups how they differed and how many replicates were used for each 3 Explain the response variable what you measured and the units the response variable is typically what you present in tables and figures RESULTS What were the main trends or patterns in your data The key materials were centimeter rulers and a scale we used to measure the leaves We replicated the experiment once because we had the same 25 leaves their physical structure was not going to change in the time we had them The experimental group was the 25 leaves we did 4 replicates per leaf because each leaf was measured for height width numbered of veins and weight The length and width ofthe leaves was measured in cm The number of veins was counted and the leaves were measured in grams Helpful hints 1 The purpose of this section is to simply state the key results not to explain or interpret them explanationsinterpretations go in the Conclusions box Use the summary statistics to describe the main trends in the data in general it is not necessary to state every number just the summary statistics most relevant to your hypotheses 2 For qualitative data explain how many replicates showed positive or negative resultsFor quantitative data explain the mean standard deviation and range of the data 3 If your study consisted of an experiment with a control and treatment group describe results for both groups 4 This section should be accompanied by a table andor figure Follow the instructions for making tables and figures below HYPOTHESIS EVALUATION How do the results support your hypotheses be specific Which hypothesis do you support and which do you reiect Due to the fact that there was a noticeable variation in the same species of leaves the alternative hypothesis was supported Helpful hints 1 The purpose of this section to evaluate your hypotheses based on the results 2 For experiments how do the control AND treatment group results help you to support or reject hypotheses CONCLUSIONS How do you explain what happened Even though oak leaves are ofthe same species there is still variation throughout different leaves of different trees BIOL 1005 Report Worksheet Helpful hints 1 The purpose of this section is to provide an explanation for the results and to address how your results inform your general biological question and the biological significance of the study box 1 2 Be careful not to simply restate the results in this section this is the place to provide an explanation for why you think you obtained the results and how they relate back to your general question and the biological significance 3 If you found unexpected results what do you think was the cause What is the next question you would ask to further explore this topic Is there variation in the leaves other than a physical observation Helpful hints Again try to think outside ofthe box for this one For example if you were given unlimited research funds what would be the most exciting project to work on next Figure or Table All Figures or Tables should be generated in Excel or Word Label axes with correct units Include caption below Figure or title above Table Include standard deviation bars when appropriate Present data in a clear and concise manner and make sure treatment and control groups are clearly labeled Use no more than 1 or 2 two significant digits eg 00 or 000 and always use the same number of digits for a given variable When presenting number lt1 put a zero in front of the decimal point eg 01 and not 1 0 See your Student Resource Manual for further details and examples Biology 1005 Final Study Guide What is Science 0 Scientia Latin knowledge 0 Process of gathering information about the observable world and organizing that information into testable lawstheoriesmodels o Constrained by what we can repeatedly observe and test 0 Scientific Method Observations and Description of a Phenomenon L Models GeneralizationsExplanations L Predictive Statements Hypotheses L Tests Experiments Must be controlled and replicated Formulating Hypothesis 0 Before we can design an experiment to test a model we need to formulate a null and an alternative hypothesis 0 The null and alternative hypothesis should cover all possible results that you may get at the end of your experiment Null hypothesis there will be no differencechange between treatment and control in your experiment Alternative hypothesis there will be a differencechange between the treatment and control in your experiment Hypothesis vs Theom o Hypothesis prediction or explanation that has not been tested 0 We do not accept the hypothesis instead we say the results are consistent and support the hypothesis 0 Accepting the hypothesis is too definitive 0 Theory prediction or explanation that has been repeatedly tested and is strongly supported never proven Hypothesis vs Prediction 0 A hypothesis only states whether or not we expect to see a differencechange between the treatment and control o A prediction states in which direction we will expect to see that differencechange between the treatment and control 0 More specific 0 Bad for lab reports Experimental Design 0 Experimental groupTreatment group the group in which the variable is manipulated 0 One variable should be manipulated 0 Control group standard to which we compare our results 0 Attempt to equalize all the external conditions 0 Replicates repetition increases the reliability and accuracy of your results 0 Estimate variability of results 0 Depends on the nature of the experiment but more are better 0 ln lab minimum of3 replicates 0 You do replicates to get a lower standard deviation error 0 Scale of measurements o It is better measure things in a small scale and then lump data together into groups than to use a scale so big that you can miss important differences 0 Reasonably time frame 0 Metric units 0 Criteria for supportingrejecting your hypothesis 0 Descriptive statistics describe a population of data points that you have collected Mean average of a series of data points Standard deviation describes how much the data spreads from the mean gt Uses the same units as the mean gt Represented as mean i std 0 Your nal table should only include the mean and standard deviation of the replicates Table vs Graph 0 Tables show exact values 0 Graphs show trends 0 Put information of the appropriate axis Xaxis independent variable what you manipulated Yaxis dependent variable what you measured Label both axes and include units 0 0 Use easy to read and even increments 0 Plot the points 0 Do not connect the dots use a bestfit or trendline 0 Use real graph paper 0 Scatter plot graph Every individual data point is plotted directly on the graph Show correlationstrength of association between 2 variables 0 Line graph When the dependent variable represents a continuous function of the independent variable quantative 0 Bar graph When the independent variable presents qualitative categories Data Analysis 0 Descriptive statistics the population of data points collected 0 The mean and the standard deviation are descriptive statistics 0 Sample a small subset representative of a population 0 Determine if the error bars overlap and the amount of overlap between the values What is Life 0 A characteristic that distinguishes objects that have selfsustaining biological processes from those which do not either because such functions have ceased death or else because they lack such functions 0 Characteristics of life 0 Energy transformationGas exchange Convert energy from one from to another form 0 Complexity high level oforganization Complex organic molecules cellular structures 0 ReproduceGrow Development 0 Response to stimulus o Evolve Occurs on a different time scale than the other characteristics 0 For something to be considered alive it must have all 5 characteristics Amino Acids and Carbohydrates 0 Amino Acids building blocks for protein nitrogen o Carbohydrates sugars Cellular Respiration 0 During cellular respiration sugar is broken down to CO2 and H20 and in the process changes in C02 can be monitored by measuring changes in the pH ofa solution 0 pH based on the amount of hydrogen bonds 0 Acid a substance that donates hydrogen to a solution pH decreases as hydrogen increases becomes more acidic 0 Base substance that removes hydrogen from a solution pH increases as hydrogen decreases becomes more basic alkaline Variation and Sexual Reproduction 0 Evolution the change in the heritable phenotype genetic makeup ofa population overtime 0 Genetic makeup frequency of alleles A single gene in a population may have several alternate forms or alleles which account for variation between the phenotypes of the organism gt Allele any ofa number of forms ofa gene 0 Population individuals from the same species that live in a particular place at a speci c time Individuals do not evolve The genetic makeup ofan individual is fixed and will not change over time birth to death 0 Overtime temporal scale of evolution Evolution occurs over many generations gt Small scale changes in gene frequency in a population from one generation to the next gt Large scale descent of different species from a common ancestor over many generations Accumulation of changes in the genetic material Generation time can differ depending on the species Evolution requires reproduction and inheritance o What drives evolution 0 Mutations changes in DNA A single mutation can have a large effect but in many cases evolutionary change is based on the accumulation of many mutations Only true source of new alleles substitutions insertions deletions 0 Sexual reproduction can introduce new gene combinations into a population genetic shuffling Important source of genetic variation 0 Natural selection Some individuals produce more offspring or their offspring survive better than others because of some characteristictrait ofthe individual Requires variation in a population 0 Variation For natural selection to occur there must be variation in the population Source of variation gt Genetic mutation recombination gt Environmental soil quality abundance of nutrients weather 0 Sexual reproduction 0 Type of reproduction in which 2 gametes meiosis fuse to form a zygote There is an exchange of genetic material recombination Costly forthe organism but bene cial in the long term The power of sexual reproduction is that you can get a traitcharacteristic not present in parents which creates variation within a population Alleles are mixed up in different combinations Contributes the most to variation 0 Asexual reproduction 0 Type of reproduction in which there is no fusion of gametes and in which the genetic material makeup of parents and offspring is usually identical mitosis OOO Clones of parental cells no variation Sordaria o Ascomycete Fungus 0 During the process of sexual reproduction the fungus forms a structure called ascus 0 Each ascus contains 8 ascospores o Gamete is a haploid cell 0 Tan X Tan Tan 0 Gray X Gray Gray 0 Tan X Gray Tan Gray Black Clear Fitness and Natural Selection 0 Natural selection survival ofthe fittest 0 Fitness the ability ofan individual to pass genes on to future generations A fit individual leaves many offspring in the next generation An individual adapted to the local environment is likely to produce more offspring than an individual who is not as well adapted o The tendency of organisms that possess favorable adaptions to their environment to survive and passtheir genes to the next generation through reproduction 0 Evolution occurs when natural selection results in a change in the allele frequency ofa population Requires reproduction and inheritance of the characteristictrait for evolution to occur 0 Selection acts on the phenotype but its effects are xed on the genotype ofa population Phenotype observed quality of an organism o Phenotype environment genotype Genotype genetic makeup of an organism that may or may not be expressed 0 Natural selection removes the least fit organism from the population 0 Depends on the environment 0 Adaptation to the local environment 0 De nes which phenotypes have the best characteristicstraits to survive and reproduce o Adaptation takes time 0 Steps of evolution 0 Variation in a population 0 Natural selection acting on phenotype of individuals lfthe phenotype is heritable you get a change in the gene frequencies in populations 0 Natural selection leads to adaptation and evolution Movement of Materials lnto and Out of Cells 0 Movement across the cell membrane 0 Organisms need to move material into and out of cells constantly o The Cell Membrane o Functions protect separate regulate O Molecules have to pass into and out ofa cell through the membrane It allows cells to control their internal chemical environment and the availability of important materials 0 Structure Phospholipid bilayer gt Phosphorous hydrophilic polar head group gt Lipids hydrophobic nonpolartails Selectively Permeable gt Glucose and other large polar watersoluble molecules ions 0 Types of movement across the cell membrane 0 Passive Transport Diffusion the net movement of particles from an area ofhigh concentration to an area of low concentration in a given volume of fluid liquid or gas Osmosis the net movement of waterthrough a cell wall or membrane or any semipermeable barrier from an area of low solute concentration to an area with high solute concentration 0 Active Transport an energy requiring process that moves materials across a cell membrane Molecules are forced through a channelcarrier protein with the aid ofenergy in the form ofATP The cell uses active transport in 2 situations gt When a particle is going from low concentration to high concentration ie against a concentration gradient When particles need help entering the membrane because they are selectively impermeable When very large particles enter and exit the cell 0 Phagocytosisa form of cell eating 0 Concentration Gradients o Hypertonic solution contains a high solute concentration relative to another solution loses mass 0 Hypotonic solution contains a low solute concentration relative to another solution gains mass 0 lsotonic solution contains an equal solute concentration relative to another solution no change in mass Net movement ofwater O 0 Size shape and charge polarity determines whether materials can move across a cell membrane 0 Particles that move fast diffuse more readily usually have Small size No charge nonpolar o Osmotic concentration the concentration of solutes dissolved substances in the water 0 Molarity form of concentration 0 Hemolysis the breaking of red blood cells 0 lfthe solute cannot move through the cell membrane and pull water with it no hemolysis will occur lfthe solute can move through the cell membrane it increases the concentration of osmotically active molecules inside the cell causing water to be pulled into the cell due to the newly established osmotic gradient and hemolysis occurs Homeostasis o Homeostasis a property ofa living organism that regulates its internal environment so as to maintain a stable constant condition 0 Our bodies react to remain within some livable limits 0 Homeostasis has survival value because it helps our body adapt to the changing environment 0 Our body will attempt to maintain the desired level of a factor to achieve homeostasis o What does an organism need to regulate 0 Ion levels Na K O2 0 Nutrients 0 Water levels 0 Temperature 0 Regulating glucose 0 Body fails to produceuse insulin correctly and is unable to convert sugars for use as energy 0 After eating excess glucose gets turned into glycogen in the liver 0 Glycogen the stored form of glucose long lasting energy Regulated by two hormones from the pancreas gt Insulin glucose to glycogen stores energy gt Glucagon glycogen to glucose breaks down sugar for energy 0 0 Diabetes Some people do not produce enough insulin When they eat the glucose levels in their blood cannot be reduced gt There is no insulin to convert into glycogen gt The glucose in the blood increases gt The glucose concentration rises to dangerous levels Inject insulin to control sugar levels Regulating temperature 0 O O O Homeotherm capable of maintaining its body temperature within a narrow range warm blooded Temperature is usually above that of its surroundings despite large variations in environmental temperature Poikilotherm body temperature fluctuates with that of the environment cold blooded Cannot maintain a constant body temperature affected by environmental changes Animals use behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature Exchanging heat with the environment Sources of heat gain and heat loss gt Surfaces conduction gt Air convection gt Sun radiation gt Evaporation Structuresthat impact heat gain and heat loss gt Size larger organisms change temperature more slowly gt Shape increasesdecreases surface area for the conduction of heat Legs keeps the body off the surface conduction Color radiation of lightsun Sweat lose heat through evaporation Location moves to minimizemaximize conduction convection or radiation VVVV Population Growth Reproduction is a central feature ofall living organisms Population size is dynamic always changing over time Population growth rate rate at which the number of individuals in a population increases per unit time 0 Rate population at end of period ipopulation at beginning of period population at beginning of period Population growth rate of most species is limiteddetermined by various factors 0 O 0 Density number of individuals in some speci ed area of habitat Distribution spatial arrangement or pattern ofan individual over their habitat Proximity find mates predator protection sharing resources Limiting factors 0 Any essential resource that is in short supply Water Food Space 0 The limiting factors acting on a population dictate sustainable population size Maximum number ofindividuals able to live in a particular area at a given time Densitydependent factors 0 Sustainable population size may be dependent on local population density 0 Negative effect of limiting factors on population size N becomes more intense as N increases 0 Biotic living factors Disease Competition Predation Densityindependent factors 0 Population size is not dependent on local population density 0 Can affect large or small populations 0 Abiotic nonlivingfactors or events Natural disasters Climate changes Carry capacity N 0 Limiting factors in an area determine the carrying capacity sustainable population size of the populations in that region 0 K maximum number of individuals that can be maintained in a region 0 Takes into account any limiting resources Overshooting carrying capacity 0 Population may temporarily increase above carrying capacity 0 Overshooting is usually followed by a crash dramatic increase in deaths Population growth models 0 Exponential growth Population size s Time gt No limit on growth Population size expands by ever increasing increments during successive intervals Growth is proportional to the current population size N The largerthe population gets the more individuals there are to reproduce and the fasterthe population grows LAG at small size Jshaped curve ANAt rNo gt AN change in population size gt At change intime gt r rate of increase birth rate death rate gt N0 initial of individuals 0 Logistic growth Number of Individuals Time Limit on growth based on resources Occurs when population size is limited by K carrying capacity As size of the population increases rate of reproduction decreases gt Limiting resources impact birth and death rates 10 wnen tne poputatton reaches cammg capactty pooutatton growth stops because otrtn rate oeatn rate Sasha ed curve ANAt rNu KMK gt AN cnange m oooutatton stze gt At nange m tnne gt r rate ot tncrease otrtn rater oeatn rate gt N tntttat ot tnowtouats K cammg capactty o Futureg Exponenua growth cannot contmueforever Carbon c cte member 01 39 mman s geosphere hydrosphere and atmosphere ot tne earth orgamc nutnents resptratton proptasrntc decay or combusuon o Combusuon tasttonn otresonatton The rnostnnoonant feature ottne carbon cyde tstne cncutatton ot carbon from We tne aotottct o Pnotos nontwtng envtronment yntnests Abiotic 9 Biotic Requires CO2 and produces O2 Organisms that photosynthesize plants cyanobacteria algae O 6H2 6CO29sunlight9 CBHlZOB sugar 602 0 Cellular respiration Biotic 9 Abiotic Requires O2 and produces CO2 90 of plant mass comes from the atmosphere Metabolism of plants and animals gt Balance of gas exchange a balance between the amount of CO2 produced and the amount of CO2consumed How is carbon released into the atmosphere 0 Cellular respiration Performed by plants and animals This is an exothermic reaction and it involves the breaking down of glucose into CO2 and H20 0 Decay of animal and plant matter Fungi and bacteria break down the carbon compounds in dead animals and plants 0 Burning fossil fuels Release carbon that has been stored in the geosphere for millions 0 Surface of the oceans Dissolved carbon dioxide is released back into the atmosphere What anthropogenic activities affect the carbon cycle 0 Burning fossil fuels Releases more CO2 into the atmosphere than the natural carbon c cle can manage to sequester o Deforestation Eliminates the plants that incorporate CO2 into the biosphere photosynthesis E Increasing Aci lly Neutral Increasing Alkallnlxy CO2 A greenhouse gas 0 Greenhouse gas a gas that traps heat in the atmosphere Some occur naturally and are emitted to the atmosphere through natural processes and human activities Other greenhouse gases are created and emitted solely through human activities 0 Excess CO2 will increase the amount of heat retained by the atmosphere global climate change Global climate change Increase in temperature Rise in sea level melting glaciers and land ice Increased intensity of climatic events hurricanes snow rain drought Species range shifts VVV V Indicator the pH of a solution based on color 0 Phenol Red Red at pH 78 Yellow at pH 72 more acidic CO2 is an acidic oxide 0 It reacts with water to form an acid carbonic acid Plants need CO2 water and sunlight to undergo photosynthesis
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