BIOL FOR SCI MAJ II
BIOL FOR SCI MAJ II BIOL 1202
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassie Koepp on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1202 at Louisiana State University taught by K. Brown in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see /class/222838/biol-1202-louisiana-state-university in Biological Sciences at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Biology 1202 Review Questions for Third Exam Fall 2010 Chapter 36 and 38 Vocabulary proton pump cotransport turgor pressure water potential back pressure solute pressure mycorrhizae endodermis transpirational pull incomplete flowers pericarp transgenic plants 1 Understand how proton pumps and cotransport are important for movement of molecules and ions across plant cell membranes Proton pumps actively transport H out anions and solutes are cotransported in 2 Understand what water potential and turgor pressure mean Why do water molecules flow to more negative water potentials How is back pressure and solute pressure involved Be able to predict water flow based on I p and Lps Because evaporation at leaves creates transpirational pull which draws water up Be able to use the equation given in class in an example 3Explain how water potential difference drives water flow from roots up the trunk and into and out of leaves Be familiar with the general values of water potential involved Water potential becomes more negative as you move up the trunk resulting in water flowing from roots to the trunk and leaves 4How are guard cells and stomata involved in regulating the movement of gases and water in and out of leaves What molecular mechanism causes stomata to open or close Know guard cells open when turgid due to inflow of K which draws water in and makes cells turgid This allows carbon dioxide in and oxygen out Guard cells also open when carbon dioxide level gets to low within leaves 5 What two mechanisms are involved in transport of sugars from leaves to roots Hydrostatic flow down sieve tube elements and solute cotransport across phloem cell membranes review figure in book 6Describe the series of steps that occur as sperm fertilize the ovule in the plant ovary What is the endosperm and why is it important What develops into the seed The fruit Male gametogenesis formation of pollen growth of pollen tube fertilization formation of fruit seed dispersal Endosperm is 3N tissue providing nutrients for embryo The embryo and supporting tissues and the ovary respectively 7 Give an example of a plant variety produced by crossing artificial selection and genetic engineering What are the pluses and minuses of genetically engineered transgenic plants Corn and triticale are the result of crosses of natural plants and artificial selection over thousands of years Now we can rapidly genetically engineer plants to give them disease or pest resistance But what happens if genes spread to closely related weeds or if beneficial insects are affected Chapters 33 and 34 Vocabulary radial vs bilateral symmetry acoelomate vs pseudocoelomate vs coelomate protostome vs deuterostome enterocoelous vs schizocoelous lophophore choanocytes spongocoel amoebocytes spicules diploblastic vs triploblastic cnidocytes bipolar nerves re ex arc neurotoxin cephalization flame cells pharynx schistosomiasis vs swimmer s itch secondary simpli cation parthenogenesis trochophore and veliger larvae ctenidium radula open vs closed circulatory system torsion segmentation metanephridium setae exoskeleton hemocoel tagmata chelicera and pedipalps mandibles chela trachea malphigian tubules incomplete or complete metamorphosis pentaradial symmetry water vascular system notochord pharyngeal gill slits postanal tail protonephridia cartilaginous vs bony skeleton amniotic egg endothermy marsupial vs placental mammal evolutionary convergence australopithecine hominid Neanderthal vs Geico 8 In the molecular phylogeny for animals how important are body cavities acoelomate vs coelomate etc What is a lophophore A trochophore How are they important in systematics What do we mean when we say a trait does or does not map well on a phylogeny The type of body cavity seems least important since it does not separate any major clades unlike presence of lophophores trochophores etc 9 Why are sponges considered a parallel clade in the phylogeny They have no symmetry gut or tissues and are an example of an evolutionary dead end 10 Trace the pathway of a food item captured by a sponge How have sponges evolved to be able to increase their size Know what a spongocoel choanocyte amoebocyte and mesohyl is refer to figure 11 Name two major homologies that cnidarians possess Radial symmetry diploblastic two primary germ layers polymorphic and cnidocysts 12 What morph is dominant in each cnidarian class How do cnidarians capture and consume their prey Refer to the table giving the characteristics of each class 13 What major advances do flatworms show How does cephalization and the possession of unipolar neurons improve coordination They are bilaterally symmetrical and have unipolar neurons Increased cephalization and reflex arcs allow more coordination eg faster responses to stimuli 14 What flatworm class is free living Parasitic What adaptations do the parasitic classes have for finding or living in hosts Devise a phylogeny that assumes parasitism is a derived trait Which class would be basal Most derived Why Turbellarians would be basal and cestodes the most derived since turbellarians show more cephalization and cestode parasites are secondarily simplified pseudosegmented and have a high fertility 15 What major characteristics do rotifers posses What is an organ system They are pseudocoelomates and have a complet gut They have the first osmoregulatory system flame cells tubes and bladder 16 Contrast the biology of each of the major lophophorate phyla Bryozoans have hard colonies like corals brachiopods have dorsalventral bivalve shells and formed reefs Phoronids are benthic marine worms 17 What advances do the molluscs show What homologies Contrast the major anatomical features feeding and general complexity of each of the major molluscan classes Molluscs are bilateral coelmates with complex organ systems Homologies include body arranged in four parts refer to lecture ctenidium gill radula veliger larva Refer to the table in the text for differences among classes 18 Give several reasons why cephalopods could be considered the most highly evolved invertebrates Is the complexity homologous or analogous to that in the vertebrates They have a closed circulatory system and complex brain and eyes and are active hunters They are examples of convergent evolution with verts 19 Name several advances that annelids have over flatworms What do we mean by pseudo vs true segmentation Name a characteristic of each annelid class Assuming the classes have evolved from free living to parasitic which one is basal derived They are segmented have a complete gut and complicated organ systems True segmentation involves serial replication of organ systems in each segment Refer to the table for differences among classes Polychaetes are basal are free living with the most cephalization while leeches Hirudinea are the most derived reduced segmentation and cephalization to be an ectoparasite on vertebrates 20 What similarities and differences do nematodes and arthropods show Nematodes are pseudocoelomates with simple organ systems Both have an external cuticle that must be molted to grow and DNA evidence suggests they form a single clade 21 Name two diseases caused by nematodes Trichinosis and elephantiasis 22 What advances do arthropods show What problems do these advances pose for growth Segmented body and legs and exoskeleton allowing efficient and rapid movement External shell constrains growth must be molted 23 Contrast the major arthropod subphyla in terms of anatomy habitat and diversity Know differences between chelicerates aquatic and terrestrial mandibulates such as number of legs feeding appendages and number of body tagmata 24 What advances differentiate insects from other arthropods They have a complicated life cycle metamorphosis trachea for efficient respiration malphigian tubules for efficient excretion and thus terrestrial existence wings and complex behavior 25 What are the major homologies of echinoderms Name two homologies they share with chordates Pentaradial symmetry and a water vascular system Both they and chordates have an internal skeleton and are deuterostomes 26 What are the four chordate homologies and how do they vary among the major subphyla of chordates Pharyngeal gill slits notochord dorsal nerve cord and postanal muscular tail with somites They are lost in tunicate adults present in lancelet adults but lost in most of the adult vertebrates 27 Give a major difference among each ofthe vertebrate classes Construct a phylogeny ofthe major vertebrate classes What advances do amphibians show over fish Reptiles over amphibians Birds and mammals over reptiles What were the major steps in human evolution Fish have jaws and gills amphibians are tetrapods that need to remain near water reptiles evolved a tough epidermis and amniotic eggs and are truly terrestrial birds evolved wings from forearms and feathers from the dermis and are closely related to reptiles Mammals split off early and evolved hair for insulation and endothermy and milk to suckle their young So fish would be basal and reptiles birds and mammals derived Chapter 41 Digestion Vocabulary Homeostasis negative feedback loop protease amylase lipase essential nutrient physical vs chemical digestion bolus peristalsis mucosa or epithelium bile chyme villi microvilli cellulase rumen abomasum omassum cecum 28 Know the difference between an autotroph a chemotroph and a heterotroph as well as a detritivore herbivore and carnivore We focused on heterotrophs where herbivores are plant eaters detritivores eat decaying plants and carnivores eat meat 29 Explain the difference between the physical and chemical processes involved in digestion Physical processes increase surface area for actual chemical digestion by enzymes 30 Give the generic names for the enzymes that catalyze digestion of each of the major compounds in the diet Know what the name is for enzymes that catabolyze each food type and how much energy they produce 31 How do the main components of the diet differ in terms of energy value How many of each component are essential in the diet Give 3 examples of diseases caused by nutritional deficiencies Know which food type gives the most kcal 32 Discuss how a food bolus travels through the digestive system and where enzymes digest each component where absorption occurs and where water reabsorption occurs How are the endocrine and nervous system involved in controlling digestion Fig 4113 offers a good summary of what happens at each point Nerves control relatively fast response this is why you salivate when you see a Big Mac and hormones control longer term response ranging over hours 33 What role do chief cells parietal cells the pancreas and the mucosa ofthe small intestine play in digestion What do the liver and gall bladder do Know what cells produce what enzymes when they are activated and where bile salts are produced and stored 34 How is the transport of small molecules like amino acids by the digestive system different than larger molecules like fatty acids High molecular weight fats are transported in the lymphatic system not absorbed into blood 35 Discuss how the cow s digestive tract is adapted for being a herbivore Name two differences between the digestive system of carnivores and herbivores The cow has multiple stomachs and also digests bacterial symbionts Herbivores often have longer guts with diverticula because plant tissue is harder to digest than meat 36 Describe how blood sugar level is regulated and what hormones are involved What mechanism is involved with each of the two hormones You need to know where insulin and glucagon are produced and where each acts Biology 1202 Fall 2009 Review Questions for Exam 1 Chapter 22 and 23 Vocabulam Theory hypothesis acquired characters adaptive radiation Galapagos finches artificial selection super bugs convergent vs divergent evolution analogous vs homologous structures gene pool allele Hardy Weinberg Law genetic drift gene ow bottleneck founder s effect polymorphism clines geographic variation heterozygote advantage neutral variation directional stabilizing or diversifying selection sexual reproduction sexual selection sexual dimorphism constraints to evolution trade off N 00 P 01 O l Who were the major scientists that developed the background information necessary for Darwin to develop his theory and what did each scientist contribute Plato and Aristotle Cuvier Lamarck Lyell How did Darwin s early travels contribute to his ideas Biogeographical differences in fauna and adaptive radiations suggested evolution by natural selection Be able to list the major assumptions observations and predictions of Darwin s theory of natural selection Populations could but don t increase because resources are limiting so only the most fit offspring survive causing longterm increases in frequency of adaptations in populations Discuss how artificial selection pepper moths biogeography homologies and the fossil record all provide evidence for natural selection and evolution Selection provides direct evidence homologies biogeography and fossil record provide indirect evidence fthe frequency of the recessive phenotype is 16 what is the frequency of the recessive allele The dominant allele What are the othertwo genotypic frequencies What ifthe recessive phenotypic frequency is 108 q2 16 q 04 p 06 p2 036 2pq 048 Give two examples of factors that decrease the numbers of individuals reproducing in populations and note how they affect the frequency of rare alleles and the amount of genetic variation and heterozygosity within populations How do they affect the amount of genetic variation among populations Bottlenecks and founder s effects cause genetic drift increase homozygosity and reduce heterozygosity decrease genetic variation within populations but not between them What did I mean when I said genetic drift and gene flow produce opposite effects in populations Gene flow increases heterozygosity and variation within but not between populations 8 Is mutation usually considered an important factor changing gene frequencies No it occurs too rarely and may be neutral 9 How does inbreeding affect heterozygosity in populations It decreases it but doesn t change allele frequencies 10 Discuss three separate factors that can preserve genetic variation in populations Give an example of each Diploidy heterozygote advantage and neutral variation 11 Higher mortality in premature or postmature babies is an example of what mode of selection Selection for resistance to antibiotics Beak size in blackbellied seedcrackers Body size in a territorial lizard Stabilizing directional disruptive stabilizing in order 12 Why might you argue that sexual reproduction should be rare Why is it instead quite widespread in animals and plants Sexuals have to be twice as fit so are at a disadvantage unless variation among offspring is an adaptation 13 You observe that females in a certain bird species surprisingly are quite colorful and territorial while males are drab colored What sex might you expect to invest more in reproduction in this exception that proves the rule Males brood the young on the nest in phalaropes and are less colorful etc 14 Give at least 3 reasons why natural selection cannot produce perfect adaptations in populations Phylogenetic or physiological constraints trade offs with other traits Chapter 2425 Vocabulam anagenesis cladogenesis biological vs phylogenetic species aopatric vs sympatric speciation prezygotic vs postzygotic isolating mechanisms poidy punctuated equilibrium aometric growth heterochrony paedomorphosis homeotic genes Hox genes 15 Differentiate between biological and phylogenetic species micro and macroevolution and aopatric and sympatric speciation Biological based on fertility phylogenetic based on recent gene flow micro is selection macro is speciation Allo is separate sympartic is speciation in same habitat 16 Give an example of each type of pre and postzygotic isolating mechanism 17 How did the experiment with fruit flies illustrate the mechanism for aopatric speciation The fruit flies evolved differences in mating patterns in allopatry which served as prezygotic behavioral isolating mechanisms 18 Why are mitotic errors that change poidy important for macroevolution They create a new species in one generation 19 What are the arguments forthe punctuated equilibrium model for evolution Species diverge rapidly in fossil record but then experience long periods of stabilizing selection 20 Why are genes that control the timing of development important to evolution Developmental genes can rapidly change phenotype through allometric growth etc Chapter 26 Vocabulam Systematics taxonomy hierarchial classification phylogeny binomial nomenclature genus species monophyletic paraphyletic polyphyletic out group shared primitive vs shared derived character 21 Know the upper taxonomic categories from species to phylum 22 Be able to tell the difference between a monophyletic a paraphyletic and a polyphyletic clade 23 Freshwater snails had ancestors that were terrestrial snails with lungs and then evolved simple gills when they invaded water and the most advanced aquatic species have evolved respiratory pigments like hemoglobin to increase the efficiency of their respiratory system since water has less oxygen than air Construct a cladogram for the evolution of this group Snails with pigments would be the most derived terrestrial snails the most ancestral and snails with simple gills in the middle 24 What is a molecular clock What types of molecular traits work best for higher versus lower level phylogenies DNA coding for mRNA is conservative and best for higher level taxa like orders etc while mt DNA evolves faster and is better for studying speciation 25 What is the difference between a phylogram and an ultrametric tree 26 Discuss why the most parsimonious phylogeny is usually the best and why there can sometimes be exceptions Usually assuming the fewest genetic changes produces the best tree but there are cases of where traits have evolved independently in different clades of a tree Chapter 27 Vocabulam prokaryote eukaryote peptidoglycan gram stain capsule mbriae pili plasmids circular chromosomes endospore photo chemoautotrophs and heterotrophs nitrogen fixation anaerobes vs aerobes thermophiles and halophyles exotoxins vs endotoxins 27 Discuss the major differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes Bigger more complex cells with a nuclear membrane in eukaryotes 28 How does the structure of the cell wall differ between various bacterial groups Gram negative cells have a double membrane 29 How do antibiotics attack bacteria and why does this mean gram negative bacteria are more pathogenic Why don t antibiotics attack your cells 30 What is a plasmid and why is it important in evolving resistance to antibiotics Plasmids spread resistance to antibiotics through conjugation 31 Define and give an example ofa photoautotroph a photoheterotroph a chemoheterotroph and a chemoautotroph Blue green algae are photoautotrophs and we are chemo heterotrophs 32 Give an example of a benefit derived from or a disease caused by each of the bacterial clades we discussed in class 33 Why are prokaryotes important ecologically They are important to decomposition and nutrient cycling cause diseases and also are used as cellular factories
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