PRINC OF ECOLOGY LAB
PRINC OF ECOLOGY LAB BIOL 4254
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Colby Stitt Lab Report 1 Disturbance and Habitat Complexity Coversheet OBSERVATIONQUESTION WHAT IS THE ROLE OF DISTURBANCE AND HABITAT COMPLEXITY IN DETERMINING INVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE HYPOTHESIS 1 It is believed that as the levels of disturbance change then so does the invertebrate species diversity 0 PREDICTION 1A AS THE DISTURBANCE LEVELS APPROACH AN INTERMEDIATE THE SPECIES DIVERSITY WILL INCREASE AND IN DOING SO IT WILL BE AT ITS LOWEST AT THE EXTREMES o REASONING IF DISTURBANCES ARE FREQU EN T THEN A POPULATION WON T HAVE THE TIME OR ABILITY TO COLONIZE AN AREA IF DISTURBANCES ARE INFREQUENT THEN THE BEST COMPETITOR WILL DRIVE THE OTHERS TO EXTINCTION AND DECREASE THE DIVERSITY IF DISTURBANCES ARE KEPT AT AN INTERMEDIATE LEVEL THEN SPECIES SHOULD HAVE AN ADEQUATE TIME TO COLON IZE AND POPU LATE AN AREA BUT NOT TOO LONG THAT ONE SPECIES BECOMES DOMINANT o ANALYTICAL APPROACH ANOVA TTEST I Dependent variable Species Richness Shannon Index Evenness I Independent variable Level of Disturbance HYPOTHESIS 2 It is believed that as the habitat complexity measured by plant species richness has a relationship with invertebrate species diversity 0 PREDICTION 2A AS THE COMPLEXITY OF THE HABITAT INCREASES SO WILL THE INVERTEBRATE SPECIES RICHNESS o REASONIN G IF A HABITAT HAS A GREATER COMPLEXITY THEN IT WILL HAVE A GREATER AMOUNT OF SHELTER AND RESOURCES FOR THE INVERTEBRATE SPECIES TO UTILIZE AND BENEFIT FROM 0 ANALYTICAL APPROACH REGRESSION I Dependent variable Invertebrate Species Richness I Independent variable Plant Species Richness A signed and completed copy of this coversheet must be submitted with your completed report Any previously graded edited versions of the coversheet must also be submitted With your nal report On group projects the coversheet MUST be signed by all members of the group By signing I acknowledge that I have completed this coversheet and the attached report according to the Code of Student Conduct and the Syllabus for this course Ila I certify that I wrote this repOIt independently and that the material within is my intellectual property and not anyone else s Colbv Stitt 3 2 2011 Signature date Colby Stitt Disturbance and Habitat Complexity Introduction In this lab we explored the role of disturbance and habitat complexity and tested the intermediate disturbance hypothesis The intermediate disturbance hypothesis states that local species richness is maximized when ecological disturbance is neither too rare nor too frequent Abugov 1982 This theory states that an area will have highest species richness when disturbances by biotic and abiotic forces are kept at an intermediate level Also in this experiment we wanted to observe how richness of the species related to the complexity of the habitat Habitat complexity can be evaluated and estimated in many different ways In Alan Kohn s work he found that the more complex an area is the great the amount of refuges in his study of the intertidal the higher the species richness was Kohn also observed that when arti cial refuges were introduces this also increased the species richness This allows us to infer that both habitat complexity and disturbances lead to greater diversity of a community We hypothesized that the intermediate disturbance hypothesis would hold true We were testing three main areas a freshly mowed location a location moved weeks earlier and a forested area that was not disturbed by mowing Frequency and intensity of disturbances affect species succession and colonization Molles 2007 We also hypothesized that as habitat complexity increased so would the species richness of invertebrates In this experiment we used plant species richness to determine the habitat complexity Method 5 This study was conducted in a field located near Louisiana State University on February 10 2011 The area we did our research in was a field that had not been disturbed recently but was cleared of trees This area was located near a forests or low disturbance area To gather our data we swept a straight line twenty times with a bug net collected to specimens that were caught and recorded the plant species located in the line we swept This process was repeated two more times in the intermediate disturbance area then repeated for the low disturbance area Due to the lack of data collected we were given the results from the previous semester s groups Using this data we calculated the Shannon Weiner indices and species evenness for the disturbance areas The Shannon Weiner index is used as a standard for calculation of diversity Once we calculated the Shannon index we calculated species evenness Evenness is calculated by dividing the Shannon Weiner index by the natural log of the species richness We then ran ANOVA and ttests to test for differences in the species richness Shannon index and evenness calculations Then we did a regression of invertebrate species richness versus plant species richness Results When the ANOVA test was ran on the species richness there was no significance Colby sun calculated between the richness and disturbance F279 199 p0 19 There was a calculated signi cance between Shannon Weiner and disturbance F279 114 p 0003 When running a ttest on high disturbance compared to intermediate there is signi cance t5 795 p 00002 high and low t8 232 p0049 and the intermediate and low habitats t5 397 p 00073 There was also a signi cance calculated for evenness and disturbance F 29 1 128 p00035 When the ttests were run we found out that there was signi cance between the high and intermediate disturbances t5 392 p0007 also a signi cance between high and low t8 315 p0013 and between intermediate and low t5405 p00066 We also found that there was a positive relationship between plant species richness and invertebrate species richness slope0514 R20317 Figure 4 Invertebrate Rlchness number of invertebrates High Intermediate Low Types of Disturbance Fig 1 Invertebrate Species Richness Shannan Index High Intermediate Low Types of Disturbance Fig 2 Shannon Index Evenness Intermediate Low Types of Disturbance Fig 3 Evenness Colby sun Colby Stitt y 0514x 2530 R2 0317 Plant Species Richness O S 10 15 20 25 Invertebrate Species Richness Fig 4 Plant Species vs Invertebrate Species Regression Discussion Once all of the data was recorded and analyzed it became quite apparent that the data supported both of our hypotheses When looking at gures 13 we notice that the intermediate disturbance area has the highest values compared to the two extremes This proves the point of the Intermediate Disturbance hypothesis The tests all signi ed that there are signi cant differences between the three levels of disturbance The only anomaly with our data was nding insigni cance between species richness and disturbance levels This error in the calculations could be due to our data calculations being incorrect The second hypothesis also had supporting data The graph proved a positive correlation between both plant and invertebrate species So we can infer that as the habitat complexity increases so does the species richness Since we can accept both of our hypotheses it is safe to conclude that disturbance and habitat complexity have an effect on invertebrate species We can further utilize this information to help with conservation projects and help bring species richness up Colby Stitt Works Cited Abugov R Species Diversity analPhasing ofDistrubance Washington DC 1982 28993 Print Kohn Alan J and Paul J LeViten Effect of H abitat Complexity on Population Density anal Species Richness in Tropical Intertidal Predatory GastropoalAssemblages Oecologia page 199210 Molles MC 2007 Ecology Concepts and Applications 4th edition McGrawHill New York New York Schowalter Timothy D Insect Ecology An Ecosystem Approach 2nd Ed Academic 2000 Print Mussel RiclStream Wi Land use SUMMARY OUTPUT 5 10 Agriculture 1 15 Agriculture Regression Statistics 3 4 Agriculture Multiple R 0961318 10 15 Residential R Square 0924132 4 3 Residential Adjusted R 0913294 6 12 Residential Standard E 1072969 2 3 Wetland Forest Observatio 9 12 20 Wetland Forest 7 10 Wetland Forest ANOVA df SS Regression ii 9816338 Agriculture Residential Wetland Forest Residual 8058839 Avg 3 6666667 7 Total 8 1062222 Stdev 2 305505 5 Standerr 1154701 1763834 2886751 Coefficients andard Errt Standerr2 2309401 3527668 5773503 Intercept 0728856 0633361 Stream Wi 055338 0059929 Agriculture Residential Weland Forest 5 10 2 1 4 12 3 6 7 Anova Single Factor SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Agriculture 3 9 Residential 3 20 Weland F0 3 21 ANOVA Source of Varia SS df BetweenG 2955556 Within Gro 7666667 Total 1062222 8 Signi cance F 9816338 1151263 t Stat P value Lower 95 Upper 95 ower 95 0pper 95 0 1150775 0287613 076880473 2226517 07688 2226517 9233951 361E05 0411670462 0695089 041167 0695089 Average Variance 3 4 6666667 9333333 7 MS P value F crit 1477778 5143253 1277778 Average Mussel Richness VFW WW Mussel Richness E E Stream Width Vs Mussel Richess y 0553X 0728 A 7 n U14 A A I V O 2 I v 9 l I I I I I O S 10 15 20 25 Stream Width m sel Richness in differing land use Agriculture Residential Wetland Forest Land Use Types Biol 4254 Principles of Ecology Final Exam Study Guide In addition to understanding the basic experimental design for each lab you should know how to Stats Determine what analysis and figures to use given a data set Use all analyses discussed t test ANOVA regression Make all figures discussed scatter plot bar graph Identify a mistake in a figure such as a missing figure caption etc Interpret a figure and statistical analysis if confidence intervals overlap but the pvalue is 01 are the treatments different p gt 005 Same fail to reject null Invertebrate Diversity Describe advantages and disadvantages of diversity vs richness abundance total of individuals but not an index like richness of species simplest measure of a community diversity takes abundance and richness into account to picture the full community composition richness provides an incomplete picture of the composition of a community Explain niche partitioning area where overlap is minimized to allow diversity sectioning off niches so as to promote diversity Explain habitat complexity and how it relates to diversity provides more niches so increase in diversity low disturbance causes competitive exclusion Explain the intermediate disturbance hypothesis diversity peaks at intermediate disturbance levels low disturbance competitive exclusion high disturbance rough environment for species to handle prevents organisms from successfully colonizing area less available niches Shannon Weiner diversity index used to calculate diversity more widely used among ecologists H Zpi In pi or H log N 1NZni log ni pi proportion of total of individuals that belong to species I N total of individuals collected ni II of individuals in species i when H 0 the community is at its least diverse there is only 1 species present also high information content the higher H is the more diverse the community and the less information it offers Island Biogeography Metacommunities common sense idea created by MacArthur amp Wilson tested in mangroves Explain the theory of island biogeography in detail and reproduce the figure with your explanation You should be able to explain why diversity increases with patch size and decreased distance from the mainlandWhat is the equilibrium number of species on an island islands closer and larger greater diversity lots of species competitive exclusion higher extinction rate on small island more species lesser immigration rate bc niches full but more successful immigration closer to mainland than far lines intersect equilibrium of species richness SM far lt LG near Define the terms metapopulation and metacommunity group of small populations linked by migration bunch of connected communities multiples species that are interacting Explain how habitat fragmentation influences population size and species diversity harder to migrate and make smaller reduce total area of habitat Design a park using the principles of island biogeography to maximize species richness Lake Food Webs Identify the different trophic levels in a food web 1 Primary producers convert inorganic forms of energy principally light into biomass autotrophs 2 Primary consumers feed on primary producers herbivores and detritivores eat detritus dead or decaying organic material3 Secondary consumers feed on herbivores and detritivores carnivores 4 Tertiary consumers predators that feed on ca rnivo res Explain how ecologists developfood webs food web a summary of feeding relationships or reveals of 39 structure and helps determine how groups of organisms are regulated within a community very complex some ecologists try to determine which factors limit the abundance and distribution of organisms including primary producers Explain topdown vs bottomup control and name a variable that we tested to account for each 1 top down predation or herbivory limits abundance and distribution of organism on trophic level phytoplankton limited by zooplankton grazing abundance of zooplankton grazing the influence of consumers and predators on organisms we tested zooplankton densityZ bottomup nutrients limited by resource availability limited abundance and distribution nutrients primary producer nitrates nitrites phosphates ammonium tolerance can also have an affect heat stress osmotic balance desiccation stress 02 levels dispersal also limits abundance and distribution we tested phosphate levels Explain trophic cascades usually topdown control indirect effects of one trophic level on another ex killer whales sea otters sea urchin kelp alternates in increase and decrease of population sea otters and kelp go down killer whales and sea urchin go up Explain how physiological tolerance can limit the distribution of organisms and give examples of tolerance variables we tested organisms have a certain range that they can tolerate for each physiological factor this can limit niche breadth we tested variables such as salinity dissolved oxygen pH temperature total dissolved solids nitrates ammonium phosphates etc Competition and Behavior theme costsbenefits Explain the competitive exclusion principle 2 species cannot occupy the same niche Explain the competition experiments performed by Joe Connell barnacle species high and low intertidal low Balanus high Cthalamus Balanus die from desiccation outcompetes Cthalamus more desiccation tolerant for lower intertidal Listthe 39 U and quot 39 of Do 39 39 acquire resources disadvantage u u risk of injury List the advantages to displays less energy costly reduce risk of injury by establishing dominance indirectly without fighting goals 1 Look large 2 Show off any weapons Explain the Hawkdove game V resource value D cost of display I risk of injury the hawk attacks immediately and only flees if it becomes injured the dove will display to another dove but will flee immediately if encountering a hawk avoiding injury hawk vs hawk most detrimental hawk vs dove most beneficial Define an evolutionary stable strategy ESS strategy that natural selection favors over time game theory tries to mathematically predict the outcome and the EES of organism interactions optimizes ration of benefits to costs when employed by most individuals in a population cannot be outcompeted by alternate strategy Community Diversity and Stability Tell the history of the science behind the relationship between diversity and stability Elton mathematical models differing interaction strength Elton more diverse communities gt more stable mathematical models more diverse more competitive exclusion not stable community will not last differing interaction strength actually possible to have high diverse community with competitive exclusion as long as a weak interaction ex omnivore barnacles vs mussels w predation for both allows more space for barnacles to not be outcompeted by mussels Define invasive species exotic species that causes harm to people economy or ecosystem environmental harm ex fire ants Explain what life history traits make an exotic species invasive 1 Greatsuperior competitors take over niche 9 acquire resources well 2 No predators 3 Tolerance to environment 4 Good dispersers Name 2 invasive species in Louisiana water hyacinth nutria elephant ear Africanized honeybees fire ants wild strawberry Name two native plants in Bluebonnet Swamp that we transplanted panicum grass lizard tail lake hygrophila wild Iris Population Growth Know the history of population growth What did Malthus do Why did this matter to DarwinMalthus essay looked at population growth and food availability He showed that populations grow at exponential rate while food resources grew at linear rates meaning populations can exhaust their food resources This study inspired Darwin s idea of the struggle for lifequot It led him to the first law of population ecology which states that a population provided unlimited resources and quotx I I no topdown control will grow as the reaches carrying capacity k it will slow Know the difference between exponential and logistic growth curves shape and causes Exponential poi growth k Pop size N Logistic pop growth Time Exponential population growth occurs when there are unlimited resources and no topdown control Logistic population growth resources are limiting every population on earth except Homo sapiens Consequently the population s growth will slow as it reaches a carrying capacity max number of individuals a habitat can sustain denoted by the letter k Which is the norm in natureLogistic population growth for all populations on earth except Homo sapiens Know Kquotcarrying capacity the maximum number of individuals a habitat can sustain denoted by the letter k Know when to use quadrats and when to use markrecapturef the population is large you will use the markrecapture technique This approach defines the boundaries of the population then employs some trapping method to capture the animals The animals are given an identifiable mark and then released Next you return some days later after the marked individuals have had time to remix with the population and you trap some more animals With luck some recaptures will bear the marker Know LincolnPeterson technique N quotrlnnz where Ntotal population size n1number of individuals in first collection all to be marked n2number of individuals in the second collection and m2number of marked individuals recaptured in the second collection If N is large it is unlikely that you will recapture many of them again If N is small you will have captured and marked a higher portion of the total population so the next bout of trappings should yield more recaptures and a relatively high fraction of marked individuals Stitt LAB REPORT 3 COVERSHEET OBSERVATIONQUESTIONHOW do we determine the population size and dispersal rates of mobile and elusive animals HYPOTHESIS1The availability of niche space including stream size wooded debris and pools located in the streams will dictate the population size and dispersal of sh 0 PREDICTION 1AA wider stream allows for a larger habitat that the sh populations can use and increase their numbers 0 REASONING A larger land area allows for more availability of resources 0 ANALYTICAL APPROACH Common Sense and reasoning skills 0 PREDICTION 1BMore wooded debris in the stream will allow for higher population size 0 REASONING More debris allows for refuges from predators o ANALYTICAL APPROACH o PREDICTION 1Cncreased amounts of pools will increase fish population sizes 0 REASONING These calm pools can work as hatcheries for small sh and increase their likelihood of survivorship o ANALYTICAL APPROACH A signed and completed copy of this coversheet must be submitted with your completed report Any previously gradededited versions ofthe coversheet must also be submitted with your nal report On group projects the coversheet MUST be signed by all members ofthe group By signing I acknowledge that I have completed this coversheet and the attached report according to the Code Of Student Conduct and the Syllabus for this course ie I certify that I wrote this report independently and that the material within is my intellectual property and not anyone else s Colby Stitt 4 14 2011 Signature date Sm Population Size and Dispersal offish colonies Introduction How do we determrne the poputatron srze and drspersat rates or moorte and eiustye animais in thts iab we attempted to caicuiale the popuiation stze and dispersai r income srze the any part or an ecosystem that rs usabie by an orgamsm Factors hke woody coarse debrtsy stream width and poois tn the stream can arrect the usaote mche space mche m wooded deons and mom tocated tn the streamser drctate the popuiauon srze and drspersat ornsh Awrder stream aHows tor a targerhaortatthatthensh poputatrons can use be unarrected oy woody coarse deons and other oarners Atso the addrtrons or woo y reruges h d predators nurno r or n n ahtmdan the nsh These pooiS coutd atso act as reruges and a source or rood tor the mrnnows Methods For t Hudson Hrstonc Srte on March 1739 and 24 h 2011 We cohectedhsh rn an attempt to catcutate the poputatron srze or the gryen creeks we were workrng wrth The nsh were marked by chppmgmetrcaudai hns Drrrerent areas orthenn were ctrpped dependrng upon the tocatron or where rt was cau ht the upstream nsh had therrupper nn chpped the mrdstream had be h the upper and towernn ctrpped and downstream ad the tower part orthenn chpped Thehsh caught were kept rn a bucket untrt we caug as many nsh as possrote Thrs data was then recorded and coHected and thehsh were returned oackrnto the creek Thrs numoer ornsh caught rs ourN1 yatue more nsh Agarn oucket ror ooseryatrons We observed whether the nsh had be chpped atready or tr they were new to the area trom the preyrous week The totat number or nsh caught thrs second week was we and the number or nsh caughtthat were marked was M2 Atso or p sectron or The wrdth or To yatuate poputatron srze we used the Ltncoianetersen techmoue Thrs technroue has been used successruhyga estrmate poputatron srze ror oyera century 71 n V m Results Stitt For the Foster Creek the LincolnPeterson value for population size was 37 Also for the Karr Creek the LincolnPeterson value for population size was 118625 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 LincolnPeterson Estimate of Population Size 200 Foster Karr Figure 1 The mean LincolnPeterson estimate of population size at different creeks Figure 1This gure depicts that the Karr Creek has a larger Lincoln Peterson population mean value then the much smaller value of the Foster Creek Stitt i H mN O Uquot 0 Mean Stream Width U39I Foster Karr Figure 2 The mean of stream width for two different creeks Figure 2 This figure depicts a comparison between the Foster and Karr average stream widths 25 2 3 20 I n gt g 15 O 3 3 5 10 O U E 0 S E 0 Foster Karr Figure 3 The mean of coarse woody debris in two different creeks Figure 3This gure depicts the average number of wood coarse debris located at each ofthe Creeks Stitt 0 o n u o o n E 3 Z c N o 5 Foster Karr Figure 4 The mean number of pools in two different creeks Figure 4 This figure depicts the average mean of pools located in each of the Creeks Discussion Due to the lack of population size we were unable to run statistical analysis on our data We were however able to make graphs to show the comparisons ofthe creeks We can gather from our data that as the complexity ofthe stream increases so do the fish populations A wider stream allows for a larger area for this species to inhabit and use Also as the number of pools and wooded debris increase we saw increases in population sizes This could be due to the availability ofrefuges with increased debris and that the pools allow for calmer water for hatcheries These refuges allow for hiding places and decrease predation levels and negative abiotic factors Also woody debris can affect the dispersal ofthese fish Large logs could potentially block flow ofwater and the fish wouldn t be able to disperse downstream Bozaird et al 2009 The cool water temperature could have also affected the spawning ofthe minnows Most fresh water fish spawn from spring to midsummer Nunn et al 2007 Also according to Nunn recent cold or drastic winters can postpone a sh s spawning later into the season Since our experiment was done so early in the year the minnow population may not have had time to recover from the previous year Another observation is that the width of Karr creek is almost four times that of the Foster Creek This larger width allows for the creek to have more woody coarse debris and not have it affect the fish populations because the debris was unable to make a drastic difference There were quite a few flaws in this experiment Our seine nets had large gaps on the sides which allowed sh to escape being caught The week previous to our lab we were hit with a bit of a cold front This lowered the temperature ofthe creek water and could have caused the sh to travel elsewhere for warmer water We could improve this lab by utilizing movable barriers to keep the sh within our areas when Stitt attempting to catch them By placing a barrier at each end of our sections and moving them closer together we could funnel the fish into a smaller area making them easier to catch Stitt Works Cited Boizard J quotEffects of Dynamic Landscape Elements on Fish Dispersal the Example of Creek Chub SemotilusAtromaculatusquot Molecular Ecology 183 2009 43041 Print Nunn A D J P Harvey and l G Cowx quotVariations in the Spawning Periodicity of Eight Fish Species in Three English Lowland Rivers over a 6 Year Period Inferred from 0 Year Fish Length Distributionsquot Journal ofFish Biology 704 2007 1254267 Print Olden Julian D quotConservation Biogeography of Freshwater Fishes Recent Progress and Future Challengesquot Diversity and Distribution A Journal of Conservation Biogeography 163 2010 496513 Print Turchin Peter quotDoes Population Ecology Have General Lawsquot Oikos 941 2001 17 26 Print Stitt Homework Assignment 3 Cover Sheet OBSERVATIONQUESTIONDoes increased community diversity lead to increased stability and resistance to invasion HYPOTHESIS 1The more native species present in a location will affect the colonization ability of elephant ear 0 PREDICTION 1AThe more species rich an area is the less likely it is to be invaded o REASONING A decrease in niche space won t allow forthe invasive species to move into the area 0 ANALYTICAL APPROACHANOVA TTests Dependent variableNative Species Abundance Independent variable Invasive Species Abundance HYPOTHESIS 2The diversity of a community will have an effect upon its stability 0 PREDICTION 2A An increase in community complexity will increase its stability 0 REASONING The more species rich an area is the more competition will occur between species Thus giving this community a structure that no single species can dominant o ANALYTICAL APPROACH ANOVA TTests Dependent variableNative Species Abundance Independent variable Invasive Species Abundance HYPOTHESIS 3Invasive species will disrupt the stability of a community 0 PREDICTION 3A Invasive species will take over and use all available resources and driving the native species locally extinct o REASONING The majority of invasive species disrupt the niches ofa given community and destroy any sense of structure and stability 0 ANALYTICAL APPROACH ANOVA TTests Dependent variableNative Species Abundance Independent variable Invasive Species Abundance A signed and completed copy of this coversheet must be submitted with your completed report Any previously gradededited versions ofthe coversheet must also be submitted with your nal report On group projects the coversheet MUST be signed by all members ofthe group By signing I acknowledge that I have completed this coversheet and the attached report according to the Code Of Student Conduct and the Syllabus for this course ie I certify that I wrote this report independently and that the material within is my intellectual property and not anyone else s Stitt Colby Stitt 4 15 2011 Signature date