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by: Charles Kohler


Charles Kohler
GPA 3.94

Christopher Gregg

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Christopher Gregg
Class Notes
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Charles Kohler on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1001 at Louisiana State University taught by Christopher Gregg in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/222823/biol-1001-louisiana-state-university in Biological Sciences at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
8262009 63300 PM Chapter 1 o Principles 0 All events can be contributed to natural causes Supernatural powers can t be studied using science 0 Natural laws apply at all places and all times 0 People perceive events in similar ways o Misconceptions 0 Scientists prove things 0 It is just theory 0 Science vs religion o The Scientific Method 0 ObservationeHypothesi59Experiment Conclusion 0 Something unexpected happensExplanation ifthen prediction9Controlled test challenge predictioneSupports or doesn t support hypothesis o Penicillin o Fleming 1920 Discovered fluid that inhibited bacterial growth later isolated as penicillin o Scientific Theories o A general statement about how things operate inductive reasoning 0 Never permanent or final truth Always subject to change or replacement 0 Used to propose hypotheses deductive reasoning o Characteristics of Living Things 0 Complex and Organized Salt Organized but simple Oceans complex but unorganized Water Flea Organized and complex 0 Must get materials and energy 0 Homeostasis maintains internal conditions Homeostasis staying the same Cells ampor whole body maintains conditions within a certain range Requires energy n Opposes natural trend to disintegration n Obtained from external source Requires physical repair Parts break down amp new materials required for repair Food supplies material and energy 0 Growth Extension of homeostasis n Homeostasis staying the same a Growth homeostasis plus extra Organism grows in sizemass Must acquire more than need for homeostasis Genetically programmed n Timing a Size n Shape o Respond to stimuli Changes in internal environment a Temperature a Water Level a Blood Sugar Level Changes in external environment a Seek food and water a Avoid bitterness n Plants grow toward light 0 Reproduce themselves Perpetuation of parents genes a Genetic info stored in DNA chemical n Has its basics at the cellular level 0 Capacity to evolve Accounts for unity of life a All organisms share fundamental characteristics a Common descent Accounts for diversity of life a Genetic composition of population changes evolves n Differential survival natural selection selects advantageous o Categorizing the Diversity of Life 3 Domains of Living Organisms o Bacteria u d kingdom prokaryotic Uni cell AbsorbsPhoto for nutrition 0 Archaea u d kingdom prokaryotic Uni cell Absorbs nutrition 0 Eukarya Protistsa a single celled Eukaryotic AbsorbsPhotoIngests nutrition Fungi n Eukaryotic Multicelled Absorbs nutrition Plantae n Eukaryotic Multicelled Photo nutrition Animalia n Multicelled Ingests nutrition o Evolution Unifying Theory of Biology 0 Accounts for diversity of life change through time 0 Accounts for fundamental similarities Common ancestry 0 Scientific theory derived from observation and experiments 0 Evolutionary Process 1 Genetic variation competition among variants 2 Not all survive 3 Adaptive characteristics inherited Chapter 2 o Atom 0 The basic structural unit of matter Protons positive a Elements differ in number of protons o Element is defined by of protons atomic number 0 Has specific physical and chemical properties 0 Can t be broken down by chemical reactions o Atomic Mass of protons neutrons Neutrons neutral Electrons negative n BuildingUp Principle o Electrons fill the shell closest to the nucleus then begin to occupy the next shell o 1 2 Electrons 2nd 8 electrons 3rd 8 Electrons eg Atomic of Carbon C6 n 6 Electrons 2 in 1St shell 4 in 2nd Isotopes B Atomic Mass of protons neutrons n Isotopes vary in number of neutrons Ions Atoms that vary in of electrons in outer shell atoms are most stable when outer electron shell is full n Extra electrons create charge a Fewer electrons create charge Chemical Bonds Molecules amp Compounds a Bond is union bn electrons in outer shell of atoms a Atoms bond to form molecules n Molecules may contain atoms of only one element Oxygen n Molecules of compounds contain more than one element Water Important Bonds in Biological Molecules n Ionic Bonds o Attraction bt ions o Eg sodium has 1 electron in outer shell chlorine has 7 n Covalent Bonds Atoms share a pair or pairs of electrons to fill outermost shell Single covalent bond 1 pair electrons Double covalent bond 2 pairs electrons Triple covalent bond 3 pair electrons Nonpolar Covalent Bond 0 Nonpolar if atoms share electrons equally Hydrogen gase HH Polar Covalent Bonds 0 Polar if electrons spend more time orbiting one atom amp less around another a Hydrogen Bonds o Polar molecules carry slight charges o Electrons favor one atom over another o Hydrogen bond forms bn end of one molecule and end of another 0 O O o Water 0 A good solvent Dissolves molecules with ionic bonds n NaCle salt Dissolves polar molecules n Glucosee sugar Water Dissolved substance solution 0 Moderates effects of temperature Heats and cools slowly a High heat of vaporization and fusion n Must break or form Hbonds Water is an effective coolant n Removes heat by evaporation 0 Forms an unusual solid Ice water is less dense when frozen 0 Sticks together Cohesion tendency to stick together Surface tension surface resists breaking Adhesion sticks to polar surface All because of Hbonds o Dissociation A few water molecules naturally dissociate n Hydroxide ion is negative and basic a Hydrogen ion is positive and acidic o Acids amp Bases 0 Hydrogen ions H Unbound protons Form when water dissociates Have important biological effects 0 Acids Release H when dissolved in H20 0 Bases Release OH when dissolved in H20 0 The pH scale Measures H concentration change of 110X more or less H 014 B 7 is neutral water o 07 is more acidic o 714 is increasingly basic when an acid is dissolved in water the concentration of H and the pH n Increase decreases one liter of a solution of pH2 has how many more H than 1L of a solution of pH 6 a 10000 times more one liter of a solution pH 9 has how many more OH ions than 1 liter of a solution of pH4 a 100000 times more Chapter 3 o Why is carbon so important in biological molecules 0 Most biological molecules are carbon based 0 Versatility forms 4 covalent bonds 0 Organic moleculesmolecules with carbon and hydrogen mostly made by living things Look at table 31 FUNCTIONAL GROUPS How are organic molecules synthesized 0 Organic molecules in all living organism share 2 similarities 0 Use the same functional groups 0 Formed by the modular approach 0 Sticks subunits together like cars in a train 0 monomer dimer 0 polymer Dehydrationhydrolysis Page 39 which of the following best summarizes the relationship between dehydration reactions and hydrolysis o Dehydration reactions assemble polymers and hydrolysis breaks them down What are carbohydrates 0 Composition Literally carbon and water CH20 Eg glucose c6H1206 Function Energy Structure Figure 31 Monosaccharide 1 sugar Immediate Energy 0 Disaccharide 2 sugars Short term Energy storage transport Polysaccharides Many sugars Longterm Energy storage 0 Structural O O O O O O O O O o Hamburgersstarchbreadglycogenbeefcelluloselettuc e Cellulose Chitin Makes up arthropod exoskeletons and fungus cell walls Polymers with glucose subunits and Nitrogen containing functional groups o What are lipids o Lipids include Oils fats and waxes Phospholipids n Mostly in cell membranes n 1 glycerol 2 FAs amp 1 polar group a Polar head nonpolar tails Steroids a Complex ring forms a Some hormones are steroids o Estrogentestosterone n Cholesterol o Natural substances o Found in membranes 0 Characteristics Large regions with mostly Carbon and Hydrogen nonpolar Hydrophobic insoluble in water 0 Fat molecules 0 Triglycerides include solid fats and liquid oils 3 fatty acids and a glycerol a Fatty acidshydrocarbon chain with COOH n Glycerol3carbon alcohol 0 Saturated Fatty acidsno CC double bonds 0 Unsaturated fatty acidsone or more CC double bond o Proteins 0 Amino Acids Molecular subunits of proteins a 1 amino group 1 carboxyl group 1 R group O O joined by peptide bonds to form polypeptides different sequence of amino acids 20 different R groups make up the different amino acids 0 Levels of protein structure PrimaryesequenceSecondaryecoiling Tertiary Bending o Nucleic Acids 0 Nucleic acids are nucleotide polymers 0 Function in genetics amp cell control DNA amp RNA genetics ATP energy carrier cAMP cell communication Coenzymes metabolism 0 Nucleotides 5carbon sugar phosphate amp Ncontaining base Nucleic Acid Molecule n Nucleotides can be joined together into a chain a Result is a nucleic acid DNA RNA n Order of the Ncontaining bases determines genetic information a Connected by sugarphosphate backbone Chapter 4 Transport Processes o Energyrequiring transport movement of substances in or out of a cell using energy o Active Transport 0 Movement via membranespanning proteins Requires E Transports against concentration gradient o Endocytosis move large particles in o Pinocytosis cell drinking cell engulfs extracellular fluid 0 Phagocytosis cell eating cell engulfs large particles o Exocytosis move material out o Endoamp Exocytosis is like cell ingestion and excretion 0 Active process for large groups of molecules Endo engulfment Exo expulsion Cell Attachment Structures o Desmosomes 0 Strengthen attachments between cells 0 Tightjunctions prevent leakage between cells CellCommunication Structures o Gap Junctions celltocell channels connecting adjacent cells o Plasmodesmatae channels through plant cell walls connecting adjacent cells Cell Walls o Plants 0 Cellulose other carbohydrates amp proteins o Fungi o Chitin o Protists o Cellulose protein silica carbonate o Bacteria o Peptidoglycan Chapter 5 Cell theory o All living things are composed of one or more cells o Smalles living things are single cells amp cells are functional units in multicellular organisms o Cells come from preexisting cells Basic Features of All Cells o Plasma membrane o DNA as hereditary recipe o Cytoplasm o Obtain energy and nutrients from the environment o Cells are small SurfacetoVolume Ratio Radius 10 30 10 Surface 126 1131 3394 4pieRA2 Volume 42 1131 1131 43pieR 3 SV Ratio 3 1 3 Features of Prokaryotic Cells o Smaller 15pm o No membrane bound organelles o No nucleus o DNA in circular hoop o Eubacteria and Archaea Features of Eukaryotic Cells o Larger 8100pm o Membrane bound organelles o Nucleus o Membrane bound structure where most DNA is found o DNA in linear chromosomes o Singlecelled protists o Multicelled animals plants amp fungi Ribosomes o Site of protein synthesis o Made of RNA amp protein c Free floating in cytoplasm or attached to rough ER Endomembrane System o Endoplasmic reticulum ER Golgi complex vesicles o Series of phospholipid membranes within cells o Modifies proteins lipid production packaging shipping Endoplasmic Reticulum o Extends throughout cytoplasm o Two regions 0 Rough ER protein production 0 Smooth ER Lipid production The Golgi Complex c Puts the finishing touches on proteins lipids arriving from ER o Packages finished material for shipment to final destination Plastids o Organelles found in plants cells o Chloroplastsphotosynthesis o Chromoplasts store pigments o Amyloplasts store starch Cilia amp Flagella o Tubular extensions of plasma membrane o Movement of fluid or locomotion o Two functionally different types 0 Cilia numerous paddlelike synchronized o Flagella longer fewer more whiplike o Filled w microtubules o 9 pairs in periphery 2 singlets in center 0 92 arrangement o Movement 0 Microtubules doublets interact through dynein arms 0 Doublets linked together 0 Dynein moves up and down in microtubule bending entire assembly 8262009 63300 PM 8262009 63300 PM


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