New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Charles Kohler


Charles Kohler
GPA 3.94

J. Moroney

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

J. Moroney
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Biological Sciences

This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Charles Kohler on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1201 at Louisiana State University taught by J. Moroney in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/222815/biol-1201-louisiana-state-university in Biological Sciences at Louisiana State University.

Popular in Biological Sciences


Reviews for BIOL FOR SCI MAJ I


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/13/15
Chapter 1 Microbial Life Origin and Discovery What Is an Organism that requires a microscope to be seen Not seen with naked eye Microbial cells size 2 in diameter up to several millimeters quotare much smaller 0 Contradictions r i M Thiomargarita namibiensis is size of fruit fly head 3 7 in biofilms microbes have specialized functions amp act as multicellular organism 7 are noncellular considered to be microbes but are not fully functional cells Special category 0 6 major groups studied by microbiologists m n have a nucleus I membrane bound organelles 1 Bacteria 2 Archae Have a n Have m a i if photosynthetic 1 Algae 2 Protists 3 Fungi 7 Viruses Microbes Shape Human History Microbes affect food availability some destroy 39 corn rust late blight some make u beer bread cheese Microbial diseases change history 7 Smallpox in Americas 7 More soldiers have died from n than battle wounds in Europe killed 13 population in 14 h century i v convinced British govt to improve army living conditions 8 upgrade army hospital standards 7 I in 19 h century 7 quottoday Discovery of Microbes invented in mid 1600s Mid1600s Va 1 at quot v i observes small eukaryotes with compound microscope 7 1st to use term n m 4676 7 Built simple microscopes 7 Described quotMquot 7 Published first drawings of M Microbes Are Living Organisms w idea that living organisms originate from nonliving matter 7 1861 1 A r 139 i in shows that microbes do not grow in liquid until introduced from outside 0 He disproved this using I in swannecked flask Sterilized broth by bent necks of flasks so that air could enter but microbes would be caught in the neck Open to air 5 curve excludes dust and microbes Gromh medium 0 led to development of methods for controlling of microorganisms use of moderate heat to reduce number of microorganisms in foods milk wine oysters 0 He work with wine industry and studied n Medical Microbiology Germ Theory of Disease 7 Germs can infect and grow on food 7 Can germs infect and grow on people 7 That is do germs cause disease 0 m is testable 7 Are germs found in infected tissue 7 Can transmission of germs cause disease I Postulates Developed from his study of 0 Provides scientific basis for determining that a specific microbe causes a specific disease 7 llDoes this germ cause that diseasequot 7 Organism must meet 4 criteria l The microbe is found in all cases of but absent from individuals Iquot The microbe is isolated from the m host and grown in pure culture 3 When the microbe is introduced into a m m host the same disease occurs 4 The same strain of microbe is obtained from the newly 0 1881 17 15 of all deaths caused by I 0 Thought it was contagious but had never seen the m 0 m grows very slowly hard to stain due to lipid content Koch developed m staining procedure patient enough to get pure culture 0 1905 m was awarded to Koch for his work on m History of 0 Stimulation of an immune response by deliberate m with an m pathogen 0 m began by inhaling small pox by grinding it up into a 7 m early 1700 s brought practice of with small pox variolation to m from m use variolation by getting from small pox and scratching it onto their skin 7 1778 found that exposed to m were immune to small pox 7 Vaccinated people including his son with n they were resistant to small pox 7 in 1879 studied m 7 m and grew bacteria which causes it then left for vacation 7 After vacation the aged bacteria no longer cause disease in 7 m same chickens fresh u from new m amp they still did not get sick 7 m l 7 Developed vaccines for 39 r gave chickens immunity from disease 39 g pathogens mmidlsoo39s 0 Medical students carried quotMquot from autopsy room to delivery room caused mm 0 Had med students wash hands in m7 reduced mortality from 18 to 1 0 1864 British surgeon found that survival rate of surgical patients increased if surgeons a quotl n ir m r w I surgery early 1900 s Idea for quotNquot that would kill pathogens but not harm humans found m used to destroy m 0 Discovered to treat n Used term quotM39 using chemicals to kill pathogens without harming patient Arsenic turned out to be m 1929 o discovered antimicrobial effects ofm G produced by Penicillium notoum fungus on Fleming for discovery Florey amp Chain for determining mode of action of 3 Ir and developing method of mass producing the drug 0 1945 penicillin became available forquot Growth of microbes in pure culture u I l39W Strea ked bacteria onto potatoes 7 Problem too much u many contaminates 0 Beef solidified with Problems m liquefies above I C Many microbes produce enzyme called 91 w liquefies gelatin 7 polysaccharide derived from m m wife of coworker suggested agar She used it to make 7 Solid until I C and most on cannot digest Koch s assistant invented them in 1887 0 Before this they used a n or m 0 Antony Leeuwenhoek vaccination Edward Jenner i to stop the spread of disease Ignaz Semmelweis 39 g i i i v Louis Pasteur r i Louis Pasteur 7 vaccination Louis Pasteur etri Dish RJ Petri 0 1928 Discovered 1 1 Alexander Fleming Microbial Ecology 0 Most microbes don t grow on typical 0 quot 01 of microbes in our biosphere can be cultured in the lab 0 Many live in varied conditions 0 Bottom of swamp 0 Bottom of ocean 0 Below 0C to 113C 7 No 0 Use light for energy C02 for carbon 0 Can culture some microbes in natural mud environment 7 column 0 Layers grow different species reflecting different conditions 7 Can see variations in nature 0 Yellowstone runoff 0 I reflect different species Microbes cycle most elements on earth 7 cycle 0 Bacteria fix m 0 microbes fix most carbon 7 cycle 7 cycle The Microbial Family Tree 0 Microbial species are difficult to classify 7 Difficult to distinguish by n 7 Often reproduce n 7 Pass u to each other without 0 Use biochemical properties to classify m 7 Ability to metabolize different substrates 0 Use sequence to classify 7 Bacteria genomes are relatively small so easy to sequence 7 2 distinct species share no more than I similarity of DNA sequence 0 Several lineages exist in the domains and n huge diversity of cell morphologies and physiologies o m tree of life Fig 15 amp 127 Algae and plants 5mm Fungi and inlmals Plalill Prokaryotic Microorganisms 0 most prokaryotes that we encounter soil bacteria disease causing bacteria etc A prokaryotes that live in extreme environments hot springs glaciers salt lakes 7 Ex and are not bacteria 7 Similar size shape 7 Very different m 7 Different membrane structures 7 Archaeal similar to eukaryotic i 39 7 Many archaea live in environments Eukaryotic Microorganisms includes fungi algae amp protists 0 non photosynthetic most 7 Ex unicellular and multicellular hyphae 7 m yeast is used to make beer and bread 7 u mold produces penicillin 7 contain chlorophyll have cell walls 7 Ex Diatoms amp seaweed o Unicellular no cell walls quot amp Euka ryotes evolved through m 7 theory that eukaryotic organelles evolved through a symbiotic relationship 7 cell engulfed a u cell and a symbiotic relationship developed 7 m and m are thought to have evolved this way u from respiring bacteria similar to 7 chloroplasts from photo related to l ae 2 mrs possess their own I and m are about the size of a typical m cells divide by a process similar to similar to m


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.