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by: Cassie Koepp


Cassie Koepp
GPA 3.61

W. Doerrler

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W. Doerrler
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassie Koepp on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 4110 at Louisiana State University taught by W. Doerrler in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/222832/biol-4110-louisiana-state-university in Biological Sciences at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
Biol4110 Spring 2013 Study questions set 1 ANSWER KEY 1 What enzyme catalyzes the conversion of glucose6 phosphate to fructose6P Phosphoglocose isomerase 2 What enzyme catalyzes the conversion of fructose6P to fructose16 diphosphate phosphofructokinase 3 What are the major purposes of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway NADPH production and formations of precursors for other biosynthetic pathways 4 What is substrate level phosphorylation Formation of a highenergy phosphate bond that can be utilized for ATP production Does not require establishment of a proton gradient and is distinct from oxidative phosphorylation 5 What is catabolite repression The ability of E coli to repress the synthesis of genes involved in metabolism of alternate carbon sources when glucose is present Glucose is the preferred carbon source 6 Describe the reactions of the Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism Which enzyme converts galactose into glucose What is its substrate and product Galactokinase An ATP dependent kinase that phosphorylates galactose to form Gal1P Galactose1P uridyltransferase Transfers the UDP from UDPglucose to Galactose1P forming UDPgalactose and Glucose1P UDPGalactose 4 epimerase Converts UDPgalactose to UDPglucose Phosphoglucomutase converts glucose1P to glucose6P 7 How is chitin utilized by Vibrio cholerae Growth on chitin induces synthesis of genes involved in chitin utilization These include outer membrane chitoporin that facilitates the passage across the outer membrane Breakdown into GlcNAc occurs by either chitodextrinase in the periplasm GlcNAc is transported and phosphorylated by a specific phosphotransferase system yielding GlcNAcGP The GlcNAcSP is deacetylated and deaminated to Fructose6P that enters glycolysis 8 What is fermentation How is it different from anaerobic respiration Fermentation is an energy yielding process where ATP is generated solely by substrate level phosphorylation Reduced NADH formed during glycolysis must be reoxidized to NAD in order for glycolysis to continue Both occur in the absence of oxygen but electron transport occurs during anaerobic respiration using alternative electron acceptors 9 How does S cerevisiae oxidize NADH when growing fermentatively on glucose By coupling oxidation of NADH to reduction of acetaldehyde forming ethanol in the process which is excreted Acetaldehyde and 002 is formed by decarboxylation of pyruvate 10 How is lactose transported into the cell Coupled with transport of a proton by the symport transporter LacY 11 What is lithotrophy What is phototrophy Lithotrophy is utilization of an inorganic compound as a source of energy Phototrophy is utilization of light as a source of energy 12 What enzyme oxidizes sulfite to sulfate Sulfite oxidase Nitrite to nitrate Nitrite oxidoreductase Hydrogen to water Hydrogenase Ferrous to ferric Rusticyanin Ammonia to nitrite ammonia monooxygenase and hydroxylamine oxidoreductase 13 Describe the similarities and differences between bacterial photosynthesis anoxygenic photosynthesis and plant photosynthesis oxygenic photosynthesis Both types utilize light harvesting complexes containing chromophores to best absorb energy from light Both funnel the energy into a reaction center where electron transport reactions generate a proton gradient Bacterial photosynthesis anoxygenic utilizes a process called cyclic photophosphorylation where electrons are passed from bacteriochlorophyll to a series of electron donors and nally back to the chlorophyll molecule in the process forming a proton gradient used for ATP synthesis Electrons can be derived from H2 or H28 but not H20 Oxygenic photosynthesis utilizes slightly different chromophores that absorb light of different wavelengths This type of photosynthesis utilizes a second photosystem called photosystem II that is responsible for generation of a strong oxidant that extracts electron and produces oxygen from water Electrons are passed through a series of electron donors to photosystem I and ultimately to an enzyme which forms NADPH an NADP reductase Alternatively the enzymes can be passed to a cytochrome that results in formation of a proton gradient 14 What are the functions ofthe light harvesting complexes The LH complexes efficiently absorb energy from light that causes their bound chromophores to reach an excited state This energy is then passed chromophore to chromophore until it reaches the reaction center where the energy takes part in an electron transport chain 15 Describe the electron transport reactions that occur at the photosynthetic reaction center during cyclic photophosphorylation Special pair chlorophyll picks up energy in the form of light or transferred energy from the LH s reaching an excited state Electrons are passed through a series of electron transport steps until two electrons reach ubiquinone Qb together with two proton forming ubiquinol QbHZ QbHZ passes its electrons to cytochrome bc1 In the process four protons are transported across the cell membrane The electrons are then passed through a series of cytochromes until they reach the oxidized special pair chlorophyll which is reduced and can again take part in initiating electron transfer upon exposure to light 16 What is the class of chemicals that plants secrete into the soil to attract bacteria Flavonoids What is the class of molecules that the bacteria make in response to this cue Nod factors 17 What are the components of the nitrogenase complex Describe the process of nitrogen reduction carried out by this enzyme Dinitrogenase reductase and dinitrogenase Electrons are passed from an electron donor to ferredoxin that reduces dinitrogen reductase The reductase then binds and hydrolyzes ATP and in the process binds to and passes its electrons to dinitrogenase that catalyzes the conversion of bound nitrogen to ammonia 18 What is the difference between nitri cation and denitri cation Nitrification is the use of ammonia and nitrates as an energy source oxidizing them in the process Denitrification is the use of these oxidized forms of nitrogen as the final electron acceptor in an electron transport chain under anaerobic conditions reducing nitrates and nitrites to nitrogen in the process 19 Name the amino acids that utilize the following precursors in their biosynthesis ocketoglutarate proline glutamine and arginine oxaloacetate asparagine lysine methionine threonine and isoleucine pyruvate alanine valine and leucine homoserine threonine and methionine homocysteine methionine aspartate semialdehyde threonine methionine and lysine Hydrogen sulfide cysteine and methionine via cysteine Chorismate phenylalanine tyrosine and tryptophan Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate histidine 20 Aspartate is used in the synthesis of which nucleotides UCT pyrimidines and purines AG Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate the histidine precursor is also used for the synthesis of which nucleotides A G purines and UCT pyrimidines IMP is a precursor ofwhich nucleotides AMP GMP


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