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by: Jarvis Block


Jarvis Block
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P. Sutherland

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P. Sutherland
Class Notes
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This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jarvis Block on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to INTL 4003 at Louisiana State University taught by P. Sutherland in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/222874/intl-4003-louisiana-state-university in International Studies at Louisiana State University.




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Date Created: 10/13/15
Neoliberalism 962011 63300 PM Research Project o Neoliberalism Idea that the market is the determining factor for everything 0 Can we afford it o Is it profitable 0 Very conservative in its mindset 0 Small government free enterprise 0 Returned since the late 19705 Reagan and Thatcher economics 0 deregulation o Before neoliberalization 0 Restriction 0 Government spending American socialism o Keynesian Economics Imbalance between production and consumption Government should spend money to stimulate the economy Provide a social safety net o Liberals think government should stay out of the economy 0 Supply and Demand will eventually work out economic problems SocialistRooseveltian o Current connotation of liberal from the 19605 Hall and Marx 962011 63300 PM Study guide questions are the questions on the exam paper o Use concepts from first exam in research paper o Refer to these case studies from readings in paper o Different spins on modernity Hall Only factor that separates the West that it is not the rest 0 Not necessarily true West and Rest discourse Societies want to become Western Geographical not historical Urbanized secular industrialized modern Idea that splits the world into two Originally the European way of thinking 0 The West s view of the world 0 System of comparison 0 Modern history s view of Western dominance Look for descriptions o Discourse How people talk about the world 0 Words you use to describe the world determine what you think about the world 0 Determines our view of reality Hall part 2 Stereotypes are the foundation of the West 0 NonWest stem from mythologies and tales Contrast changes throughout history Still resides within the language still resides within our realities Just macho soldier penetrates the virgin innocent territory Dominant vs SubalternSubordinate o Contradictory views of the world o Dominant discourse does indeed dominate because it has the means to do so Michel Foucault Marx s Communist Manifesto Proletariat vs Bourgeoisie 1848 at the height of the industrial revolution and it s inequities Previous bourgeoisie revolution got rid of the kings and noblemen 0 that revolution needs to extend and include the working classes Expansion of the bourgeois culture to colonies correlates to modern globalization 0 Capitalism the main catalyst History of the world is a history of class struggles Proletariat all those who are enslaved by the whims of the capitalist market Constant revolutionizing of economic functions is the central theme of the bourgeois epoch All that is solid melts into air real material condition of life Marx s terrifying vision of modernity Tracking Global Flows 962011 63300 PM 19605 c High point of decolonization o South Asia and Africa o Idea that newly independent countries would eventually catch up to their former colonial powers o Figured a great convergence of these countries because of modernization Counterview o Developed nations are enforcing a postcolonial authority Capital flows o Sent electronically People Trading o Migration patterns Intellectual commodities Time vs Space Distantiation o Communication from a distance is stretched out o Social effects of modernity and modernization 0 Ease of communication aids in relations with people worldwide Time vs Space Compression o Speeding up the processes of Globalization Culture isn t spatially bounded it leaps across territorial boundaries o Deterretorialization o Voodoo originally from Benin shifted to Haiti and then to New Orleans Cultural Imperialism o American Pop Culture being introduced o Former French colonies are educated in French 0 Religion history etc o Old idea of homogenization of the world 0 Modernization leads to Westernization Wallerstein s Model of World Countries o Core Countries 0 Industrialized markets o Semiperiphery 0 Emerging Markets o Periphery 0 Raw material producers o Core imposes its culture onto the periphery 1St World o Originally Free West in the Cold War 2nd World o Originally Soviet Bloc Communist countries 3rd World o The rest postcolonial states However Periphery influences the Core and the other periphery states Reception Theory o Hypodermic model of cultural reception 0 How do people react to people watching a movie 0 We do react to TV culture by making different interpretations of the actions o Our societies affect how we make meaning ofTV programs Alternative Modernities 962011 63300 PM Compares to different interpretations of modernities o Social Modernization What got started in Europe o What do we make of modernity How do we characterize European modernity Split into two kinds of modernities in Europe Societal modernization o Involves the development of civilization o Increased mobility urbanization takeover of European society by ways of thinking secular rational scientific o Transformation of the institutions of European society capitalism communication government etc o Idealized understanding of bourgeoisie modernity Cultural Modernity o Rose in opposition of societal modernity o Spontaneous expression of culture reaction against Enlightenment rationality o Basic Idea Against the rule of reason romanticism o Stemmed from the experience o Societal modernization extremely repetitive boring and mechanized o Bureaucracy o Concern for the quality of life emotional life bohemians artists o Shocking art beginnings of the avant garde movement o Ideas central to sense of self o Central set of values that permeate a culture o Love Christianity Compassion Buddhism Culture o Shared values and customs o Anthropological definition meaning given behind customs and values 0 American flag is a symbol of America culture find the meanings behind that symbol Baudelaire o Sense of the anonymity of life o Value of the modern city life o Beauties must look like the classics o Tradition of the New o Let s make it new Max Vaber o Sociologist with a similar view to Baudelaire o Too much modern life is structured and repetitive Habermast o Modernity can be improved with an agency of many forms and voice o Public sphere of opinion is shaped by the media Foucault o Modernity cannot be improved o Western modernity formed by human science o Problem reason is usually used by governments when making policies 0 Doesn t necessarily lead you to freedom o Modernity is an attitude 0 Constant questioning of the present Alternative Modernities o Modernity may have started in Europe but many other states wish to join the modern world 0 However Western modernity requires certain cultural baggage o Alternative Modernity focuses on picking up desirable Western modern things and adopts new unique modern aspects Charles Taylor o Inevitably modernity connects to the culture of the present o Is modernity culturally neutral o Attitude towards modernity that separates the European aspect of it from their own cultural needs o Creative Adaptation 0 Participants in society can make themselves modern rather than being molded into modern Convergence vs Divergence o All cultures would diverge into a similar cultural modernity Bollywood and Africa 962011 63300 PM Bollywood cinema s distribution to African cinemas and Africans reception of said films conveys a paradigm shift in the conventional thought in regards to modernity and globalization It s that Slumdog Millionaire Bollywood flow India can be looked at as an alternative to Western modernity Both India and Nigeria are former British colonies o Nollywood films often focus on fighting off demons 0 Magic and sorcery Postcolonial African states have all attempted to colonize o Parallel resurgence of sorcery and witchcraft o Antithesis of the secularization theory presented by Max Faber o Rumors about sorcery and magic reported in the newspapers reporting about politicians and generalissimos Modernization o Has not done away with religion has evolved it in a sense 0 Televangelists with political power 0 Religion became a private personal choice o India establishing their own culture in the world o Nigerian cinema once only sought to a Nigerian and Indian similarities o Less expressive displays of affection 0 Clearly erotic yet not explicit o Conservative attitudes towards portraying romance o Arranged marriage similarities 0 Individuals do not fall in love parents select partners 0 Housa women expect their lovers to be very romantic Dhobi Ghat Hippies and India o Taking hit take a hit o Goha o Hare Krishna emulate singing into a trance Indian response to hippie movement in Research Proposals Exam Questions 962011 63300 PM Progress o Depends upon how you use the word progress HOW GLOBALIZATION PRODUCES ALTERNATIVE MODERNITIES All questions relate to modernity and ways of thinking about it 3 Extra Opportunities 0 Am Cultural Convergence vs Divergence o Idea of cultural convergence 0 Globalization creates a homogenized culture 0 Modernization would cause underdeveloped countries to enter the developed world o Western sociologistseconomists proposed ideas about how to develop and play catchup to Western Economies 0 Copying the west would lead to modernization o This is the idea of convergence o Divergence 0 Emerging undeveloped countries are adapting to Western models and creating their own divergent modernities Cultural divergence is the current landscape because of alternative modernization occurrences o Divergence happened because developing world did not catch up to the developed world o Indian Bollywood values shared by Nigeria cultures equates to an alternative cultural convergence 0 Hollywood values shared in the world convergent Nigerian preferences diverge o Berger notions convergent cultures 0 Because of creative adaptation we get divergence and not convergent Westernization Inda and Rosalda Communication networks lead to more globalization Convergence in that the West leads this globalized charged Power of communicating your ideals English colony gets English culture and the ilk Periphery system 0 Picture of the system of colonial imperialism 0 From the power to the subalterncolonized 0 Does not describe the current view of globalization 0 New picture needs to be drawn Reception theory 0 Why the diagram does not work Ferguson 962011 63300 PM Global Disconnect Commodities Market determines who gets to be global market place Zambia lost its chance for modernization because new technologies created lower demand 0 Copper became a victim of the global business cycle China has created a commodity boom 0 Raised prices of said commodities One industry countries fail with the whims of business cycles Because of uneven development globalization in unevenly distributed Critique of our idea of development 0 Antidevelopment happens when market whims happen 0 Standard globalization model cannot be used Development is not a holistic model Ferguson an economic anthropologist Zambia nearly reached the modern world Comparative Advantage Theory 0 Nobody has an absolute advantage 0 Produce the one product that they have an advantage in and import the rest Teleology thinking about change 0 Theories aimed at making a change Teleology of modernization theory everybody is going to Westernize Assuming that Westernization will lead to modernization New model needed 0 Development theory harmed the world market 0 Some economies redlined because of disconnections made by the modern world Disconnected rather than unconnected Capital in Africa does not flow but rather hops over different countries Global Redlining o Redline districts loans can t be given out in these areas 0 Commodity markets redline certain countries and areas Greece in today s economy 0 O O 0 Emerging Markets Available to provide service based commodities as well as resources Because they are beginning to grow Decomposing Modernity o Developmentalist replaced Essentialist view 0 Savagery barbarianism to civilized 0 Developing to developed o Rejected by modern scholars 0 New and disturbing understandings not less developed rather less than constructs o Poor countries will join the worldwide community community 0 The less a nation was modern the longer it will take to become modern 0 Old Theory Social Evolution 0 Primitive society earliest form of human history 0 Humans ranked in order of succession o Racial difference resulted in theological interpretation Flaws of Modernization Theory 0 Modern society could not have certain aspects without others needs to be a Westernized package All societies do not follow a similar process towards modernity Traditions kept and influence the way states modernize Not a good way to understand how it works in Africa Modernization They compare themselves as being as developed as other places Alternative modernities do not exist under this thinking o Look at modernity as something that doesn t get rid of your culture many would rather live a materially modern lifestyle 0 Despite loss of cultural traditions 0 Do not worry about alternative modernities 0 After material gains they can recoupreenergize their culture 0 O O Study Review 962011 63300 PM Drop Names Quotes and key words West vs The Rest Discourse o Changed to reflect o Discourse produces knowledgepower whose knowledge and power o Dominant vs SubordinateSubaltern o Idea can be a fact based on discourse world views o Fouc West vs the Rest o Everything that is not the West is the rest o Eurocentric view of the world o Images 2 Marx o Bourgeois Revolution 0 Had the means to spread the market system and production means Estate system Bourg towns needed to be fortified overthrown in order to move from town to town 0 Class struggles define history o Globalization 0 Not a commonly held idea 0 Mentions world is going to be dominated by capitalism 0 Workers don t have a say in the global landscape o Communist Manifesto a warning to the dominance of the capitalist elite o Bourgeois O O 3 Alternative Modernities o Western concept of Enlightenment based modernity is adapted around the world and influenced by their cultures 0 Core is there but it s application is different 0 Could be convergent or divergent o Globalization not leading to convergence 0 Postcolonial development did not happen 0 Divergence because of alternative modernities 0 Through creative adaptation and subaltern cultures are diverging 0 Because modernization and convergence theory did not happen Zambia attempted to become globalized but did not lead to convergence and abjection o Bollywood 0 His view Divergence happens instead of convergence with Hollywood 0 Bollywood films example of this because alternative modernity of Africans shared values of their cultures with Indians sexual modesty dancing traditional love stories Muslim Housa and Hindu Bollywood film o Foucault and Baudelaire in alternative modernities 4 Ferguson s faults with Alternative modernities o Do not explain why Africa s is the way that it is o Africans see themselves as nonmodern rather than alternatively modern 0 Not a set model to base itself on 0 Material modernization o Modernity not as a set of creative cultural statuses rather a global market 0 Membership and rank 0 Based on market whims 0 Cultural anthropologists views do not reflect what happened in Africa 5 Cultural Imperialism o Imperialism is the carrier of select types of culture o How does culture move 0 1st world invades the 3rd world s culture 0 Wallerstein s theory of the core and periphery o Competition between periphery countries o Alternative View of Inda and Rosaldo o Periphery can influence the Core 0 Third World brings aspects of their culture to the First World 0 Periphery countries can influence each other Bollywood films in Nigeria Competition o Our culture defines how we receive and perceive imported cultures 0 Hypodermic Theory Harvey s Neoliberalism 962011 63300 PM World View o Notion that this view is common sense o Almost no other organization of common economic life Shift of organized government structures Latest phase of capitalism Threat of communism and left wing uprisings o Counter culture threatening to more solidified aspects of technology o Stagflation High unemployment High inflation Increasing prices o Communist ideology dying o The West has won End of the ideological warfare end of the Cold War o Nazism defeated by both Cold War powers o Bedrock of globalization Deregulation o Rising tide raises all boats o Trickle Down economics o Destruction of middle class wealth and creation of global inequality Ideas about democracy and business freedom o Belief that capitalism goes together with capitalism o Capitalism creates this inequality o Costbenefit analyses applied to politics Pinochet o Chile initially an economic success 0 despite Imbedded Liberalism o Keynesian Economics o Helping the welfare of the citizens o State protects industries vital to national interests o Failed to achieve stated results Neoliberalism o Opposed to centralized planning o New Deal reforms brought in social ideals o Transnational connections increased during neoliberal policies o Austrian founder of Neoliberalism o Ideas spread to conservative think tanks 0 Institute of Economic Affairs America Heritage groups o Government meant to create conditions to help business Chapter 2 962011 63300 PM Identity Politics o Politics glorfiying the power of the consumer s choice o Business geared to niche markets New York o Policy makers should be creating a good business environment o Corporate welfare enacted o I love New York slogan o Commodify the city as a tourist destination Corporations are individuals Beleaguered Whites o Voting against their material interests Ronald Reagan o Excesses Neoliberal States 962011 63300 PM Research proposals o Need a research question Tsing and Caldwell 962011 63300 PM IT connects global markets o Global scale Indonesia wanted to develop o State scalemaking project o Connected Indonesia with BreX BreX s relationship with locals in Borneo o Created a new and destroyed 0 Globalization becomes an illusion o All three scales developed together o Then it all fell apart o A case study of globalization in action McDonalds o Nash Ours o Attempted to make McDonald s a Russian brand o Russian food o Muscovites have nashified McDonald s to make it Russian and their s


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