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by: Charles Kohler


Charles Kohler
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Class Notes
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Charles Kohler on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1202 at Louisiana State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/222841/biol-1202-louisiana-state-university in Biological Sciences at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
Biology 1202 Lecture Unit 1 9172013 43800 AM Origin of Life on Earth o Cell Theory all cells come from previous existing cells How did life begin o A few centuries ago a People thought that new living things appeared all of the time Spontaneous Generation Refuted o mid 18005 Louis Pasteur o Broth in flask boiled to kill preexisting microorganisms c As broth cools condensing water collects sealing the mouth of the ask o If neck broken off outside air can carry microorganisms into broth Conditions on Early Earth o Atmosphere Similar to Jupiter s atmosphere no free oxygen frequent storms w lots of lightening frequent volcanic eruptions UV light from the sun and no ozone layer Earth Before Life Arose o Earth is about 46 billion years old 0 Radiometric Dating of meteorites amp moon rocks o Life arose about 41 billion years ago a Chemical traces in rocks 4 billion years b Fossil bacteria in rocks 4 billion years c No spontaneous generation now but must have happened then The experiment of Miller amp Urey o Purified water and Gases of primeval atmosphere CH4 NH3 H2 H20 Electric spark stimulated lighting storm organic molecules appear after only a few days How to Assemble a Living Thing o Accumulation of organic molecules o Catalyze Reactions ribozymes RNA came first in past o Reproduce from stored genetic information o Separate the living thing from the outside environment The Chicken or the Egg o Now DNA RNAe Protein 0 Need proteins to synthesize more DNA So how did earliest cells do it o Ribozymes RNA molecule that can catalyze reatctions especially those involved in synthesis and processing of RNA itself 0 Conclusion Earliest cells used RNA to store information o Ribozymes to catalyze reactions Microspores as ProtoCells o Add fat and protein to water then shake o Protobyant Water elements energy9 Prebiotic Soupamino acidssystin and methiamin nucleotides lipids sugars9Microsphere like protocels surrounding more complexorganic molecules like RNA carbohydrates proteins lipids9First Prokaryotes Family tree of life o Phylogeny evolutionary tree o Archaea Bacteria and EukaryaFungi Animals and Land Plants o Lynn Margolis Taxonomy is the branch of concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life on our plant o Re fish Sciaenopsocellatus Aerobic Metabolism of oxygen 10 million species known on Earth The Drake equation tries to predict how intelligent life has evolved and exist somewhere else 1960s 100 planets harvesting life Princi les of Evolution Biolo ical Evolution Darwin s birthday suit look video about skin pigmentation Why are there so many species o What is Science 0 The observation identification description experimental investigation theoretical explanation of natural phenomena 0 Such activities restricted to a class of natural phenomena o Theory vs Hypothesis 0 Theory General explanation of natural phenomena developed through extensive and reproducible observations 0 Hypothesis Tentative explanation of observationsquotEducated Guess 0 Charles Darwin s Theory of Evolution Wallace was jacked out of information 0 Voyage on sailboat called HMS Beagle o 1859 he published on The Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection Main points of Origin of Species n Evolution occurs in populations 1 Natural Selection is the mechanism Flow Chart Obs 1 Potential for rapid production o 7 billion human population o Running out of food o Things grow really fast given unlimited resources 0 Puff Ball Basidomycetes Compete because of the conditions and spread out by using their hyphae Tiger Experiment Obs 2 Constant population size over time Population grows up until something is limited Paramecium caudatum graph xaxis days yaxis of paramecium 0 Population grew slowly for 5 days then population grew rapidly for 5 days growth leveled off after 10 days Inference o Competition for survival differential reproductive success struggle Survival of the fittest Variability in structures and behaviors Some variability is inherited Natural Selection On average organisms best suited to an environment leave the most offspring Evolution The genetic makeup of a population changes over time driven by natural selection o A change in the allele frequency of a population over time o Diversifying selection Biological Species Concept Simpsons clip o Transitionary Species 400 million years ago with tetrabods tatalic the fish o Cetation whales and dolphins mammals that were on land and returned to water o Mammals at first small rodent like species to avoid being eaten o More food and less likely to be eaten driving force of evolution by natural selection Homogolus structures o Suggest 0 Common Ancestor 0 Changed over time Divergent Evolution 0 wwwyourinnerfishcom o Tiktaalik o LU Analogous structures Evidence Are Explained by Theory of Evolution o 1Fossil Record c 2 Comparative anatomy o Analogous structuresconvergent evolution 0 Similar environmental forces select for similar structures in unrelated organisms o 3 Developmental biology o 4 Biochemical and genetic analyses 0 Common use and similarities of DNA RNA amino acids ribosomes genetic code ATP electron carriers electron transport systems etc Correlation of DNA proteins etc with relatedness of species These characteristics are treated as homologous characters Common ancestor n Where everything evolved with slight modification n In each individual evolved over time to have the exact same o 5 Artificial Selection 0 O 0 Corn 0 Cabbage broussalSproutsbeing fruit Vestigial Structures o Rudimentary form of an organ more fully formed in ancestor o Evolutionary baggage 3 natural processes drive evolution o Genetic variationcompetition among variants 0 Sexual Competition Peacock Cardinal Ducks o Not all survive reproduce o Adaptive characteristic inherited Natural Selection o The unequal survival and reproduction of organisms due to environmental forces resulting in the preservation of favorable adaptation o Processes of natural selection selects from what is available in the gene pool population o New genes are NOT created on demand 0 3 types of natural selection Directional Selection n Average phenotype becomes more over time Stabilizing Selection a Small lizards cannot defend territory a Large Lizards preyed upon by owls DisruptiveDiversifying Selection n Blackbellied seed crackers o Small beak good for soft seed o Large beak good for hard seeds Watch What Darwin Never Knew Endosymbiosis Mitochondria circular DNA Protocells Intelligent Design another form of creationism Taatalik 380 million years ago Pakacetis 53 million years ago Biology 1202 Lecture Unit 2 9172013 43800 AM The Diversity of Prokaryotes and Viruses Microbes too small to be seen clearly without a microscope o Prokaryotes range in size 0210 micrometers o Unicellular Eukaryotes range in size 10100 micrometers o How big is a micrometer o Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes do range and overlap in size 0 11000000 of a meter 0 the period at end of sentence is about 1000 micrometer o Size comparison of prokaryotes eukaryotes and viruses picture 0 Chloroplast has circular genome 0 lt1 cause human disease Which organisms are members of the domains archaea and bacteria o Bacteria and Archaea Domains c 12000 Species described may be 1001000x that number o 1St organisms to appear on Earth 39 to 41 bya Rotating Flagella o 50 of bacterial species are motile o flagella are used for locomotion o Phototaxis o Hemotaxis o Phototropism responds to light Bacteria o Endospores o Protectivr resting structures 0 Essientially dormant bacteria surrounded by a durable cell wall Resistant to extreme conditions Photo w resisitant endospores E coli does not produce spores because they are easy to kill 0 O O 192 How do prokarvotes reproduce Two main modes of reproduction o Prokaryotes reproduce mostly asexually in the form of binary fission No mitosis or meiosis o Enzymes fix chemical imbalances of gene but 50 fix the right strand How mutations occur o Sexually in the form of conjugation using sex pili to transfer plasmidsphoto of plasmid w cell wall description Prokaryotes have diverse metabolisms o Autotrophs Bacteria that are autotrophic 0 Using photosynthesis energy from light or using chemosynthesis energy from inorganic chemicals 0 Bioremediation BP Oil Spill microbes eating some oil in the gulf o 70 of marine photosynthesisers and 30 land photosynthesiser o Heterotrophs including symbiotes o Symbiotic relationship of E coli living in our body 0 Parasitic symbiotic relationship of E coli and eating deer that has E coli that hasn t been killed 193 How do prokaryotes affect other organisms o Prokaryotes capture the nitrogen needed by plants nitrogen fixing bacteria stored in nodule o How does oxygen fixates to C0 o Prokaryotes are nature s great recyclers o Detritivores and Decomposers Bacteria and Fungi Human Diseases o Gonorrhea Syphilis o Tuberculosis o Lyme Disease All are human pathogens disease causing Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance 70 of all pathogens are resistant to at least 1 antibiotic o Evolution by artificial selection 194 What are Viruses Viroids and Prions Even smaller than bacteria Other biological entities NOT living organisms because the don t have all of the characteristics of living organisms 0 Not active or inactive o Flumist active agent Memory cells created from immunization to kill influenza cells that are trying to attack cells 0 Viruses small 00502 micrometer and come in many different shapes Measles virus rabies virus herpes virus bacteriophage tobacco mosaic plant virus 3 Parts n 1 Genome genetic information Can be either singlestranded HIV amp Influenza or double stranded Chicken Pox DNA or RNA n 2 Capsid protein coat which surrounds and protects genome n 3 Envelope membrane phospholipid bilayer which surrounds the capsid some viruses lack this structure a Viral Picture n Hijack cells o Usually highly specific for organism it infects Aviant influenza So how do viruses replicate a Bacteriophage reproducing in bacteria n Inactive until it leaves the cell a H1N1 virus figure a wwwyoutubecomwatchvRijemEGShQampfeatu rerelated n Keys reasons for access to new cells c Find host cells by using this process o Tamiflu and baseball example 0 Competitive inhibition Allosteric inhibition 0 Protein synthesis occurs in the ribosomes 0 RNA polymerase in reproduction of RNA causing mutation of viruses 0 Reverse transcriptase of HIV 0 Viroids Simpler and smaller than viruses Fragments of circular singlestranded RNA with NO protein coat Hijacks living cells Plant pathogens including citrus tress potatoes and avocados n Magazines Scientific Journals o Science 0 Chronic Waste Disease of Deer and Cows 0 Mad Cow Disease Studied yeast cells to study disease The damages was caused by mad cow or CreutzfeldtJakob disease This is a cell that is infected with this disease The red are the prions that cause the disease D So what is a prion o Nature 0 Prions Unusual infectious particles Protein particle with NO GENETIC MATERIAL ie DNA or RNA Prions are know by several different diseases a Mad Cow Disease n CreutzfeldJakob Disease n Kuru look up definition a CWD Prions consist of a protein that is folded wrong and makes other proteins fold wrong a Figure B Prion disease o Protein structure is important How and When Did Viruses Viroids and Prions Originate o Parasitic relationship Endosymbiosis o 2 Main Hypothesis First Life form on the planet coevolved from that In prebiotic soup What is the biggest organism ever o Apatosaurus Blue Whale Coast Redwood 0 None of the aboveit s a fungus A single clone of the honey mushroom Armillia can cover more than 2200 acres 1600 football fields a Likely oldest biggest and heaviest Mycology o The study of fungi o Anatomy 0 Hyphae thread like filaments one cell thick Above GroundReproductive Structure Myceliuminterwoven mass of hyphae Underground Chitin with cells includes fungi Match question Mycellium figure from slide Feeding by taking in nutrients by absorbing their foodthe tips is where the growth is happening 0 Sense change in environment and start to form more reproductive structures Fairy Rings 0 Septum Septate Hypha Aseptate hypha 0 Move from high concentrated environment to low concentrated environment by diffusion 0 Cell wall contains Chitin O O O O Crabs with exoskeleton containing chitin B Ex Us growing nails ears etc B Cells giving off nonliving thing o Immobile Adults Atrophism Growing away from something they want to grow away from No distinct embryo is formed during early development The environment has to change for reproduction has to occur A1BZ reproduction amp no reproduction When two different cells they make diploid cell by coming together 0 O O O O o Nutrition 0 Heteroptrophic Fungi exude exoenzymes that break down organic molecules that the fungi can absorb and use as a supply of both energy and carbon 0 Saprobic digest dead organisms and waste products Parasitic digest live organisms Mutualistically symbiotic form associations with other organisms for mutual benefit 9172013 43800 AM


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