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by: Charles Kohler


Charles Kohler
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K. Thompson

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K. Thompson
Class Notes
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Charles Kohler on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1503 at Louisiana State University taught by K. Thompson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see /class/222827/biol-1503-louisiana-state-university in Biological Sciences at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
Chapter 41Animal Nutrition 0 In general animals fall into one of three dietary categories 7 Herbivores eat mainly autotrophs plants and algae 7 Carnivores eat other animals 7 Omnivores regularly consume animals as well as plants or algal matter What Nutrients Do Animals Need 0 Cells Continuously Expend Energy Which Is Derived from Nutrients and measured in calories 0 Lipids Include Fats Phospholipids and Cholesterol 7 Animals Store Energy 0 Carbohydrates Including Sugars and Starches Source of Quick Energy 7 Stored as glycogen short term 0 Proteins Composed of Amino Acids Perform a Wide Range of Functions Within the Body 7 Not stored Essential amino acids 0 8 required by many animals 7 Isoleucine leucine lysine methionine phenylalanine threonine tryptophan and valine 0 Cannot be synthesized by animal s cells 0 Are not stored Carnivores and omnivores readily obtain all 8 in meat 0 Most plants do not contain every essential amino acid in sufficient quantity 0 Most plant proteins are incomplete in amino acid makeup 7 Vegans need to eat a variety to ensure that they get all the essential amino acids 0 A diet that provides insufficient amounts of one or more essential amino acids 7 Causes a form of malnutrition called protein deficiency kwashiorkor 7 Malnutrition major problem in humans in marginal situations 0 What Nutrients Do Animals Need 0 Minerals Are Elements Required by the Body 7 Table412 Minerals Sources and Functions for Humans Calcium Fluorine Iodine Iron Potassium Phosphorus Sodium Zinc Vitamins Are Required in Small Amounts and Play Many Roles in Metabolism 7 Table 411 Vitamins Sources and Functions for Humans Fat Soluble Folate Bnamp C 7 Nutritional Guidelines Help People Obtain a Balanced Diet Vitamins 0 Important organic nutrients that serve as coenzymes Fatsoluble vitamins vitamin ADEK stored in adipose tissue overdoes of vitamin A can lead to blindness and death Watersoluble vitamins vitamin C not stored 0 Not all animals require the same vitamins 7 Only primates and guinea pigs can t synthesize vitamin C 0 Scurvy vitamin C deficiecy Homeostatic mechanisms manage an animal s energy budget 0 Nearly all of an animal s ATP generation 7 Is based on the oxidation of energyrich molecules carbohydrates proteins and fats 0 Animals store excess calories 7 As glycogen in the liver and muscles and as fat 0 When fewer calories are taken in than are expended 7 Fuel is taken out of storage and oxidized 7 Glucose is a major fuel for cells fig 4121 7 Its metabolism regulated by hormone actioninsulinampglucagon is an important example of homeostasis fig 4121 Principles of digestion and absorption 0 Digestion requires enzymes capable of hydrolyzing bonds 0 Products of digestion must be absorbed across plasma membranes 0 Minerals vitamins and monomers do not require digestion All foods must be absorbed as monomers glucose amino acids fatty acidsony one that can pass across cell membranes Alimentary canal 7 Single elongated tube with entry and exit ends 7 Lined by epithelial cells 0 Synthesize and secrete digestive enzymes 0 Secretes hormones 0 Transport of digested material 7 Several specialized regions 0 Different environments for different processes 0 Storage area Mouth 0 Herbivores fig 4118 7 Large flat molars and well developed jaws for chewing 7 Incisors and canines poorly developed or missing 0 Carnivores 7 Jagged molars sharp canines and incisors Omnivores have a combination of grinding molars and sharp canines and incisors 0 Length of small intestine varies fig 4119 7 Herbivores much longer intestines than carnivores 0 Added time for digesting plant material 0 Human Digestive System figure 4110 0 Saliva 7 Moisten and lubricate food to facilitate swallowing 7 Dissolve food particles to facilitate taste 7 Kill ingested bacteria 7 Initiate digestion of starch with amylase not very important Swallowing food closes epiglottisampUvula figure 4111 0 Bolus slides past esophageal sphincter voluntary muscle and moves by peristalsis to stomach smooth muscle 0 Epiglottis moves up to breathe Regurgitation Stomach Saclike organ evolved for storing food figure 4112 Initiates protein digestion Regulates rate of emptying into small intestine Glands secrete 7 HCI kills microbes dissolves particulate matter 7 Pepsinogen zymogen converted to pepsin to begin protein digestion 0 No lipid or carbohydrate digestion Ulcers Accesso Food reduced to chyme Makes intrinsic factor for absorption of Bu Problems 7 Ulcers bacteria 7 Borborygmi stomach rumbling 7 Pernicious Anemia lack of intrinsic factor The lining of the stomach fig 4112 7 Is coated with mucus which prevents the gastric juice from destroying the cells Gastric ulcers lesions in the lining 7 90 caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori Most common in stomach esophagus and small intestine 7 67 of US adults Treat with antibiotics Aspirin amp ETOH irritate stomach lining ry Organ Liver Structure Portal triad 7 Hepatic Portal vein from small intestine 7 Hepatic vein to inferior vena cava Bile ducts Hepatocytes form epithelium 1 cell thick separating caniculi lumens canals with bile from sinusoids containing blood Kupffer cells fixed macrophages found within sinusoids Stellate cells store Vitamin A Stores carbs lipids vitamins ADEK and minerals copper and iron Synthesizes plasma proteins except lgs cholesterol and triglycerides All nutrients except fats enter through Hepatic Portal vein Deamination NHZ split from amino acids 7 Goes to kidneys as urea to be filtered Glucose stored as glycogen or converted to fatty acids to store in adipose Worn out Hb converted to bilirubin 7 Stored as bile in gall bladder Kupffer cells break down foreign substances 7 Flagged with sulfur tag to be removed in kidney 7 ETOH broken down here Hepatitis inflammation of the liver low protein diet Lactic acid converted to pyruvic acid Hormones broken down here Affects a part of almost every other system of the body See figure 41 14 Accessory Organ Pancreas Both endocrine amp exocrine Endocrine Produces insulin amp glucagon in Islets of Langerhans and released via blood Exocrine produces digestive enzymes in in acinar cells and released through ducts 7 Lipases 7 Amylases 7 Trypsinogen zymogen works on proteins amp other proteases Produces enzymes to break down all kinds of food types Produces bicarbonate ions to neutralize stomach acids Small intestine Nearly all digestion of food and absorption of food and water occur in the first quarter Hydrolytic enzymes found on luminal surface or secreted by pancreas into lumen Products of digestion absorbed across epithelial cells and enter circulation Vitamins mineral and water also absorbed Enzymatic digestion is completed figure 4113 7 As peristalsis moves the mixture of chyme and digestive juices along the small intestine Specialized for increased surface area fig 4115 7 Mucosa is 7 Villi fingerlike projections 7 Epithelial cells covered with microvillicreating border brush Increases surface area 600fold Increases likelihood of encountering digestive enzyme and being absorbed Regulation of digestion Nervous system affects 7 Control of muscular and glandular activity by local nerves in alimentary canal 7 Longdistance regulation by the brain Hormones 7 Secreted mainly by cells scattered throughout the epithelium of stomach and small intestine 7 Target cells in pancreas and gallbladder Impact on public health Heartburn GERD 7 1 in 4 in the US suffer 7 Caused by stomach acids rising into esophagus 7 Many contributing factors Appendicitis hot tender to touch at McBurney s point nausea 7 Do NOT use heating pad or aspirin 7 Surgical removal Colon Polyps may become cancerous 7 Colonoscopy at 50 or before if family history or African American Diarrhea 7 Over 1 billion cases in the US each year 7 Many causes 7 Cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae from ingesting contaminated food or water 0 At least 2000 people die each year 7 Chief concern is loss of nutrients and water and ensuing dehydration CHAPTER 43 Immune System Nonspeci c defense mechanisms do not distinguish between inciting agnets Speci c defense mechanism the immune system Innate immunity 0 Is present before any exposure to pathogens and is effective from the time of birth 0 Involves nonspeci c responses to pathogens Acquired immunity Also called adaptive immunity Develops only after exposure to inducing agents such as microbes toxins or other foreign substances Involves very speci c response to pathogens Fig 432 First line of defense Skin Mucous membrane Secretions of both 0 pH 0 Antimicrobial proteins 0 Washing action Nonnal ora of skin and GI tract Skin Mainline 39Keratinized 39Sweat pH 35 prevents colonization by many microbes 39Lysozymes enzymes that digest the cell walls of many bacteria Second line of defense Phagocytes Antimicrobial Phagocytic cells Attach to their prey via surface receptors and engulf them Not targeting one speci c pathogen LEUKOCYTES WHITE BLOOD CELLS 39NEUTROPHILS 39First on the scene 39Nondividing short lived nonspeci c 39MONOCYTESMACROPHAGES May become APCs antigen presenting cells In lymph nodes spleen 39Natural Killer Cells Both nonspeci c amp speci c Attach and lyse infected and tumor cell membranes Patrol the body and attack virus infected body cells and cancer cells attacking own cells Trigger apoptosis in the cells they attack Use perpherin 39LYlVIPHOCYTES only in the speci c immune systeln B cells T cells Complement System 39Series of 20 serum proteins A trigger stimulus starts autocatalytic cascade Product of one reaction is enzymatic catalyst for next reaction positive feedback 39Inteimediate products are chemotactic for W BC s 39End result holes poked in cell membranes cell lysis build the hole attack bacteria 39Membrane attack complex hole in bacterial membrane 39Complement 39Alternate complement Part of nonspeci c when they form MACS directly 39Classic complement Part of speci c immune response when they attach to antibodies that have marked the bacteria for destruction Interferons Alpha 1 beta 3 and gamma v not directly induced by vimses 39Proteins secreted by infected cells 39Broadspectrum antiviral agents Block virus spread and replication 39Warn surrounding cells of about invader 39Nonspeci c for Viruses only In almnation 39Non speci c response 39triggered by tissue damage any injurious agent 39Occurs only in living organisms 39Wams of injurydamage 39May stimulate release of pyrogens fever 4 Cardinal Signs of in ammation g 438 39Redness 39Swelling 39Local heat 39Pain Loss of function Third line lymphocytes and antibodies speci c immune response Speci c Immune Response 391 Recognize speci c invader 392 DisableDestroy invader Use humoral immunity antibodies disable Extracellular Based on B cells Use cell mediated response destroy Intracellular Based on T cells 393 Remember invader CELL TYPES INVOLVED IN IMMUNE RESPONSE 1 Blymphocytes 2 T lymphocytes 39ANTIGEN any foreign molecule that elicits a speci c immune response Ag Protein or carbohydrate 39Large molecular sizecomplexity protein or carbohydrate 39Dose amp route of application are important ANTIBODY proteins secreted by B cells in response to a speci c antigen Ab Ig B amp T Cells 39Both made in bone marrow 39T cells mature become immunocompetent recognize selffrom nonself in thymus 39B cells mature in marrow 39Both recognize speci c antigens through plasma membranebound antigen receptors An enormous variety of B and T cells each bearing antigen receptors of particular speci city 39Both have ability to develop memory of invaders 39T cells DO NOT RELEASE ANTIBODIES 39Characteristics of both Major Histocompatibility Complex 39MHC molecules 39Antigen presenters 39Recognize a cell as foreign 39Not antigen speci c 39React with T cell receptors 39Glycoprotein self markers on cell membranes 39Class I MHC all nucleated cells 39Class II MHC specialized cells B cells T cells macrophages cells in thymus 39What is matched in tissue transplant B Cells 39Lots of naive B cells have not met the invader that matches it have MHC II 39Encounter antigens amp look for a match 39Engulf process amp present antigen to TH helper T cell 39TH activates B cell to divide forming Plasma cells with lots of rough ER to churn out antibodies takes 1017 days oEach plasma cell can release 2000 antibodiessecond for 45 days Antibodies only plasma protein not made in the liver Mem0ry B cells which lurk in lymph nodes for secondary response if invader returns takes 27 days g 437 HIV attacks helper T cells B cells don t remember invaders Antibodies 39Y shaped molecule with 2 light amp 2 heavy chains 39Have variable antigen binding region 395 major types see Table 431 39Epitope invader s glycoprotein 39Fig 439a 39Fig 4314 IgM pentamer 5 Y s in a circle Initial Ab produced to a response Large and cannot cross placenta Agglutination sticking together IgG monomer most abundant of all Igs 39Crosses placenta 39Activates complement 39Secondary response IgG IgA dimer called secretory Ab 39Abundant in mucous membranes 39Found in most body secretions 39Found in colostrum breast milk IgE monomer 39Allergy 39Parasitic infections 39Attach to mast cells by tail part and trigger release of histamine when reacting with Ag Antibody Functions 39Neutralization blocks reactive groups on antigen 39Opsonization coats invader to attract macrophages 39Prevents colonization by clumping antigens 39Activates complement series of 20 proteins in a cascade reaction that promotes phagocytosis attracts complement proteins 39Fig 4319 Primary immune response 39First exposure to antigen 39Takes 1017 days to occur after exposure 39Symptoms of illness occurs during these days 39Antigenselected B and T cells proliferate and differentiate into effector cells 0 Plasma cells 0 Cytotoxic T cells Secondary immune response 39Subsequent exposures to antigen 39Takes 27 days to occur 39Greater magnitude response and more prolonged 39Occurs due to presence of memory cells Fig 43 15 Tcell subsets 39Tc T cytotoxic cells receptors for MHC I 39TH T helper cells receptors for MHC II Helper T Cells Function in Both Humoral and Cell mediated Immunity 39Both types of immune responses initiated by 39 quot between antig n J quot cells APCs and TH cells The APCs including macrophages and some B cells tell the immune system via TH cells that a foreign antigen is in the body A speci c TH cell is activated by binding to the MHCantigen compleX on the surface of the APC TH releases chemical messengers activating the 2 responses Interleukin Ill B cell to T cell Il2 T cell to B cell or Tc Fig 4320 T Lymphocytes 39T cells defend against foreign or abnormal matter through direct contact 39Helper T cells CD4 0 Secrete cytotoxins that enhance activity of B cells and other T cells 0 Enhance activity of macrophages and NK cells 0 Binds class II MHC enhances macrophageT cell interaction 39Cytotoxic T cells CD8 0 Kill virusinfected cells abnormal cells and bacteria within cells 0 Binds class I MHC enhances abnormal cellT cell interaction 39Suppressor T cells 0 Secrety cytokines that suppress activity of B cells and other T cells 39The role of helper T cells in acquired immunity MHC marks body cells as self 39MHC molecules unique to individual person HLA human leukocyte antigen 39Tissue type 39Marks person as self 39Responsible for tissueorgan rejection 7 stimulates immune response to foreign tissue 39Fig 4312 Antigen presenting cells APCs 39Macrophages nonspecific phagocytosis 39B cells specific receptor mediated endocytosis do not phagocytize Helper T cells a response to nearly all antigens 0 Fig 4316 fig 4318 Cytotoxic T cells 39Produce perforin punctures cell membrane 39Once activated the Tc cells kills other cells infected with the same pathogen 39In the same way Tc cells defend against malignant tumors 39Certain cancers and viruses actively reduce the amount of class I MHC protein on affected cells so that they escape detection by Tc cells Fig 4320 Immunity 39Active immunity produced by response of body s immune system 0 Naturally acquired recovering from infection 0 Arti cially acquired vaccination o Vaccines include inactivated toxins killed microbes parts of microbes and viable but weakened microbes These no longer cause disease but can act as antigens stimulating an immune response and more importantly immunological memory 39Passive immunity transfer of antibodies from one individual to another 0 Naturally IgG crossing placenta during pregnancy IgAs in breast milk especialy colostrum the first secretions of mammary glands o Arti cially acquired injection of antiserum containing antibodies against a specific agent obtained from individual already immune to the agent monoclonal antibodies given when exposed to speci c life threatening illness 0 Short term but immediate protection 0 No immune response no memory Abnormal Immune Responses 39Allergies 39Inappropriate response to harmless antigen in environment quot Exaggerated immune response antigen called an allergen 39IgE antibodies involved 39Histamines released wash out allergen 39Fig 4322 39Anaphylaxis quot Lifethreatening allergic response 39Respiratory edema and swelling of bronchioles asphyxiation can result if no intervention 39Systemic precipitous drop in blood pressure 39Intervention epinephrine injection hormone dramatically counteracts the allergic response 39Epinephrine adrenaline 39Autoimmune disease 39Immune system cannot distinguish between self and nonself 39Loses tolerance for certain tissues in body 39Causes are varied and complex 39Diabetes mellitus Type I rheumatoid arthritis multiple sclerosis systematic lupus erythematosus 39Women with sons are more likely to get them because of Y cells escaping 39Immunodeficiency 39Weak or under active immune system 39Problem in any factors of immune response can impair immune function 39SCID severe combined immunodeficiency disease affects humoral and cellmediated immunity children born with no thymus or non functioning thymus 39Hodgkin s disease cancer of lymphatic system hard to treat because lymph is separate from circulatory system 39AIDS affect helper T cells 39Recurrent fever 39Weakness 39Weight loss 39Caused by HIV human immunode ciency virus 39HIV impairs macrophages and helper T cell TH drops from 1000 to 200cc 39Later in infection HIV impairs cytotoxic T cells 39HIV mutates quickly 39Immune system cannot keep up with HIV Blood Group Factors 39ABO IgM amp can t cross placenta AB universal recipient OO universal donor Rh Factors amp HDN 39Rh factors IgG amp can cross placenta 39HDN Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn causes agglutination destroys blood cells 39Rh39 Mom amp Rh Dad 9 Rh baby 39First baby usually okay 39Rh39 woman should nd Rh39 man 39Give RhogamTM within 36 hours after birth to remove fetal RBCs from Mom s circulation 39Clear Rh from mother s blood stream so that she doesn t form antibodies antiRh IgG Pathogenic avoidance of immune system Fig 4324 antigenic variation in trypanosomes Surface glycoproteins of parasite change to stay one step ahead of antibody formation Flu viruses avoid immune system by exchanging genes with domesticwild animals and no memory cells recognize new variant ducks and pigs


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