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by: Cassie Koepp


Cassie Koepp
GPA 3.61


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Class Notes
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This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassie Koepp on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1209 at Louisiana State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/222846/biol-1209-louisiana-state-university in Biological Sciences at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
539quot Bacteria pseudomonas aeruginosa a No nucleus b No introns c Unicellularcolonial d Autotrophic amp hetertrophic Achaea sulfolobus a No nucleus b Introns c Unicellularcolonial d Autotrophic amp heterotrophic Protista ameoba a Nucleusintracellular organelles b Introns c Unicellularcolonial d Autotrophic amp heterotrophic Plants Lewisia rediVia a Nucleusintracellular organelles b Introns c Multicellular d Autotrophic Fungi Pnaeocollybia californica a Nucleusintracellular organelles b Introns c Multicellular d Heterotrophic e Absorptive nutrition Animals Chrysaora fuscescens a Nucleusintracellular organelles b Introns c Multicellular d Heterotrophic e Ingestive nutrition Porifera a Radial symmetry b No layers c No digestive openings d Barely multicellular Cnidaria a Radial symmetry b Neutral network 0 2 layers ectodermendoderm d one digestive opening 9 Nematoda a Bilateral symmetry b Central nervous system c 3 layers ectodermmesodermendoderm d two digestive openings e pseudocoelomate 10 Annelida a Bilateral symmetry b Central nervous system c 3 layers endodermmesodermectoderm d two digestive openings e segmentation f eucoelomate 11 Platyhelminth a Bilateral symmetry b Central nervous system c 3 layers endodermmesodermectoderm d two digestive openings e acoelomate 12 Sphenophyta a Reproduced by spores b Water required for gametophyte reproduction c Predominately sporophyte d Dependent gametophyte e Vascular leaves branches into 3 at nodes 13 Lycophyta a Reproduced by spores b Water required for gametophyte reprduction c Predominantly sporophyte d Independent gametophyte e Vascular single vascular trace vein 14 Bryophyta a Reproduced by spores explosively shed and dispersed by wind b Water required for reproduction c Predominately gametophyte d Nonvascular 15 Cycadophyta Naked seed Water not required for gametophyte reproduction Predominate sporophyte Dependent gametophyte Nonmotile sperm Circinate veration leaves emerge tightly coiled then unfold like ferns g Vascular multiple veins but do not form networks hop99 s 16 Ginkgophyta Naked seed Water not required for gametophyte reproduction Predominate sporophyte Dependent gametophyte Mobile agellated sperm Vascular multiple veins do not form networks Only 1 eXtant species 17 Gnetophyta a Naked seed b Water NOT required for gametophyte reproduction c Dependent gametophyte d Predominate sporophyte e Mobile agellated sperm f Double fertilization similarities to anthrophyta g Vascular similarities to anthrophyta 18 Coniferophyta a Naked seed b Water not required for gametophyte reproduction c Predominate sporohyte d Dependent gametophyte nonmotile sperm e Vascular multiple veins do not form networks 19 Chlorophyta a Seedless b Water required for reproduction c Lives entire life in water d Gametophyte and sporophyte indistiquishable e Nonvascular 20 Anthophyta a Flowering covered seed b Water NOT required for gametophyte reproduction c Dependent gametophyte d Predominate sporophyte e Vascular multople veins form networks 21 Heptophyta a Reproduced by spore b Water required for reproduction c Predominatelygametophytes d Structurally simple land plant have leaves e Reproduced sexually and asexually both require water f Nonvascular 22 Pterophyta Reproduced by spores Water required for gemtophyte reproduction Predominately sporophyte Independent gametophyte m SDPPUP 9969 23 e Vascular multiple vascular tracesveins f Circinate veration leaves emerge tightly coiled then unfold Evolution Evolution is the change in genetic material ofa population oforganisms through successive generations emergence of new species Population group of interbreeding organisms ofa particular species consist ofall members ofthe same species that live in one location Gene pool the various alleles of all the genes in all the individuals Allele frequencies the gene pool ofa population Hardy and Weinberg equation p2 pq 2 p the dominant allele A q the recessive allele a pq1 p2 frequency ofthe homozygous dominant individuals AA 2pq frequency ofthe heterozygous individuals Aa qZ frequency ofthe homozygous recessive individuals aa genetic equilibrium when there has been no change evolution does not exist 0 genetic equilibrium will only occur when 1 The population is large enough to be unaffected by random gene chan es There is no gene ow immigration or emigration The re is no mutations occurring or there is mutational equilibrium There will be random mating There will be no natural selection PopG a program that simulates the evolution of randommating populationswith two alleles arbitrary fitnesses ofthe three genotypes an arbitrary mutation rate an arbitrary rate of migration between the replicate populations and finite population size Case 1 Genetic equilibrium 000000 0 WPWE Population size 10000 Fitness values a AA10 Aa10 Aa10 Mutation rate gta00 agtA00 Initial allele frequency05 Number ofgenerations1000 1 1 Fitness describes the capability ofan individual of certain genotype to reproduce and usually is equal to the proportion ofthe individual39s genes in all the genes ofthe next generation 0 Case 2 Selection Population size 10000 Fitness values AA10 n Aa10 39 Aa095 m Mutation rate the 39 39 lostthe w y J 39 39 quot A 0 Initial allele frequency05 Number ofgenerations1000 Case 3 Heterozygote Advantage Population size 10000 Fitness va ues u AA095 M Aa10 W rm rwAMM3 gyr aw Aa Mutation rate Agta00 agtA00 quotW 7 Initial allele frequency05 Number ofgenerations1000 Case 4 Genetic drift a change in gene pool that occurs purely as a result of chance Population size 100 Fitness values AA10 H Aa10 WM Aa WWW Mutation rate l Mywl Agta00 WM W HA0 0 I W m Initial allele frequency05 Number of generations500 Replica plating so whatever is tested have the same position on each petri dish E coli I As antibiotic concentrations increased the number of colonies decreased in quantity and size Ecology Ecosystem the total sum of interacting living organisms and their nonliving environment in a determined area Ecology the interdisciplinary scientific study of organisms and their interactions with their environment Population ecology is a major subfield of ecology that deals with the dynamics of species populations and how these populations interact with the environment Community ecology a subdiscipline of ecology which studies the distribution abundance demography and interactions between coexisting populations Biotic factors factors created by a living thing or any living component within an environment in which the action of the organism affects the life of another organism o Predators o Parasites 0 Competitors o Mates Abiotic factors nonliving components of the biosphere 0 Chemical and geological factors 0 Rocks and minerals 0 Temperature 0 Weather Carrying capacity the maximum amount ofliving organism that inhabit a certain place determined by the limiting factors Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 0 Green algae Unicellular Flagellated Model organisms for molecular biology especially studies of agellar motility and chloroplast dynamics biogenesis and genetics 0 Optimal growth at 23 C 0 Light attracted organelles Autotrophs Heterotrophs Nitrogen cycle the process by which nitrogen is converted between its various chemical forms Phosphorous cycle describes the movement of phosphorus through the atmosphere OOO Systematics and Diversity Classification groups organisms together based on shared characteristics System groups organisms based on the processes that caused the evolution of the characteristics Phylogeny the process by which species arise the taxonomic system based on descent or evolutionary history Taxonomy the branch of systematics devoted the naming of organisms uses a system of hierarchical classification to name organisms 0 Gen us species 0 Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Clade a group that includes all organisms back to their common ancestors Paraphyletic Monophyletic Polyphyleticrecent species but not their common ancestors Analogous characters perform the same or similar functions but are structurally different Homologous characters have the same or similar structure but perform different functions Diversity 0 3 Domains oflife o Bacteria o Archaea o Eukarya o Kingdoms o Protista I Algae I Protozoan s o Monreanas I Bacteria o Fungi I Mushroom I Yeast I Mold 0 Plants 0 Animals 0 Domain Bacteria o Unicellular o Lacking chlorophyll 0 Multiply rapidly under favorable conditions 0 Bacterial can aggregate into colonies of millions or even billions of organisms 0 Free living organism symbiotic and pathogenic o Bacilli rods spirilli spirals cocci spherical I Escherichia coli 0 Expression of proteins Symbiotic organism Model organism for research Unicellular Optimal growth temperature 37 C 0 Domain Archaea o Unicellular o Lacking chlorophyll 0 Multiply rapidly under favorable conditions O Exploit a much greater variety of sources of energy than eukaryotes ex salt tolerant 0 Extreme environments Free living few symbiotic relationships 0 Domain Eukaryota 0 Kingdom Protista I Unicellular or colonial without specialized tissues I Water habitats I Heterotrophic and autotrophic nutrition 0 Trypanosoma cruzi O Protista Diversity Phylum Rhizopoda Phylum Foraminifera pseudopodia Phylum Actinopoda Phylum Zoomastigophora r flagella Phylum Ciliophora Cilia Hmmtmnhis Phylum Rhizopoda amoeba Phylum Foraminifera Phylum Actinopoda radiozoa Phylum Zoomastigophora Trypansomoa Sp Phylum Ciliophora paramecium Autotrophic algae Phylum Dino agellata Phylum Bacillariophyta diatoms Phylum Chlorophyta 7 green algae Phylum Bryophyta 7 mosses Phylum Hepatophyta 7 liverworts Nonvascular Gametophyte dominant Phylum Anthocerophyta 7 hornworts Plants Diversity Phylum Lycophyta 7 club mosses Phylum Sphenophyta 7 horsetails Seedless Vascular Phylum Pterophyta 7 ferns Phylum Coniferophyta 7 conifers Phylum Cycadophyta 7 conifers Phylum Ginkgophyta 7 gingko Vascular w seeds am yum Phylum Gnetophyta 7 gnetae gymnosperms naked seeds Phylum Anthophyta 7 owering plants angiosperms covered seeds Phylum Chlorophyta Ch amydomonas va Spirogyra Phylum Bryophyta Phylum Hepatophyta marchantia m Phylum Lycophyta Lycopodium Selaginella Phylum Sphenophyta Phylum Pterophyta gt g pine japaneseyiew juniper Ph lumGinkgoph a a 7 gf W nnu V mum hylum Cycadophyta Ph lumGneto h a Phylu Antophyta FungiDiversity Phylum Chytridiomycota Sac fungi Allomyces I a 4 V Phylum Zygomycota V V Rh39 ogus 1a Phylum Ascomycota cup fungi yeast lichens corrhizae I Phylum Basidiomycota mushrooms uffballs toadstools etc BioLab Final 50 quiztypequestions 50 practical microscope ID plants animals fungus ID 100150 word bank Know locomotion for bacteria and heterotrophic protists CHAPTER 8 EVOLUTION I Populations not individuals evolve I Population all members of the same species that live in one location I Gene pool made up of all the various alleles of all the genes in all the individuals of a pop I The gene pool can be described in terms of allele frequencies HardyWeinberg Equation 2 2 2 p q 1 used to directly calculate the genotype frequencies of a population in which there are only 2 alleles for a particular gene 4 gt7 p is the dominant allele q is the recessive allele Genetic Equilibrium occurs when Large population No gene ow migration No mutations Random Mating 2 3 4 5 No natural selection Pop G Simulations 1 If the allele frequency of A goes to zero then the entire population has a genotype of aa 2 Ifthe allele frequency of A goes to 1 there are no more a alleles entire pop is AA 3 look at p 95100 of lab manual assignment 1 Genetic drift due entirely to chance especially visible in small populations can lead to allele xation When bacteria are exposed to antibiotics only the resistant strains will survive If exposed to several diff levels of antibiotics the lowest level of antibiotic would have the most colonies New traits come from random mutations and evolve when they are selected for Increased mutations lead to increased natural selection the mutation that is most beneficial will survive and reproduce offspring with those genes high mutationmore variability Genetic equilibrium is reached quicker with more mutations CHAPTER 9 ECOLOGY I Ecology the study of how organisms interact with their environment Biotic factors living factors like predators parasites competitors mates I Abiotic factors nonliving factors like water light nutrients temperature soil type Population ecology study of the distribution and abundance of a given species in a specified area at a specified time Community ecology study of all organisms that inhabit a given area I E39cosystemwommunity plus the abiotic factors CH Lake Measurements and Whatnot bayou had high Nitrogen because of more rain and agricultural runoff chlorophyll trends weren t very good because there were so many other interfering factors Autotrophs primary producers Photoautotrophs harvest light energy and convert it into chemical energy through photosynthesis Gross Primary Production GPP amount of energy the photoautotrophs convert Cellular Respiration used by both autotrophs and heterotrophs converts chemical energy in one form to chemical energy in more directly usable forms for the cells of organisms Net Primary Production NPP energy produced by the autotrophs in excess over that used by the autotrophs and heterotrophs indicator of the production of the entire community Can39ying capacity determined by the limiting factors reached When resources are exhausted Nitrogen used for amino acids proteins nucleic acids nucleotides Phosphorus used for nucleic acids phospholipids bones teeth APTER 10 SYSTEMATICS AND DIVERSITY C lassificalion groups organisms together based only on shared characteristics S ystem39 groups organisms based on the processes that caused evolution goal to find monophyletic taxa Extant species that are alive today formed by descent with modification Phylogeny process by which species arise taxonomic system based on descent or evolutionary history Each speciation event creates 2 daughter species equally related to the ancestral species when repeated this process gives rise to a hierarchy Taxonomy branch of systematics devoted to the naming of organisms binomial nomenclature lVIonopllyletic includes the most recent common ancestor and all descendants Paraphyletic includes the most recent common ancestor but not all descendants Clarle includes all organisms back to their common ancestors monophyletic Polyphyletic includes recent species but not their common ancestors mialogous Cl lkll l lCI iSthSi perform same or similar functions but are structurally different no common ancestor convergent evolution Homologous characteristics same or similar bones and structure and come from a common ancestor but perform very different functions divergent evolution CHAPTER 11 DIVERSITY Archaea are more closely related to Eukarya than they are to Bacteria Bacteria and Archaea have many similarities o Unicellular prokaryotes 0 Lack most membranebound organelles 0 Because of no nucleus cannot undergo mitosis or meiosis o Reproduce through binary fission Bacteria Shapes o Cocci spherical o Bacilli rods 0 Spirilli spirals I BACTERIA o Spirochetegram negative helically coiled agella lengthwise between cell membrane and outer membrane Many chemoheterotrophic and anaerobic Chlamydias only survive in animals don t produce ATP gram negative no peptidoglycan so difficult to stain o Gram Positive lots of peptidoglycan dark blueviolet rodsphere bacillicocci shaped Cyanolmcteria live anabaena bacilli green rods of circles Proteobacteriafacultative aerobes single cells or more complex gram negative many chemoheterotrophic 0 Movement of swimming bacilli or spirilli usually by agellum Bacteria tumble and roll in different directions Flagella move by rotation like propellors O 00 I ARCHAEA inhabit extreme environments of the Earth 0 Methanogens mutualistic infect the gut of humans and ruminants helping to digest food used to produce biogas help with sewage treatment 0 Extreme Halophiles live in extremely saline environments grow best at temps above 45 C eg genus Halobacterium 0 Extreme Thermophiles grow best at temps above 80 C view web pages of these write a brief description for each sample including the name I PROTISTA o Eukaryotic unicellular filamentous colonial o Protozoa AnimalLike ingest food through phagocytosis A Protozoa that use Pseudopodia a PhylumIUIjzopoda no fixed body shape no shell or hard external coating naked freshwater and marine habitats ex Amoeba see lab manual movement push out from inside grow branches b PhylLIInForamiliifel a see lab manual p144 chambers can be arranged in a single row in multiple rows or wound into a spiral c PhylumActhopoda pseudopodia are supported by a bundle of microtubules forming very slender axopodia extend outward in all directions ex Radiozoa p 145 B Protozoa that move using agella a Phylum Zoomastigophora freeliving parasitic or symbiotic relationships ex Trypanosomap 145 African sleeping sickness C Protozoa that move using cilia a Phylum Ciliophora O paramecia p 146 movement uses cilia to thrust itself forward changes direction when comes in contact with an object ll out and look at table on page 147 Photosynthetic algae PlantLike A PhylumDinollagellata gt Responsible for bioluminescence and red tides provide food for all marine organisms gt grooves and cellulose plates in the cell wall are plates elongated gt May be possible to see agella See p 148 B PhylumBacillariophyta Diatoms gt Responsible for much of primary productivity in cold marine waters gt Cells are either elongated bilaterally symmetrical pinnale forms OR radially symmetrical centric forms gt Cell wall has 2 valves that t one inside of the other like petri dish and lid gt See p 149 C PhylumPhaeophyta brown algae Kelps have pigment called fucoxanthin that gives them the brown color gt Algin polysaccharide in the cell wall used commercially in toothpaste ice cream other food products for thickening Laminariatype leaflike broad blades Some have brown strings in a ball rubbery whitish and brownish Fucuslftype tubes with skinny dots on the ends Some brown others opaque D Phylum Rhodophyta red algae Contain accessory pigments phycocyanin and phycoerthrinthat mask chlorophyll a absorb green and blue light Agar used for culturing of bacteria Carrageen gives texture or thickness and richness to dairy drinks and soups No motile sperm so rely on water for fertilization complete and look at table on p 150 VV V VVV o Funguslike Slime Molds I PLANTS o Eukaryotic multicellular photosynthetic mostly terrestrial o Specialized body structures have evolved for sexual reproduction o Often covered with waxy cuticle that prevents water loss 0 Evolutionary trend toward taller plants with more vascular tissue lack of need of water for reproduction o Alteration of generations between usually dominate diploid sporophme and haploid gametoph yle o Sporophyte dominant in all land plants except bryophytes mosses o n Spores germinate 9 n gametophyte 9 n gametes formed by mitosis 9 2n zygote 9 2n sporophyte 9 n spores formed by meiosis life cycle p 152 o Nonvascular Plants A Phylum Chlorophyta green algae gt Unicellular and multicellular motile and nonmotile colonial lamentous gt Mainly freshwater gt Spirogyra p 152 and on quiz online gt Ulva p 153 aka sea lettuce like a gel gt Chlamydomonas p 153 B Phylum Bryophyta mosses gt See p 153 can see both tall sporophyte and mossy gametophyte C PhlyumHepatophyta liverworts gt Small attened lobed bodies gt Found along streams and moist rocks gt P 154 nd the rhizoids gemmae cups gemmae D Phylum Anthocerophyta homworts o Seedless Vascular Plants A Phylum Lycophy1a club mosses gt Found in moist habitats gtArequot1 39quotandL rquot r quoty gt Selaginellap 155 see round sporangia in s orophylls B Phylum Sphenophyta horsetails gt Contain silica in cell walls that produce rough texture in stem gt P 155 see ribs and ridges in stem nodes along stemstrobiliclusters of sporangia C Phylum Pteroph 3121 fems gt Deeply dissected leaves arise from an underground stem rhizome that functions like a root to anchor to the ground gt Sori clusters of sporangia on undersides of leaves gt P 156 11quot 39J branchedsplit into y 0 Seed Plants Gymnosperms see p 156 for sketches A Phylum Conjferophj na Conifers gt Pine cypress jap yew juniper gt Male have small cones female have large cones B Phylum Cycaodphyta Cycads gt Oak Catkins Sago Palm gt Male owers female reproductive structure gt Orange seeds are naked with the stem C Phylum Gingkophyla Gingko gt Gingko biloba gt Small females gt Can live for milleniums D Phylum Gnetophyta Gnetae gt Mostly woody O I FUN 0 OOO gtOOOOOOOOOO Flowering Plants PhylumAnithophyta Angiospeims A Most common or most successful associations with other organisms B Features separating them from the gymnosperms a Flowers GI Multicellular some uni eukaryotic heterotrophs that absorb food by secreting enzymes to digest it Live in soil water or any other medium containing organic compounds Suprabic fungi decomposers make it possible to recycle chemical elements Parasitic fungi digest nutrients from the cells of living hosts cause many diseases eg leaf spots ringworm athlete s foot vaginal infections thrush lVlutualistic fungi lichens algae and fungi and mycorrhizae fungi and roots of vascular plants Hyphae individual filaments that are wound into amass called a niyceliuni Growth occurs at the tip of the hyphae Seplate portioned into cells by crosswalls called septa Aseptate or Coenocytic multinucleate do not contain septa Cell walls composed of chitin Reproduce sexually or asexually Spores dispersed by the wind water or animals Plasmogamy fusion of cytoplasm of 2 compatible hyphae n n Dikaryotic hyphae n n because the nucleus have not yet fused Karyogam y n nuclei fuse resulting in 2n Phylum Chytridiomycota mainly aquatic in ditches ponds streams agellated reproductive cells zoospores and gametes parasitic or sabrobic ex Allomyces brown slightly translucent cylinders in wildmalt vinegar P 160 PhylumZygomycota mostly terrestrial living on decaying plant and animal matter or in soil some form mycorrhizae or other symbiotic relationships coenocytic but septa do appear during formation of reproductive structures zygospores develop within zygosporangia ex Rhizopus black bread mold translucentwhite hyphae in a tangled glob with black round sporangia at the tips PhylumAs comycol a unicellular yeasts powdery mildews molds cup fungi reproductive body called ascus saclike structure within which ascopores are produced Ascus develops as result of sexual reproduction asexual reproduction by formation of spores called conidia f11amentous growth except for yeasts yeasts produce asexually by budding classified by their lifestyle see p 166 seeread p 163 U Phylum Busidiomycota club fungi largest most 1 bracket J 39 most of the fungus is beneath the ground in the mycelium decomposition of organic matter in soil and wood basidiospores sexual spores borne outside of the basidium which forms at the ends of dikaryotic hyphae or fruiting bodies karyogamy within basidium mainly sexual reproduction p 1645 puffballs Lichens mutualistic symbiotic partnerships between fungi usually ascomycetes and photosynthetic cholorophyta or cyanobacteria bacteriachlorophyta provides C source and organic N for itself and the fungus fungus provides suitable growth environment support and protection Mycorrhizae fungus roots mutualistic associations between fungi and the roots of most vascular plants some surround the plant cell others invade the root cells hyphae increase the plants ability to absorb water and essential elements provide protection against pathogenic fungi and nematodes plants provide fungus with carbs and vitamins essential for growth I ANIMALS 0 OOO gt0 0 Multicellular eukaryotic heterotrophic Symmetry radial bilateral or asymmetrical Tissue Organization how many layers Distinct or mess Body Cavity a Acoelomate no body cavity only mesoderm b Pseudocoelomate not a true body cavity mesoderm does not completely surround the endoderm Eucoelomate coelomate true body cavity mesoderm completely surrounds the body cavity endoderm ectoderm mesoderm Openings into the digestive tract mouth and anus or just one 0 Phylum Porifera gt See p 168 Phylum Cnidaria gt Corals jelly sh sea anemones Portuguese menofwar gt Cnidocytes containing a stinging nematocyst gt 2 tissue layers epidermis and gastrodermis gt See p 169 hydra gastrovascular cavity Phylum Platyhelminthes atworms gt Planarians p 170 see pharynx mouth etc Phylum Nematoda gt structure of Ascaris Phylum Annelida gt Size ranges from microscopic to several meters in length gt Earthworms Lumbricus p 1723 table on page 174 Also look at quizzes online ViewsM


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