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by: Cassie Koepp


Cassie Koepp
GPA 3.61

Christopher Gregg

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Christopher Gregg
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassie Koepp on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1001 at Louisiana State University taught by Christopher Gregg in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/222823/biol-1001-louisiana-state-university in Biological Sciences at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
Chapter Learning Objectives Chapter 40 Community Interactions 401 Why are community interactions important De ne ecological community Ecological Community Consists of all the interacting populations within an ecosystem in other words a community is the Biotic or living component of an ecosystem Biotic Living Coevolution Two interacting species act as agents of natural selection on one another over evolutionary time Most important Community interactions Competition Parasitism predation mutualism List the categories of interspeci c interactions and explain how each interaction may affect the population densities of the two species involved Interspeci c competition two or more members of different species ght for the Competition between 402 What are the effects of competition among species State the competitive exclusion principle Formulated by Biologist GF Gause The Competative exclusion principle No two species can inhabit exactly the same Ecological niche simultaneously and continuously Finding lHe did an experiment with 2 protist and had them live and grow in separate asks They were ne in different asks However when he combined both protest into the same ask one eliminated or competitavly excluded the other Finding 2 He replaced one protest with another and did the same experiment this time they were able to coexist This is a phenomenon called resource partitioning two species with similar requirements coexist they typically occupy a smaller niche than either would if it were by itself De ne an ecological niche Ecological Niche Each species occupies a unique niche that encompasses all aspects of its way of life including its physical home or habitat 0 Explain how intraspeci c competition may lead to resource partitioning Intraspeci c competition competition among individuals of the same species This is a MAJOR factor in controlling population size however interspeci c competition can limit both the size and the distribution of the competing populations 403 What are the results of interactions between predators and their prey 0 Explain the roles of predators and prey in a community Predators 7 organisms that kill and eat other organism Include herbivorous animals because they have a major in uence on the size and distribution of plant populations Predators are either larger than their prey or hunt collectively Predators are generally less abundant than their prey To survive predators MUST feed and PREY must avoid becoming food Because they are always ghting to survive they coevolve Coevolve As prey become more dif cult to catch predators must become more adept at hunting Give speci c examples of adaptations of predators and prey Ex 1 Bats chasing certain moths Moths evolved to be able to hear a bat from far distance making it hard for the bat to eat moth Bat then learned how to use an alternate way of hunting by using hearing other then sonar like system Ex 2 Camou age Both predators and prey have evolved colors patterns and shapes that resemble their surroundings Camou age by resembling speci c objects Camou age by using warning coloration Mimicry Animals with Bright warning coloration usually are distasteful and many are poisonous Refers to a situation in which a species evolves to resemble something else Aggressive mimicry a wolfinsheep sclothing approach in which they entice their prey to come close by resembling a harmless animal or part of the environment Startle coloration evolved patters of color that closely resemble the eyes of a much larger and possibly dangerous animal 404 What is symbiosis 0 Give a general de nition of symbiosis Symbiosis the close interaction between organisms of different species for an extended time o Distinguish among parasitism mutualism and commensalism Parasitism ONE organism bene ts by feeding on another Ex a parasite lives in or on their prey which are called host usually harming or weakening them but not immediately killing them Species tapeworms eas ETC mostly worms Mutualism TWO species interact in a way that bene ts BOTH Ex Ants and Acacias An Advantageous Association Long story short Scientist kills all ants on Acacia tree in which with out the ants it dies He painstakingly removes all the ant s has has them attempt to live in another location They die Without eachother they die Commensalism a relationship in which ONE species bene ts while the other is relatively unaffected Ex Bamacles that attach themselves to whales Whales could survive with out them and vice versa 405 How do keystone species in uence community structure 0 De ne keystone species Keystone Species a species that plays a major role in determing community structure a role that is out of proportion to its abundance in the community removal of the keystone species dramatically alters the community ExLobster in the east coast of Canada Removing them allowed its prey sea urchins to increase in numbers The population explosion of sea urchins near eliminated certain types of algae which the urchins prey almost killing the community 406 Succession how do community interactions cause change over time Disturbance 9Primary Succession Pioneers invade linchens and moss on bare rock nutritients exit moss making growth possible97 foreign plan germinates eventually growing trees grow larger trees grow even larger plants grow 9 and it culminates into CLIMAX COMMUNITY This can happen with secondary succession faster version of succession and even ponds and Lakes Succession occurs Some ecosystems are not allowed to reach the climax stage but are maintained in a subclimax stage by FREQUENT disturbance Biomes Extensive areas of characteristic plant communities


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