GENERAL BIOLOGY BIOL 1001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassie Koepp on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1001 at Louisiana State University taught by Steve Pollock in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/222818/biol-1001-louisiana-state-university in Biological Sciences at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Biology 0 Levels of Biologicol Orgonizolion o Biosphere oreo on The plonel where you con find living lhings spoce on plonel eorlh o Ecosyslem o syslem formed by The inleroclion of o communily of orgonisms ond lheir environmenl o Communily group of living orgonisms o Populolion 0 group of individuols of lhe some species 0 A living lhing con be broken down 0 Orgonism humon o Orgon syslem nervous syslem o Orgon broin 0 Tissue nerve lissue o Cellulor nerve cell 0 Orgonelle milochondrion chloroplosls nucleus 0 Ivloleculor woler gluclose DNA 0 Alomic hydrogen corbon nilrogen oxygen 0 Subolomic prolon neulron eleclron 0 Physics looks of olomic ond subolomic porlicles chemislry sees how lhey reocl logelher ond oporl biology observes The single cell ond how lhey conlribule lo 0 living Thing 0 Whol is The Science of Biology 0 Life ond sludy lronsloles The sludy of life 0 Whol ore lhe Choroclerislics of Living Things 0 1 Their slruclure is complex ond orgonized l Complex ond orgonized 0 Ex Soll nonliving orgonized bul simple 0 Ex2 Oceons full of living ond nonliving complex bul unorgonized o Ex3 Woler fled living lhing orgonized ond complex 0 2 They ocquire moleriol ond energy from Their surrounding environmenl l Ex 1 plonls ulilize CO2 ond sunlighl lo mollte sugors l Ex2 onimols eol plonls o 3 They work lo moinloin lheir inlernol condilions l Orgonized syslems disinlegrole l Prevenling disinlegrolion requires energy I HOMEOSTASIS meons sloying lhe some 0 Sweoling when hol shivering when cold 0 Feeling lhirsly when woler is low I Homeoslosis requires energy 0 Opposes nolurol lrend lo disinlegrolion o Obtoined from externol source I Homeostosis requires physicol repoir 0 Ports breollt down 0 New moteriols required for repoir l Food supplies moteriol ond energy 0 4Growth l Extension of homeostosis o Homeostosis stoying the some 0 Growth homeostosis plus extro l Orgonism grows in sizemoss I Must ocquire more thon needed for homeostosis l Geneticolly progrommed 0 Timing o Spoce o Shope o 5 Living orgonisms respond to stimuli l Chonges in internol environment 0 Temperoture o woter level 0 blood sugor level I Chonges in externol environment 0 seek food ond woter o ovoid bitterness o plonts grow toword light 0 6 Reproduction l Reproduce themselves in kind heredity l Perpetuotion of porents genetics 0 Genetic info stored in DNA molecules 0 Voriotion o Offspring similor to both porents o Offspring different from either porent 0 Simple code with compleX error correction system 0 7 Evolution l Genetic composition of populotions chonges evolves o Differentiol survivol noturol selection survivol of the fittest o Selects odvontogeous odoptotions l The more time the more chonge l Eventuolly become much different I Not bosed on or belief system bosed on experimentol results ond observotions o 3 noturol processes drive evolution 0 1 Genetic voriotioncompetition omong vorionts o 2 Not oll survive o 3 Adoptive chorocteristics inherited How do scientists cotegorize the diversity of life 0 Biologicol species concept if they con breed ond reproduce offspring ond they con reproduce the some species 03 well 3 domoins of Living Orgonisms o Bocterio o Archoeo o Eukoryo Domain Eurkarya o 4 Kingdoms l Kingdom Protista 7 almost entirely single celled ex Diatoms found in plankton l Kingdom Fungi 7 multicellular obtains its food eats by giving off enzymes which speed up chemical reactions into the environment around it I Kingdom Plantae 7 multicellular obtains food through photosynthesis make their own food I Kingdom Animalia 7 multicellular eat food ingest o Eukaryotic Organisms l Single or multicelled l Nucleus and other organelles l Larger 10x more complex I Protists Plants Fungi and Animals Domain Prokarya Archaea Ex Ecoli l Single cells I No nucleus or organelles l Smaller less complex I EubacteriaArchaea The Science of Biology 0 All events can be attributed to natural causes 0 Natural laws apply at all places and all times 0 People perceive events in similar ways The Scienti c Method Observation 9 Something unexpected happens Hypothesis Explanation ifthen prediction Experiment controlled test challenge prediction Conclusion supports or doesn t support hypothesis I If it doesn t9 modify hypothesis Scienti c Theories 0 General statements about how things operate l Derived through reasoning from detailed facts to general principles I Survived thorough challenges I Never permanent or final truth 0 Always provisional OOOO 0 Always subject to change Used to propose hypothesis 0 Alexander Fleming In 1920 a culture dish became contaminated with a mold during one of his experiments Observation bacteria wouldn t grow near mold Hypothesis the mold releases a substance that kills off bacteria growing nearby Experiment extracted uid from mold and it inhibited bacterial growth 0 The uid was later isolated and called penicillin the lSt antibiotic The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 19457 for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infections diseases
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