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by: Cassie Koepp


Cassie Koepp
GPA 3.61

K. Brown

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K. Brown
Class Notes
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassie Koepp on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1202 at Louisiana State University taught by K. Brown in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/222838/biol-1202-louisiana-state-university in Biological Sciences at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
Biology 1202 Fall 2009 Exam 4 Review Questions Answered Chapter 42 Circulation and respiration Terms hormone sinus capillary artery vein av valves semiIunarvalves ventricle atrium pulmonary vein vs artery systole diastole cardiac output myogenic pacemakers purkinje fibers parasympathetic acetylcholine sympathetic adrenaline medulla oblongata systolic vs osmotic pressure platelets clotting mechanism heparin hemophilia embolism blood clot plasma hematocrit erythrocytes leucocytes plaque countercurrent mechanism partia pressure vital capacity tidal volume residual capacity respiratory pigment hemocyanin hemoglobin af nity Bohr effect dissociation curves acidosis 1 What is the main function of the circulatory system What are additional functions Transporting gases and nutrients and removing wastes In addition transporting hormones immune function and thermoregulation 2 Describe the differences between open and closed circulatory systems and give an example of each Which is better in most cases for an active animal Closed systems have higher b p and are usually found in more active animals 3 Describe how the heart has increased in complexity during vertebrate evolution and how the increased complexity helps in its function Fish have two chamber hearts amphibians and reptiles evolved a three chamber heart and birds and mammals have four chambered hearts Four chambered hearts separate oxygenated and deoxygenated blood 4 Trace the flow of blood through the mammalian heart noting where it is oxygenated and deoxygenated and what valves are involved Heart 9 arteries afferent 9 arterioles 9 capillaries 9 venules 9 veins efferent 9 Heart Pulmonary anew Aorta An el ior Pulmonary vena cava artery 1 Right I Left atrium atrium Pulmonary Pulmonary veins em Semilunar Semilunar valve valve Atrioventricular Posterior vena cava Atrioventricular valve ight Le ventricle ventricle Copyrigth Pearson Euvmllon lrrn vubrrslrrnn as Esrramm Cm mlllgi Fig 427 5 Describe how heart beat rate is controlled both within the heart and from higher control centers Why does systolic pressure drop in the peripheral circulatory system 0 Pacemaker 9 Signals delayed 9 Signals pass 0 Signals spread generates wave of at AV node to heart apex throughaut signals to contract ventricles 2 SA noAV pacemaker Purkinie branches Heart pex o Purkinje bers relay signal to ventricle after 07 sec to allow ventricle to ll Know which pacemakers are important and how resistance lowers hp 6 Know how blood pressure is measured 39 gtI A fr Onwngnw emn Emuanoninuwbllshlnuu wlemin Gamma 4 13 7 Know how the balance between systolic hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure determines which way fluids will move across the epithelium of capillaries Capillary Red 15 um I cod DEII l the canal and M a At the quot uquot and ol I capillary p bloodmuunla blood nunIllusth gram man man can quotmar mum and uid and lluld quotum cm of the m mmnllml mommy lnln m munmm Hum um mm the ennuiq 4216 8 What mechanisms does the body have to protect against blood loss What is the cellular and fluid composition of the blood How is each involved in circulatory function 0 Vasoconstriction and the clotting mechanism 0 The hematocrit is 45 and indicates ifperson is anemic lt 45 also refer to fig 4217 oenlriluge l Wilhdraw blood 39 Place in lube Plasma 55 eonlilqu Illlo lunctlonl Cellular elemenls 45 snlvnnl luv call me or Fundlonn Water carrying mm pa mm in blood nlmnnee j Erythrocytes Inns m blow cells 55 million Transpon oxygen Sodium Osmmic balance and help transpon Maw1m pH W va and carbon dioxide Calcium Ngulalloll M g 11 Wquotan on 9 pem Leukocyles gt Defense and 539 quot quot while blood cells Sanquot quotumquot immunity Plasma pmins Albumin Osmotic balanc n bunvine Fibrinogen inning lmmunoglohullns unani unlibudm Sub znoeslransporled by blood mmquot in glucose miy max mmnxl gm mnnm u gamma mam nu 0me am an n 250uoo Nnmlnnu h v l mm aloou cloning Davyigllm mm in WinnquotMunnnmnngs 9 Briefly explain what physiological maIfunctions cause heart attacks strokes arteriosclerosis and hypertension o Heart attack is when blockages in coronary arteries kill ventricular muscle o Strokes are blockages to brain o Arteriosclerosis is blockage of arteries by plaque mostly cholesterol inflexible vessel walls make heart work harder o Hypertension is high blood pressure diastole especially important gt 90 10What is the main function of the respiratory system How is diffusion involved What factors maximize diffusion rates Know what kind of lung or gill works best membrane properties ventilation etc 11Contrast the respiratory system of fish amphibians crustaceans and insects Which one is the most different Insects are the most different because they have trachea not blood vessels 12 Understand what a countercurrent mechanism is and how it improves the efficiency of respiration Oxygenpoor Gm bland ar an Di action of water flow Gill it Blond arcthes ll Gill filaments mynimmmm wiinWilhelmina Fig 4 2 22 13 How is respiration different for terrestrial vs aquatic organisms Oxygen is rarer in water and water is more viscous and harder to ventilate 14 Explain the difference between a positive and a negative pressure lung Which one is more efficient Amphibian use positive pressure swallow air and push into lungs exhalation also positive Mammals use negative pressure which means that air is pulled into the lungs A negative pressure lung is most ef cient 15Why are partial pressures of gases in alveoli and outside air different Why are partial pressures in alveoli different from blood coming into the lungs The same as blood leaving the lungs Inhaled all Exhale1 ulr gal Alvlnlar space 1 1 m uxcux Alveolar camuam m rung Puimunary was Systemic arteries ervlgmaPemnn Emuurlon lm Dubllshl uasee lramincummilgs Know the role of residual volume what happens to gasses in lung and at the level of the cells 16 Understand how partial pressures of gases in the lung and in capillary beds determine which way respiratory gases will diffuse See above 17 How does the nervous system control ventilation rate Sensors near the major arteries report p00 to brain stem and motor neurons change respiration rate to compensate Fig 4227 18 Contrast how oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported by the blood Oxygen transported by hemoglobin while CO transported as bicarbonate 19 Understand how a dissociation curve predicts which way oxygen will diffuse at each stage of the respiratory process eg lungs vs capillary beds E lan u hemmlnnm m 52o Susai uzuwwaiw m l39lswes Ywuu Luna PM quotvi mung al Paylmm w a m 20 How do asthma pneumoma and crgareue smokmg affect resprrauon Conszncz broncnroes nu elvenr wrzn urd and drrzy the lung and cause cancer Chapter 43 The immune system nannnnrr nr VammP ambnmes amgens cmna se ectmn he per cymtmm and suppressan ceus apnpmsws memory ceus prasrna ceus MHC use vs GE mmunngmbms Epwtnpe mmnr monocronar ambndy anapnyracnc shncK mastcEH A DS aumrwmmune msease 21 Contrast themncuon ofme nnes of defense ofme rrnrnune response Knnw wnaz39s s ecmc and wnaz ran 22 What rs the runcnon ofme commement system nterferon Are they specrnc or noneapecw c responses Mack oaczena vrruses and are nu specrnc p Why are both a humora and a ceHemedwaLed response necessary7 5 cans and T r and vrruses rn bland wnre ceLmedrared response Tyrnpnocyzes rnvnAes anngen fragm n an d by macropnages e g a r ady rnreczed cals Humoml Immunn rwnansc c 24 Understand how B and T ymphocyteS armgens MHC annoodres p asma ceus and memory ceHs are mvo ved m Specmc rrnrnune responses Understand Frgures Showmg effects of he per T B and cytotowc T ceHs 25Why are secondary responses to antigens more rapid and more pronounced Second expnsure to antigen A first exposum to antigen 5 Firm exposure to antigen A Antibodies lo 5 Antibodies to A Antihod comth tion Time days W MW Mhquot quot m quot quot quot39quot Fig 4315 and Know why a secondary response is quicker and more pronounced 26How do antibodies recognize and attack antigens How are they involved in allergic respon and what is injected in allergy shots to counteract them They recognize speci c epitopes an c ther antibodies that competitively combine with the epitopes without causing allergic reaction 7 Discuss problems that AIDS cancer autoimmune diseases and viruses cause fort e immune sys em Aids virus HIV destroys helper Tcells victim dies of secondary infec io Transferred by uids semen or blood Cancer caused by carcinogens That turn on oncogenes causing rapid growth of undifferentiated cells tumor Radiationchemical therapy destroys tumor cells but has side effects Better monoclonal antibodies recognize and attack tumor cells Autoimmune disease ody cant recognize self MH Multiple sclerosis myelin sheath of nerve cells is attacked but the body Rheumatoid arthritis o39oints type I diabetes pancreas lupus and myasthenia gravis Viruses swamp immune system with excess antigens interferon blockers or block complement system mimic suppressor T cells turn off response block MHC complex viral proteins are not expressed on cell surface Change surface antigens during infection Have long latency periods where viral DNA is hidden in host DNA Chapter 44 Homeostasis Terms osmosis hyperosmotic hypoosmotic stenohaline euryhaline conformer regulator hyperosmoregulator hypoosmoregulator osmo conformer concentrated vs dilute urine metabolic water ammonia urea uric acid water budget ltration reabsorption secretion protonephridium metanephridium nephron Bowman s capsule glomerulus loop of Henle renal cortex vs medulla collecting duct ADH ectotherm vs homeotherm convection radiation evaporation conduction hibernation counter current heat exchanger 28 How is osmosis involved in regulation of internal salt concentration What are the basic problems faced by freshwater and marine organisms in maintaining salt balance Saltwater sh in a hypertonic environment loses water and gains salts drinks water and excretes salts from gills cannot form concentrated urine A freshwater sh is in a hypotonic environment and gains water and loses salt gills reabsorb salts and kidney produces dilute urine 29 What is the difference between an osmoconformer and a regulator What are the pluses and minuses of each strategy Give an example of each and the basic mechanisms used in each case to maintain osmotic balance Freshwater sh are regulators and regulators can be more euryhaline A marine invertebrate is a conformer thatis stenohaline 30 How does the Kangaroo rat maintain water balance Do we use the same strategy It uses metabolic water does not have to drink and produces a more concentrated urine than we do And no we must drink 31 Why do aquatic and terrestrial animals excrete nitrogen in different forms How is it adaptive in each case Prone ml Nunlmc Ind 7 Amino ma Nltmgennms ham 4 Amino gum l Man lqul io nimn unmmm mom Imphihilns aim imam mny Including many mim mum some bony mun pun land mm 0 ll 1 n V C o c H quotquot a in E c 39 uu o cc u Ammonia um umqu quotowhmla uaanzumn i Npmmhiarunllimunm Fig 44 9 32 What is the difference between a protonephridium primitive and a metanephridium Name a phylum that uses each type of kidney Flatworrns are protonephridium and anneids are metanephridium Metanephridium can produce a more concentrated urine 33 What three things must any kidney do Urine formation is 3 step proces Filter wastessolutes from the blood into tubules 2 Necessary salts are selectively reabsorbed 3 Waste products are selectively secreted into the tubule lumen to form urine rumnon Caplllury Excrslorv maul Kalbomllon Sher an sun Fig 44 10 34 Diagram the parts ofa vertebrate kidney How is each part ofthe nephron In vo ved Completely understand what s happening in 7quot 7 In formIn ne How are countercurrent mechanisms involved Osmalariiy ol intelsxiuai quotum mamL Fig 4416 As water ows out ofthe descending loop tubular osmoarity increases NaCL impermeable At base of descending loop NaCI therefore ows out osmoticay but water impermeable More NaCI actively pumped out in upper ascending limb Medulla becomes hyperosmotic and draws water in producing concentrate urine Antidiuretic hormone increases permeabiity of collecting duct to wa er stopping water loss and producing a more concentrated urine 8 How can we control how much water is lost in the urine 6 WWW lliwm mm srmuuis rm quot ma mmnlllll l Ectotherm r M Fig 44193 36 Contrast how ectotherms and endotherms control body temperature I La uu ta energy to control body temperature 37 Give several examples of mechanisms for controlling body temperature in cold environments Control core temperature by vasodilatation or constriction of peripheral circ l t39 Countercurrent heat exchangers in extremities minimize heat loss Insulation fur or blubber helps Insects shiver to warm up ight muscles Shivering to increase temp Enter torpor or hibernation in cold weather w mu Myer es um um my Vail3k lmm uquot Mum mm mm m Ikln mum HIVquotan u m m he mayquot ea swel Imuzlrn twisty Lemuel uMgumwrhg unawaruhm Pg 40 15 39 wnv do rnarnrnats often mbemate m cotd Weather Tn save energv Chapters 46 and 47 Reproduction and development Terrns asexuat vs sexuat reproducuon parmenogenests hermaphrodmsm numb r vs spermatogenems oogenests testosterone pnrnarv and secondary sexua character GnRH FSH LH rourcutar phase Med phase romcte endomemum n progesterone egg acuvauon deavage gastru auon determmauon vs dtfferenuauon morphogeneuc movement m ucuon gerrn avers notobtastrc vs rnerobtastrc ctemge b aatopore pnrnarv orgamzer or mducer grev crescen 40 vanatrun rn nffspnng and rs rnere fun 41 hermaphrodmsm Is the possession Dom reproducme systems and sequenna hermaphrodmsm rs mangmg sex wan age 4 2 are rare VS LDWWON7 Externafemrzanon fecunmzy small young numbers sfrategy m 950 or lnIerna femHanan Increased parental care fewer but arger young m resources hmmng 43 Whathurmunesare wowed m the make reprudumve yde Huvws negatwe feedback mvmvem N mmhnlamun 5mm was pllullzry 5 FSH LH 53 w z smnu 2le um quotus i Imam smuswmupmmn mu Hg 4673 44 Emma Wm happens m we hypmha amus uvary and uterus at each stage a me Vema e menstrua e Huw are endumne cumm mechamsms mvu vex m mm mm WWWm pm a s 4 nu p p 2 Pg 4514 45 What happens m each mmester nipregnancw 1 Pacema develops monozygonc lenmzed zygoze gmges or mzygonc Mo eggs fem129w Mms can seem organogenests 0014175 2 Placenta We over secrenon oprogeszerone Ms movements occur 3 Esnamo and oxyrocm sumpare meme somean and pm 45 What are we may s1eps m we deve upmema pruress What gage dues me determmatmn unmee germ ayers uccur aw Femrzanon egg acmenon cleavage gastrulation and differentiation Gastrulation is where germ layers are determin 47 What is the difference between determination and differentiation o Determination is loss of potency ability to develop along multiple ways o Differentiation is the development of the final stage of mature cells o Determination occurs before differentiation 48 Be familiar with amphibian development morphogehetic movements gastrulatiOh differentiation we l l n25 mm I l 2cell Lg stage mm J l A cell stage 7 forum 39 9 y Eighlcell slage viewed 1mm the animal pale Hell stage W vegetal pole Blaslula al leasl 125 cells Epldermls Epldermls Central nervous system Nolochord Mesoderm Endodem l SIHFAEE lile cuesssscnnu Animal pills I Elanolmal muse Ilp Dnrsa lip hlushpn Vegelalnull aimmm manual Blaalocuel 9mm mm m Ema quot quot quot 39 Wm m mm mm W M entodelm plug valk an initial Blaslula Neural lube stage ltransverse section a Fate map oi a frog embryo 49What is the evidence that selective gene expression is the basic mechanism for differentiation What is induction The transplant experiment where differentiated nuclei could still cause normal frog development in an anucleate 49 What did classic experiments reveal about the function of the grey crescent 39 fog 39 39 ltl39 39 39F39 and dorsal lip ofthe h39 and 4726 igs 47 23 24


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