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by: Cassie Koepp


Cassie Koepp
GPA 3.61

J. Moroney

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About this Document

J. Moroney
Class Notes
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This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassie Koepp on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1201 at Louisiana State University taught by J. Moroney in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see /class/222815/biol-1201-louisiana-state-university in Biological Sciences at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
INTRODUCTION TO METABOLISM Paramecium with alga Wi39 m j Metablism is the reactions that occur in cells Cells require a constant input of energy for reactions Cells require a constant input of energy IAnalogy to respiration IMetabolic reactions can require energy endergonic or release energy exergonic Some definitions Endergonic reaction a reaction that requires energy from the surroundings to occur Example DNA synthesis Exergonic reaction A reaction that releases energy when it takes place Example 1 ATP cleavage to ADP and Pi Example 2 Glucose 02 to 002 and water IAn important exergonic reaction is hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and phosphate NH ADENINE I 2 ATP Figure 89 The structure and hydrolysis of ATP Adenine NH2 0 u i W Phosphate groups OH OH Adenosine Iriphosphate ATP Inorganic Adenosine diphcsphate ADP phosphate b Hydrolysis of ATP Copyrith Pealson Education Inc publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 812 The ATP cycle Energy for ceHlular work Energy from catabolism ADP i CODWghl 39539 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Beniamin Cummings Coupled Reactions In a coupled reaction an unfavorable reaction endergonic reaction is linked to a very favorable reaction exergonic reaction such as ATP cleavage The favorable cleavage of ATP allows the unfavorable reaction to proceed Coupled reaction example Glutamate NH3 gt Glutamine unfavorable ATP gt Pi favorable The coupled reaction Glutamte NH3 ATP Glutamine Pi The coupled reaction takes place and the cell can make glutamine Figure 810 Energy coupling by phosphate transfer AG 34 kcallmol NWH Glutamic Ammonia Glutamine acid a Without ATP 0 ADP 95 b With ATP Glu NH3 gt Glu NH2 A6 34 kcallmol ATP ADP i AG 73 kcallmol Net AG 39 kcallmol c Free energy change with ATP CopynghtEi39 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Beniamm Cummings ENZYMES AND METABOLISM 1 Enzymes are biological catalyst 2 Enzymes are proteins 3 Enzymes depend on their shape for activity Example of a reaction AB CD gt AC BD TrmulllP m39 E A energy of activation AG Change in energy i i exergOniC reaction Fig 814 Enzymes lower activation energy EA without enzyme in E E at I E LL Product Flg39 839 1 5 Pragrasa fths reaction I39 Example of a reaction enzyme Substrates PFOdUCtS reactants sucrase sucrose H20 glucose fructose ISubstrate binds on enzyme at active site Binding produces induced fit to enzyme Hydrolysis of sucrose Sucrasa Glucose Fructose c12H22011 canOa CEHI206 Fig 813 Enzyme Hexokinase Substrate Glucose GlucoseATP gt Glucose6PADP Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity 1 Temperature and pH 2 Cofactors Non protein helpers inorganic metals vitamins 3 Enzyme inhibitors Molecules inhibiting activity Figure 817 The catalytic cycle of an enzyme Substrate Enzyma binds to enzyme substrate complex Substrate sucrose Enzva sucrase 4 H20 eAntive site Is available for another molecule of substrat e Substrate is converted to producta 0 6 Gluccse 6 Products are released 5 Fructose angnlgm Pearson Educallun lncn put ishlng as Eleniamln Cummlngs Optimal temperature for Optimal temperature for I typical human enzyme enzyme of Optlma T ma associated E WIth quotg Ti envrronment quot a 20 Ta21nparaturai gl B we found in or 3 compartment T gemquot mgr containing E enzyme E Fig818 D 1 2 3 4PH5 35 DJ Substrate lActlve site ICompetitive inhibition active site is blocked Noncompetitive inhibition inhibitor binds away from active site changing protein shape Fig 819 I Substrate H39ancumpatl ve Inhibitor METABOLIC CONTROL IMost metabolic pathways are regulated Enzyme activity is regulated IRegulated enzymes possess active and inactive forms IRegulation is reversible Allosteric Regulation nunMT Regulatory molecule binds away from the active site Regulatory molecule may be an activator or inhibitor Active farm Inactive farm Fig 820 M valur inhibitor Inactive form stabilized by an allnstnrlc Inhibitor molecule Active form stabilized by an allosinrlc activator molecule Initiai subsirate threanir le Threcnine in active site Active site available IFeedback Inhibition Enzyme 1 t 39 t I Isoleuc ine x some Imes CO r0 S us dupby 39 ce p Intermediate A Feedback inhibition 9 Active site of E 2 quot enzyme 1 no 1 I i 39 bi 39d IOften regulated by xings pathway is 39 39 switched off W 3 allosterlc regulation 1r 4 intermediate 3 Isnieucme hi d 139 allrlisiegc Enzyme 4 site i intermediate D Fig 822 sums V cf Y End product gt isoieucine Q9 Fig 823 Mitochondria Kreb s cycle matrix Electron transport chain inner membrane Enzymes participating in Aerobic respiration are located in the same organelle n n W


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