BIOL FOR SCI MAJ II
BIOL FOR SCI MAJ II BIOL 1202
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassie Koepp on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1202 at Louisiana State University taught by Steve Pollock in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see /class/222816/biol-1202-louisiana-state-university in Biological Sciences at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Swine Flu Viruses Not living things Do not fit into either prokaryotic or eukaryotic cell groups No one know how they originated Cannot replicate on its own Uses host cells to reproduce Inserts its genetic matter into host cell then uses cell s structures to copy itself Host cell makes thousands of copies of the virus 4 different genomes of viruses SingleStranded DNA DoubleStranded DNA SingleStranded RNA DoubleStranded RNA Flu Virus Singlestranded RNA Infects the lining of the respiratory tract and lungs Person becomes infected hours before showing any symptoms Genome of flu virus constantly mutates Symptoms Flu Terms The New Flu Originally called Swine Flu New technical term is H1N1 flu virus H hemagglutinin Influenza hemagglutinin HA protein is a type of hemagglutinin found on the surface of influenza virus Identifies target cells by binding to host cell s receptors Allows entry of the viral genome into the target cells by causing thefusion of hose membrane with the viral membrane HA and Immunity HA is also the protein against which the host directs antibodies that can neutralize the virus There are 16 HA subtypes H1 to H16 There is no cross protective immunity mediated by antibodies from one HA subtype to another H1 H2 and H3 types are found in human influenza Specialize in finding the particular sugars on cells our respiratory tract H5 attacks proteins in the digestive system of birds Serious problems can occur when human influenza recombines with swine andor avian influenza strains Changes the viral genome so much that your body no longer has immunity to the influenza virus Renders vaccines ineffective H1N1 is a recombination of human swine and avian influenza strains N neuraminidase Enzyme that helps the virus to be released from a host cell N1 N9 Neuraminidase inhibitors limits the severity and spread of viral infections Zanamivir administered by inhalation Oseltamivir administered orally Peramivir administered through intravenous or intramuscular injection still under research Swine Flu Origin Current swine flu is actually a virus that consists of 1 avian 2 swine and 1 human influenza viruses We have no natural immunity On first exposure our body s immune system responds slowly and sometimes not quickly enough to survive Recombination Pigs can become infected with swine avian and human influenza When a new virus buds off from a host cell it chooses 4 possible genomic parts With all possible combinations present in pigs a 1 avian 2 swine 1 human virus emerged and succeeded in replicating Past Pandemics 1918 Spanish Flu H1N1 Same family of influenza as swine flu Approx 675000 deaths in the US alone 35100 million deaths worldwide 13 of the world infected with 28 of US Started out mild like swine flu but turned deadly in the next flu season 1957 Asian Flu H2N2 69800 people in the US died 1968 Hong Kong Flu H3N2 33800 deaths Swine Flu Pandemic April 28 the WHO flue expert Keiji Fukuda pointed out that it is too late to contain swine flu quotContainment is not a feasible operation Countries should now focus on mitigating the effect of the virus America is currently at a Level 6 Pandemic for swine flu Most efficient method of fighting the pandemic is slowing down transmission rates until a vaccine becomes available Swine flu vaccine will not be available until November Who is at risk 1918 influenza pandemic took its greatest toll on healthy adults bt the ages of 20 and One possible explanation supported by recent studies in mice with a reconstructed 1918 virus is that an overresponsive immune system may release a quotcytokine storm that triggers inflammation and harms the patient in the process History of Life on Earth Spontaneous Generation What people believed a few centuries ago People thought that new living things appeared all of the time Refutation Louis Pasteur mid1800 s Performed a simple experiment to refute spontaneous generation Boiled broth in a flask to kill existing microorganisms As broth cooled condensing water collected in a tube sealing the flask Nothing grew in theflask To further prove his point he broke the sealing tube off and placed the now open flask outside exposed to microorganisms Mold grew in the flask Conditions on Early Earth Atmosphere Contained C02 CH4 NH3 H2 N2 HCI H25 H20 No free oxygen Frequent lightning storms Frequent volcanic eruptions Frequent meteor impacts UV light from sun No ozone layer Earth Before Life Arose Earth is about 46 billion years old Radiometric dating of meteorites amp moon rocks Life arose about 38 billion years ago Chemical traces in rocks 38 BYA Fossilized bacteria in rocks 35 BYA No further spontaneous generation Radiometric Dating 40K naturally decays to wAr Used to measure to rate of decay in inorganic rocks Experiment of Miller 8 Urey Attempted to reproduce the origin of life by replicating the conditions of early earth After only a few days formed organic molecules necessary for life Failed to form life How to Assemble a Living Thing Several things required Accumulation of organic molecules Catalyze reactions Reproduce from stored genetic info Separate the living thing from the outside environment Chicken or Egg complex DNA required to make proteins Proteins required to make DNA Which came first Ribozymes RNA molecule that can catalyze reactions especially those involved in synthesis and processing of RNA itself How earliest cells formed Earliest cells used RNA to store info Ribozymes to catalyze reactions Summary Water elements energy Prebiotic soup of amino acids nucleotides lipids and sugars formed Microspherelike protocels surrounding more complex organic molecules like RNA carbohydrates proteins and lipids First proka ryotes First organisms were anaerobic prokaryotes Bacteria amp Archaea Would have started to compete for energetic organic molecules Photosynthetic bacteria evolved 35 BYA C02 H20 9 Food 02 02 accumulates in atmosphere 22 BYA Aerobic metabolism evolves First Eukaryotes appear 2 17 BYA Origin of Modern Organisms First living organisms were likely anaerobic prokaryotes Found in stromatolites All living things come from these first prokaryotes Evolution by natural selection shows how this occurred Models Static Model All species originate at the same time Stay in their exact form Transformation Model All species originate at the same time Change over time but do not speciate Separate Types A few species originated originally Evolved over time Branched off into many different species Common Descent One species originated originally Anaerobic prokaryote Evolved over time Branched off into many different species Endosymbiont Hypothesis Often referred to as a theory now States that certain organelles especially chloroplasts and mitochondria arose as mutually beneficial associations bt the ancestors of eukaryotic cells and captured bacteria that lived within the cytoplasm of the preeukaryotic cells Both mitochondria and chloroplasts have a single circular chromosome Only found in prokaryotes Supporting Evidence Distinctive biochemical features shared by eukaryotic organelles and living bacteria Mitochondria and chloroplast each contain their own genomes Modern intracellular symbiosis Paramecium consuming Chlorella a green algae Allows it to undergo photosynthesis Chloroplasts do not reproduce along with the paramecium however Multicellular Organisms Advantages of multicellularity Larger size Redundancy First multicellular organisms appeared 1 EVA Plants primitive marine algae Animals marine invertebrates The Cambrian Explosion 544 MYA Huge bloom in population Almost all modern forms of animals arose at this time Projected life on earth on a 24 hr clock fig We are related to everything starting from prelife Anaerobic prok9 photosynthetic Pro 9aerobic prokaryotes 9 mitochondria 9hetro eukaryots9 chloroplasts 9 photosynthetic eukaryotes 9 plants milticelluarity Transition to Land Advantages of terrestrial living Open space Mass exposure to sunlight Challenges to terrestrial living No water Evolution of Land Plants Green Algae Common ancestor of all land plants Live in water but very similar to plan ts First Land Plants Appeared 400 MYA Mosses and ferns Continued water dependency Conifers Invasion of dry habitats Reduced reliance on water Flowering Plants Dominant plantform today Pollination by several Not reliant on water at all Co evolved with animals Evolution of Terrestrial Animals Arthropods appeared 400 MYA Lobefin fish evolved to amphibians Amphibians evolved to reptiles Age of the Dinosaurs Reptiles and the maintenance of body temperature Dinosaurs evolved to birds Insulating feathers retain body heat Later evolved for flight Mammals Insulating hair retains body heat Live births and mammary glands Western Historical context Gregor Mendel 1822 1884 Australian monk whose breeding experiments with peas shed light on the rules of inheritance The modern synthesis Early 1940 s A conceptual synthesis of Darwinian evolution Mendelian inheritance and modern population genetics Phenotype Vs Genotype Phenotype all expressed traits of an organism Genotype the entire genetic makeup of an individual LE its genome its full complement of genes and the two alleles that comprise each locus of subset of individual genes Evolution by Natural Selection Evolution Change in allele frequencies in a population over generational type Population genetics examines the frequency distribution and inheritance of alleles within a population HardyWeinberg Equilibrium The Population genetics theorem that states that the frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a population will remain constant unless acted upon by nonMendelian process Null model Assumes that no evolution occurs If so allele frequencies should remain constant Genotypes should occur in the population according to HardyWeinberg Equation p2 2m If 1 p2 proportion of population that is homozygous dominant for the first allele q2 proportion of population that is homozygous recessive qu heterozygous dominant Given either p or q one can solve for the rest of the above equation What would q be if 2 stands for the frequency of the dominant allele in a population q stands for the frequency of the recessive allele in a population Patterns p q 1 always 1 p is one allele and q is another allele they got to add up to 1 there is 2 versions ofthat gene of different ratios but always add up to 1 Allele Frequencies Under strict Mendelian inheritance allele frequencies would remain constant from one generation to the next If there was change in p and q over time we can say that The population has evolved But if there was no change that doesn t mean that no evolution has occurred There could be another trait that has evolved but we are only looking at one when looking at P and q of something hardy111pptx open this file and read before completing The hardyWeinberg Equation Is a null model Like Newton s first law ofmotion every objects tends to remain in a sate of uniform motion assuming NO external force is applied to it The HWE will be satisfied as long as all the assumptions are met Population Genetics and evolution Evolution change in gene frequencies in a population over time Due to differential reproduction among organisms bearing different alleles Fitness of the selected allele determines viability of offspring Evolutionary changes are not good or progressive in any absolute sense The causese of evolution 0 natural selection increases proportion of favorable alleles in a population 0 mutations source of new alleles 0 small population size increases chance of random events affecting gene freq 0 gene flow ie migration 0 non random mating ie assertive mating Dominance What causes Evolution Equilibrium no change over time Hypothetical population doesn t evolve over time Assumptions 1 No mutation 2 Gene ow 3 Large population size 4 Random mating 5 No natural selection serves as a control Mutations Mutations change in DNA sequence Point mutation one nucleotide is substituted for another Indel one or more nucleotides are inserted or deleted Creates new alleles Random process Mutation is ultimate source of variation Variation in population is possible by the help of mutations red ower white ower Mutations Occur Spontaneously but are present before challenge Variation was present before natural selection takes place starts with different kinds of noses then evolution or whatever takes place Gene flow Gene ow 0 Movement of alleles from one population to another owing to migration of individual organisms Spreads advantageous alleles through out a species Maintains all the organisms over a large area as one species Genetic Drift Genetic drift in one generation by targeting a subject example blonde Change in the allele freqs of small population purely by chance 1 Reduces genetic variability w in population 2 Increases genetic variability bn populations Founder event Frequency of red allele is low in original population Several of the travelers happen to carry the red allele Frequency of red allele much higher in new population Population bottleneck Frequency of red allele is low in original population Many survivors of tidal wave happen to carry red allele Frequency of red allele much higher in new population Chance events Frequency of red allele is low in original population The only person with red allele happens to fall of the tree and die Red allele is lost for red allele to come either mutation should happen or genetic gene ow someone with red allele comes over Bottle neck effect Ifu turn a bottle upside down and randomly shake it the original population with a lot ofvariation in it will not all fall of and just a little amount will survive and come down the bottle the others will be stuck and thus only a small amount of variation will survive Quiz Question Which population is more likely to undergo a change in gene frequency A A population of 100000 people B A population of 1000 people C A population of 100 people Non random mating and sexual selection Non random mating Assertive mating preference for mates that are similar to ones self Dominance only a few dominant males have reproductive access Elephant seals lions elk Sexual selection choice of mates by one seX is a selective agent Malard red winged blackbird Natural selection NS acts on individuals phenotype But changes gene frequencies win a population Survival of the fittest Fitness means ability to reproduce Physical fitness strength may help but isn t everything Unequal survival and reproduction of organisms due to environmental forces Results in the preservation of favorable adaptations in a population 3 types of natural selection 1 Directional selection 2 Stabilizing selection 3 Disruptive selection Population group ofindividuals of same species Directional selection selection of one of the extremes and becomes average at it over time eg tall Average Phenotypes becomes more extreme over time see graph in book Stabilizing Selection Average phenotypes are favored and increase over time Over time most of the people become of certain height average Disruptive selection selection ofboth extremes at same time Eg Black bellied seed crackers Small beak good for soft seeds Large Beak good for hard seeds over time will change such that the extremes are favored Both large and small beaks are favored Orchid Mantis Natural selection in action evolution of insecticide resistance Evidence best explained by theory of evolution 1 Fossil Record including whale thing that fossil had a limb before now it transformed to a different kinda bone 2 Comparative anatomy Special attention bitch Analogous vs homologous structures o Homologous structures different environmental forces favor changes in structures In related organisms evolution human forlimb and dog forlimb come from original same structured species anatomically related because they share an ancessotor they look different because of divergent evolution which makes those comon limbs look different by evolution 0 Analogous structures convergent evolution 0 Similar environmental forces select for similar structures in unrelated organisms Superficially they are similar eg Wing in insect and birt but this does not suggest shared ancessotr when we look at anatomy but both use wings to y o Rudimentary Form of an organ more fully formed in ancestor quotevolutionary baggage Body hair wisdom teath 0 Developmental biology during developing inside your mom similar sturctures of baby pig baby human all life on earth evolved from single prokaryotic organisms every living thing is related on earth Test 1 Review Focus on mutation variation is due to mutation When did we go from having prokaryotic to eukaryotic organisms 2 billion years ago Hypothesis Spontaneous Generation Refuted Proved wrong Some point we went from no life to life Know miller and ureyeXp eriment tried to duplicate life early Environment they were able to see the formation of organic molecules in just a few days 2Aerobic prok 2 Photosynththicprok 1 Anaerobic prok How we went form mutation to evolution we have to have mutation to get variation for evolution different species that undergo selection affer that Mutation change in Dna sequence Point mutation one nucleotide is substituted for another Indel one or more nucleotides are inserted or deleted Creates new alleles Random process Mutations is ultimate source of variation 222325 not responsible for all just in class TEXTBOOK Charles Darwin read about him 455458 COMING on test bitchhhhh Human skin pigmentation video quotevolution of human skin pigmentation quotDr ninaquot Melanin produce to protect from uvb production ofvitamin D was the driving force for decrease of production of melanin Gene ow might lead to new species Population bottleneck and the founder effect the last one don t worry Exam 2 similar to 1 Biochemical and genetic evidence best explained by the theory of evolution Common use and similarities ofDNA RNA amino acids ribosome genetic code ATP electron carriers electron transport systems etc Correlation of DNA proteins etc with relatedness of species
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