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by: Dedrick Vandervort


Dedrick Vandervort
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P. Larock

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P. Larock
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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dedrick Vandervort on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to OCS 1005 at Louisiana State University taught by P. Larock in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see /class/222875/ocs-1005-louisiana-state-university in Oceanography at Louisiana State University.




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Date Created: 10/13/15
OCS 1005 Final Review Three Domains Archaea Bacteria Eukarya ABE Don t focus much on these Five kingdoms Monera Protoctista Fungi Plantae Animalia Focus on these Carolus Linnaeus Wikipedia him He is the father of taxonomy Know some things about him Plankton free floaters go along with tide fictional forces dominate it Against fictional forces don t go along with tide BenthosBottom dwellers Bethos Bottom Layercomes close to O Zooplanktonheterotrophic Know this Phytoplankton free floating Holoplankton and Meroplanktoncarnivourous Picoplankton and Macroplankton probably not on test FOCUS ON WHAT IS IN RED ON PWPT What causes hydrothermal vents to have a diverse Chemosynthesis Cold water vs Warm water Cold water species are usually cooler but once you go down you have larger species An Arctic Region for example think HUGE animals Appendages think coral reefs Stenothermalthink static can t go anywhere small variation Eurythermal have a large diversity it can stretch Stenohaline and euryhaline Know difference of the 4 above Diffusion goes from a high to a low lsotonic hypertonic hypotonic Know difference of these Marine vs Freshwater fish Marine fish drink a lot of water trys to maintain a hypotonic system Freshwaterfish Don t drink a lot of water try to maintain a hypertonic system Know the gill system the cross gill system See slide 32 of Ch 12 ppt Countershadingsharks have a dark top and a white belly Disruptive coloration Water pressure Every 1 atm is a change within 10 meters and every 10 meters is a change in 1 atm 10 m below water you would be at 2 atm Know your regions Pelagic Benthic Aphotic zone not much light Euphotic good amount of life much biota and plankton Disphotic zone Can measure light here Oxygen minimum layer where most phytoplankton come and use or don t use the oxygen fish need oxygen to survive and don t like to go into the oxygen minimum zone Suboceanic is your lower plains Slide 42 is probably not on the test Ch 13 Photosynthesis chemosynthesis found near the sulfur vents in benthic regions Most of the oceans biomass relies on photosynthesis water and carbon dioxide yields sugar and oxygen Example H20C029 HC3003CH3 this is an example of a sugar When measuring chlorophyll with satellites You are measuring for alpha This will give the notion for nitrate phosphorous iron silica Redfield Ratio look up numbers CNP Compensation depthnet photosynthesis becomes 0 in the euphotic zone Blue wavelength penetrates the deepest part of the ocean Why is the water blue Red and orange are absorbed first Eutrophic and Oligotrophic Look up definitions On test What is upwelling Cooler deeper seawater that is nutrient rich Brings nutrients up Go over microscopic meso macro algae Red algae is the most abundant Harmful algal blooms are the red tides very toxic Notice units in formulas Slide 20 Ch13 Biological Pump is how carbon moves in the water system C02 is dissolved comes around and either becomes a carbonate or a sodium bicarbonate upwelling happens and it either cools or evaporates back into the atmosphere NADW Relates to the polar ocean if nutrient rich and either it gets a little bit lighter and becomes a glacier and float or some of the water that gets frozen cause salts to fall down and the salts are heavy and it comes down to the Antarctic bottom watervery salty and makes a conveyor belt and comes back again When you stratify a layer you have warm mixing at the top Once it gets to the thermocline a sharp drop occurs It is static does not move called Stratified water When you see Upwelling think high productivity Seasons and stratification Spring and Fall Blooms Benthicharvest the waste of animals decomposers Big animals are usually omnivores bacteriavores are probably not on test Deposit and suspension feeding can dictate what sediment you are working in 10 is the going rate of energy transferred to the next trophic level Ex 10 g of one substance 1 g goes to the next Maximum Sustainable Yield yield needed to support an ecosystem Overfishingknow definition The MMPA is probably important Read about it in book CHAPTER 14 Gaseous containers are usually big Bladder comes out of the fish s mouth because of the atmospheric pressure system Fats and oils Nekton can swim around freely Copepodsextension feeders typically stay in one areadon t move much Krillzooplankton that are macroscopic Cnidarians know what they are Man of war Ex Jellyfish Fin designs Put the 4 in a table and a question will probably be comparing them Poikilothermiccold blooded fish found in marine systems Homeothermic found is salt or freshwater systems helps to find fish Anglar fish use bioluminescence Fish schooling Symbiosis know what it is Echolocation whales used to find mates SOFAR channel is unique and dolphinswhales can hear each other 10000 miles away Cetacea Baleen whales blue whales gray whales MEMORIZE Families probably not on test Look up the International Whaling Commission IWC established in 1948 and it is recently being banned Look up CHAPTER 15 Rocky shore Spray zone have a huge susceptibility to be dried out bc once the tide is low barnicles and sea shells will sit out and not have the water they need Hightide have shells to avoid drying out Middle tide zone kelp algae polyps Annelid worms solid core wavy outer motion they use to move don t have eyes Kelps attach to the bottom look like underground forestsknow the different types and where they are found Shrub kelp Kelp with air bubbleswhere huge estuaries are found west coast of south AmericaUS Hermatypic mutualistic relationships zoozansthellySp is expelled and coral bleaching occurs Coral bleaching global warming is said to be a problem in coral bleaching Abyssal storms when a massive animalsubmarine hits the actual ocean and it causes a stormearthquakemudslide underground Black smokers Different types of clouds with chemosynthesis black smokerssulfur based White smokersusually calcium based All life needs sugar Sypersaline seeps not many animals go here but the ones that do have chemosynthesis by their side because of vents high salinity Hydrocarbon seepsoil and gas Subduction zones plates go under another plate Memorize the evolution of life powerpoint This will be on test Final Pretest Word of wisdom I highly advise you to review your power point presentation for red inked sections in them that require answering or attendance in class 1 An abiotic organism is an organism that 9Sit like a rock would NOT capture use or transmit energy 2 Relative to photosynthesis plants use 9Chemosynthesis to create energy 3 Primary production is vital for the survival and turnover rate of animals in the ocean What units is primary production measured in 9gCm 2yr 4 The major primary producer in the ocean is 9Phytoplankton 5 Satellites can measure the primary production of phytoplankton in the ocean What variable can they use to estimate changes in primary production 9Chlorophyll a 6 What marine ecosystems have the highest productivity 9 Estuaries Coral Reef Kelp Beds All the above 9ANS ALL THE ABOVE 7 Which one of these zones is found in the photic zone 9Disphotic zone Aphotic Zone Benthic Zone None of the above 9ANSWER the Photic zone is the euphotic and disphotic zone so DISPHOTIC 8 Concerning trophic levels what is the energy amount lost in percent per trophic level 9 10 9 There are six limiting factors for phytoplankton growth Which of these is NOT one of them 9Diversity of organisms Light Salinity Hydrostatic pressure ANS Diversity of organisms 10 Heterotrophs are organisms that produce energy by photosynthesis True or False 9False 11 There are 4 major cycles of elements in naturally occurring ecosystems Which one is the largest 9 The carbon cycle Nitrogen depends on bacteria the most 12 The father of modern taxonomy is Carolus Linnaeus True or False 9 TRUE ON TESTlllll 13 Charles Darwin is renowned for being one of the first proposers of the theory known as natural selection Where did he make his primary observations 9Galapagos lsles 14 Phytoplankton are considered to be heterotrophic 9 FALSE they are autotrophic 15 Zooplankton are considered to be heterotrophic 9 True 16 There are many different types of plankton in the world Which ones are the most toxic 9Copepods Dinoflagellates Diatoms or Rhodospores9ANS Dinoflagellates 17 There are many different sizes of bacteria Autotrophic bacteria are apart of what size group 9Femtoplankton9 Probably not on test 18 There are many different size of bacteria Heterotrophic bacteria are apart of what size group 9Femtoplankton key word is bacteria they are smaller 19 What type of organism does a baleen whale eat 9Kri 20 Plants use to fix and as they convert nonliving compounds into usuable chemical forms of living tissue 9Sunlight C02 and Nitrogen 21 Production exceeds Respiration in what zone 9Euphotic Benthic Aphotic or Both the Euphotic and Aphotic Zones ANS If it says production and respiration it is not the aphotic zone the answer is the Euphotic Zone 22 What is the scientific name for a Harmful Algal Bloom 9Noctiluca bloom 23 Concerning Zooplankton which type of Zooplankton spends it s entire life cycle in plankton 9Holoplankton 24 Concerning Zooplankton which type of Zooplankton spends only part of life cycle in plankton and then with basic dwellers 9Meroplankton 25 Concerning Zooplankton which type of Zooplankton is only a plankton phase of a nekton group 9 lcthyoplankton 26 The most primitive type of true animalsquot belongs to what phylum 9 Annelids 9Probably on test 27 This phylum has tentacles that it uses for feeding purposes 9Cnidaria 28 There are three different types of geological reefs that can be formed in water Which reef is a ringshaped island of coral reefs surrounding a lagoon 9Fringing reefs barrier reefs atolls both b and c Atolls 29 Which of the following are coral stressors 9Temperature Cyanide fishing overpopulation of fish both a and b ANS Both temperature and cyanide fishing THIS WILL BE ON TEST 30 What class do Baleen whales fall under 9Mammalia 31 What class do Sharks fall under 9Chondrichtyhyes oN TEST 32 Concerning Echolocation Dolphins use clicks for echolocation and clicks for communication 9High frequency and Low frequency ON TEST 33 Animals unintentionally killed while collecting desired organisms is called 9Bykill or also known as bycatch 34 This metal is considered to be the most dangerously bioaccumulated poison in the trophic levels of marine based animals 9Mercury 9Prob NOT on test 35 What is the number one problem concerning the ocean environment 9 Global Population 36 Heavy metals are only toxic in copious amounts True or False 9False they can be very toxic in even little amounts 37 Polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs are relatively harmless to humans but damaging to marine organisms True or False 9False They are dangerous to both of us 38 Oceanography is an empirical science True or False 9True Colby Stitt 892668852 OCS 1005 Homework Chapter 3 3 Continental margins are areas of shallow water close to continents Passive margins are not close to 4 The any plate boundary they are located near the interior of the lithospheric plates These margins are signified by low activity and are usually located in areas with sea floor spreading While active margins are associated with the lithospheric plate boundaries and experience much tectonic activity There are two forms of active margins convergent and transform A convergent active margin occurs when oceanic and continental plates are converging on one another creating such things as volcanoes steep slopes and narrow shelves Transform active margins occur when offshore faults parallel the main plate boundary creating banks and islands major features of passive margins include 39 shelves 39 slope 39 rise submarine canyons and deepsea fans Continental shelves are areas that are flat in nature and extend from the shore to where the slope s angle increases in what is called a shelf break Continental slopes lie beyond the shelf break and it extends beyond to the deepocean basins Continental slopes can give rise to narrow submarine canyons these canyons resemble those on the terrestrial crust they are believed to be formed by old river flows that have eroded away at the plate The continental rise is a region that contains submerged debris between the continental margin and the deepocean floor These submerged debris can collect at the mouths of submarine canyons producing what is called a deepsea fan 11 Hydrothermal vents are the product of cracking in the sea floor from cold ocean water reaching an area of the sea floor that is located above a magma chamber There are three different types of vents The warmwater vents create water that is clear and never exceed 30C White smokers are hydrothermal vents that have water temperatures between 30C and 350C and emit as a white color due to the chemicals that it releases Black smokers are vents that exceed temperatures of 350C and the water that is released in black in color due to the presence of metal sulfides contained in it 12 There are many unusual creatures that live near the hydrothermal vents they include large clams mussels and giant tubeworms These invertebrates have evolved to survive off of the thermal vents Bacteria and archaeons metabolize the hydrogen sulfide gas that the vents release which provides a food source for these strange creatures Colby Stitt OCS 1005 Section 1 1292012 Homework Chapter 2 2 Wegener had many supporting ideas for his theory of continental drift He argued that his idea could be supported by using maps of the continents at the time and proving that they could be fit together like jigsaw puzzle pieces by showing that there are rockmineral samples that are the same yet on different continents proving that mountain ranges that are no longer near one another matched up he also proved that glaciation had occurred in areas of the world that are now tropical and would not support for glaciers Wegener s ideas were rejected because they were viewed llas too fantastic and contrary to the laws of physicsquot Trujillo pg 39 Wegner was unable to explain for many of his short comings he was unable to explain erosion and river sediment changing the landscapes 3 Earth s magnetic field is its invisible protective field The field comes out of the south pole looping around through space and entering into the north pole The field has changed in a few different ways over the millions of years The magnetic field has reversed numerous times in earth s history and has been proven to be changing in its intensity also the north pole is wandering and constantly changing 5 The alteration of magnetic charge on the sea floor proved that there had to be a central area where the sea floor was being created and moving apart if the two sides mirrored one another as the do in the Atlantic This helped to back up the theory of plate tectonics because as the ocean floor is created and pushes the continents apart further 6 Proof of sea floor spreading was a breakthrough of supporting evidence for plate tectonics With this knowledge the pieces began to fall into place The midAtlantic ridge is one such spreading region it has two convection centers that rotate outward from the ridge creating a region where hot molten rock can reach the ocean sea floor creating new ocean floor 7 Ocean depth changes as you travel away from the midocean ridge the ocean is at its shallowest right above the ridge and gets deeper as you travel closer to the subduction zone The newest ocean crust is located at the midocean ridge and the oldest ocean crusts are located closer to the subduction zones The older crusts are being pushed away from the midocean ridge by the newer molten rock reaching the surface and as the crusts are subducted then become remelted and rejoin the mantle Colby Stitt 892668852 OCS 1005 Homework Chapter 4 1 List and describe the characteristics of the four basic types of marine sediment There are four basic types of marine sediment those of which include lithogenous biogenous g an U 39 U sediment is created from the erosion of rock material from continents or islands due to erosion volcanic eruptions or blown dust Biogenous sediments are created from the remains of once living organisms such as fossils Hydrogenous sediments are created from dissolved sediments in water Cosomogenous sediment is created by extraterrestrial materials 3 How does lithogenous sediment originate Lithogenous sediment originates from the erosion of rock material from continents or islands due to erosion volcanic eruptions or blown dust Weathering of rocks by abiotic factors breaks them down into smaller portions and pieces these sediments travel down streams and rivers into the oceans 11Describe the KT event including evidence for it and its effect on the environment The KT event is the mass extinction of the dinosaurs and two third of all plant and animal species that occurred between the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods of time During this event it is believed that a meteorite struck the earth producing large ocean waves that washed across the planet as well as a large cloud of dust that blocked the earth s sunlight chilling the planet Evidence that supports this theory is the large amounts of iridium and clay located across the planet during this time period Also finding an impact crater that fit the requirements for such an event was found off of coast of the Yucatan peninsula 12 Why is lithogenous sediment the most common neritic deposit Why are biogenous oozes the most common pelagic deposits Neritic deposits are sediments that are found on continental shelves and in shallow waters Lithogenous sediments make up the majority of neritic deposits because they are sediments that are eroded and washed down rivers and into the oceans near the continents Pelagic deposits are sediments found on the deepocean floor Being that it is harder for currents to bring sediments from land all the way into the deepest parts of the ocean it is easy to reason that biogenous sediments or predominantly found here because as an organism dies in the ocean its body will sink to the ocean floor 15 What are gas hydrates where are they found and why are they important Gas hydrates are compact chemical structures made of water and natural gases These hydrates are found underneath the ocean floor trapped within sea floor sediments These pockets of gas contain large amounts of methane gas If an earthquake of other seismic occurrence were to allow the methane to escape it could spell disaster for the global climate Methane gas would oxidize into carbon dioxide and wreak havoc on the ozone adding to the greenhouse effect Oceanography Test 1 222012 33500 PM Chapter 2 Big Bang and Planet Condensation The big bang occurred about 146 million years ago All of the mass and energy which was originally confined at one place began to expand away from one another and the expansion continues today The condensation theory states that planets were formed by contracting creating clouds of dust gas and debris Why life started in oceans The characteristics of water ability to retain heat and moderate temperature make it a good starting point for the creation of life Also we know that all life on Earth depends on the ability of a substance to use water within itself This suggests a common origin MillerUrey experiments These experiments simulated the formation of early life on Earth Important amino acid and other compounds were created and although these are not life they are the building blocks of it Types of rock There are three types of rock 1 igneous crust the solidification of cooled magma usually volcanoes This rock is formed beneath the Earth s crust 2 metamorphic the result of the transformation of a preexisting rock type called a protolith by means of heat and extreme pressure 3sedimentary typically created by erosion Can be classified by particle size or type terrigenous hydrogenous etcsee Chp5 Origins of the ocean and atmosphere The first atmosphere was probably made of gases like methane and ammonia but was destroyed by the asteroid that created our moon The new atmosphere was created by outgassingrelease of gases which had been trapped inside the forming planet As the hot vapors rose they condensed into clouds After millions of years the vapors cooled and began to form hot water droplets As these droplets fell to the hot Earth and they rose back again as gas and the process continued until the Earth was cool enough to hold the nowsalty seawater Ages of universe Earth and first life forms The universe is 14 billion years old the Earth is 46 billion years old and the first life forms are about 36 billion years old Who were the first organisms bacteria Singlecelled with no nucleus They were ATPproducing energy factories like mitochondria Bluegreen bacteria have the ability for photosynthesis It was the beginning of plant cells Oceanography Test 1 222012 33500 PM Chapter 3 Structure of the Earth The earth is layered with each layer becoming denser There are three main layers 1 The crust is the thin outermost layer made up of lithosphere a covering of the Earth made up of movable plates There are two crusts the oceanic crust is made up mostly of basalt 10 km thick and the continental crust is made up mostly of granite 3540 km thick The large crystals in granite allow it to float 2 The mantle has two parts as well The upper mantle is also known as the asthenoshpere This layer is hot pliable and slowing flowing The lower mantle is hotter but because of intense pressure it does not melt 3 The core is composed mainly of iron The very center of the Earth is solid and is surrounded by a very dense liquid The very center of the Earth is hotter than the surface of the sun Isostatic Equilibrium This principle involves buoyancy Because the lithosphere is less dense than the asthenoshpere it floats above it Also mountainous part of the Earth have rootlike structures which sink into the asthenoshpere As the mountain erodes the earth s crust will rise to equalize the loss Radioactive Decay Heat given off by the breaking of iron s atoms at the core mantle and crust in an effort to reach atomic stability This process heats the Earth Alfred Wegener Meteorologist and explorer who in 1912 gave a lecture on the idea of continental drift This theory stated that the presentday continents had once been joined as a single superconitnent known as Pangaea which broke into pieces about 200 million years ago Wegener supported his theory by the obvious fit on the continents and similar mineralsfossils found on South America and Africa however because plate tectonics had not yet been discovered Wegener s theory did not gain support Radioactive dating Measures the radioactivity of a substance to determine the age of rock This uses half life of Potassium and Uranium and not carbon For example Uranium over time will gradually decay to lead so dating is used to measure the amount of both substances to determine age Three types of plate boundaries 1 Convergent Boundaries violently push plates together Thick continental crust will ride up over the denser oceanic crust and the oceanic crust will be recycled This process can cause earthquakes and volcanic eruptions This subduction also leads to orogeny or the creation of mountains 2 Divergent Boundaries are areas where two plates are moving apart by the rise of hot magma This creates oceanic crust and forms a rift valley 3 Transform Faults are weak spots which cause irregular plate movement and perpendicular markings on divergent boundaries This occurs because plates are moving on a sphere and not a flat surface As plates slip past each other vertically they can produce earthquakes Diagram of the Atlantic Ocean floor see book Diagram of the Pacific Ocean floor see book Evidence of seafloor spreading 1 the obvious fit of the continents 2 similar mineralfossils on South America and Africa 3 sediment is thicker on shelves close to land 4 the age of the seafloor as told by sediments is only 200 million years old even though the Earth is 46 billion years old 5 the tracing of mountain chains like the Hawaiian islands over hotspots maps the direction of seafloor spreading 6 guyot tracingvolcanic islands that break through the surface and get weathered then when the plate sinks and it falls back under the surface of the water 7 paleo magnetismmagnetic reversal 8 polar wandering 9 Benioff Benioff Seismologist who worked in Japan and tracked earthquakes along subduction zones The quakes got deeper nearer the subduction zone but stopped at a certain point This is where the plates would begin to melt back into the mantle Sediment age and distribution to support seafloor spreading Red clays move to the middle of the ocean at a rate of 1cm1000 years New earth from seafloor spreading is young at MidOcean Ridges and old at rises more red clay here closer to shore because the sediment has more time to accumulate Guyot Trace Guyots are flattopped volcanic projections that do not rise above the surface of the sea They are flattopped because at one time they were able to penetrate the sea s surface to be eroded by waves Guyots support seafloor spreading because most were formed near spreading centers and were transported outward and downward by the spreading movement Fixed Hot Spots These are random areas of superheated magma that stem all the way from the earth s core As lithospheric plates slide over these spots volcanoes can be created but then are carried away This can form a chain of inactive volcanoes and it also supports seafloor spreading Also mantle plumes coming from the core are thought to heat the asthenosphere in order to continue the process of seafloor recycling MidOcean Ridges MOR Located in the middle of the Atlantic or Pacific Ocean This is where seafloor spreading is at its youngest and the area is very hot The MOR rises up slightly as new oceanic crust is pushed upwards by convection Paleomagnetism The Earth s magnetic field is caused by the movement of molten metal in the outer core Tiny particles of magnetite occur naturally in basaltic magma When this magma erupts and cools the magnetic particles in magnetite point towards the North Pole This imprint is called paleomagnetism These imprints show when the poles have switches roughly every 200000 years These rocks have shown that there are symmetrical paleomagnetic stripes on either side of the ocean s spreading centers P 86 Subduction Zones Areas of the earth where the crust plunges downward into the mantle This is necessary to offset the new crust created by seafloor spreading because the earth is not growing Subduction zones are found on convergent plate zones In these areas there are usually trenches surrounded by mountains and the occurrence of earthquakes P73 Convection Cell Occurs when a semisolid is heated and becomes less dense It then expands and rises to the Earth s surface heating the mantle and asthenosphere while keeping up the process of seafloor recycling Island Arcs Curving chains of volcanic islands and seamounts volcanic projections under the water which are often parallel to trenches This happens because as materials from the subducted trenches rise again from the mantle they become magma and lava Exotic Terrains Plateaus that have been squeezed onto the face of a continent by moving along a subduction zone Ex San Francisco p90 Coral reef building Masses of calcium carbonate begin to grow around a mountain in the sea As the mountain subsides over time an lagoon like ATOL is created This is an oasis in the middle of ocean Oceanography Test 1 222012 33500 PM Chapter 4 Bathymetry The discovery and the study of the ocean floor contours Today this is done with a steampowered wench Know figures 48 and 410 on pages 106 and 107 Know figure 422 on page 115 and figure 432 on pages 124 and 125 Continental ShelvesContinental Margins The shallow submerged extension of a continent As the continental lithosphere cooled while moving with seafloor spreading the shelves were created Passive margins face the edge of diverging plates have little tectonic activity and are typically found in the Atlantic Passive shelves are typically built by sediments brought down by rivers Active margins are near converging plates Active shelves are characterized by faulting and volcanoes and are found in the Pacific Continental Slope Connects continental shelves to the ocean floor and is formed by sediments that have been transported over the side of the continental shelf The shelf break marks the abrupt transition from shelf to slope Submarine Canyons Cut into the shelf and slope and often end at the deep sea floor These canyons are made deeper by swiftly falling rocks and sediments from turbidity currents These currents are an underwater avalanche which are pulled down a continental slope by gravity Continental Rise The sediment covering the base of continental slopes on passive margins which is usually moved by turbidity currents or deep ocean currents Oceanography Test 1 222012 33500 PM Chapter 5 Sediments classified by size size from biggest to smallest pebble sand silt clay Wellsorted sediment are composed of particles mostly of one size and are found in the deep ocean while poorlysorted sediments contain particles of many sizes Sediments classified by source Terrigenous red clay most abundant Come from the erosion of continents or islands They are found on continental margins and have crystal particles like quartz Biogenous comes from organic molecules like the exoskeletons of plants or animals They contain silicon SiOZ and calcium carbonate CaCo3 Found mostly on deep floor Hydrogenous formed from minerals found in seawater Cosmogenous dust from space Microtektites particles of glass are created when a meteor hits the earth this is a type of cosmogenous sediment Sediments classified by distribution neritic sediments are mostly terrigenous and found on continental shelves pelagic sediments originate in the ocean and are found on the slope rise and floor They are more commonly biogenous Clays The finest and most easily transported terrigenous sediment Abyssal Clays About 38 of the deep seafloor is covered by clays These particles settle slowly about 2 mm1000 years Turbidities The particles moved by turbidity currents They mix with terrigenous and pelagic sediments Oozes Deep sea sediment containing at least 30 biogenous material They can be siliceous or calcareous Calcium Carbonate Compensation Depth CCD A place where the rate at which calcerous sediments are supplied to the seabed equals the rate at which those sediments dissolve Below this level calcium carbonate dissolves but siliceous ooze survives The Magnetic Field Purpose It deflects space radiation from solar winds coming into the atmosphere up towards the North Pole This creates the Northern Lights What generates the magnetic field Because the Earth s core is in constant motion this creates electric currents What will happen when the poles reverse Poles are expected to reverse every 200000 years Some solar and galactic radiation will hit the earth and there will be multiple poles in places where more people live This could cause a rise in cancer rates but the Northern Lights will be able to be seen all around the Earth


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