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by: Dedrick Vandervort


Dedrick Vandervort
GPA 3.66

C. Lindau

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C. Lindau
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This 29 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dedrick Vandervort on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to OCS 1005 at Louisiana State University taught by C. Lindau in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/222876/ocs-1005-louisiana-state-university in Oceanography at Louisiana State University.




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Date Created: 10/13/15
MARINE PLANTS THE CAPTURE AND FLOW OF ENERGY Nearly all the energy used by living organisms is derived directly or indirectly from sunlight Light energy sun trapped by chlorophyll in organismsproducers certain bacteria algae green plants9chemical energy9build simple carbohydratesfood9used by plant or eaten by animalsother organisms consumers CAPTURING ENERGY Pigment Chlorophyll transforms light energy into chemical bond energy manufacture carbohydrate food molecules Carbohydrates used by plants for chemical synthesis growth reproduction Photosynthesis process where light energy used to synthesize organic molecules rich in stored energy General Formula for Photosynthesis Plants sunlight 6C02 6H20 6 602 carbon dioxide water yields glucose carbohydrate oxygen 1 larger molecules formed from smaller ones 2 02 byproduct of reaction Photosynthesis primary method of primary production Chemosynthesis synthesis of organic compounds from inorganic compounds organisms used stored energy in inorganic substances such as sulfur ammonia amp hydrogen Animals must eat photosynthesizers to gain an adequate food supply Harvest energy Respiration cellular breaks down carbohydrates RESPIRATION CSH1206 602 6602 6H20 chemical energy glucose oxygen carbon dioxide water energy 1 Large molecules being broken down 2 Energy liberated used for metabolism All organisms plants amp animals carry out respiration o Autotrophs respire as they photosynthesize they use some of the carbohydrates and oxygen as oduce Beginning products of photosynthesis are the end products of respiration and visa versa FEEDING TROPHIC RELATIONSHIPS A Primary Producers or Autotrophs selfnourishment make own food photosynthetic amp chemosynthetic organisms B Heterotrophs organisms such as animals that must consume other organisms because they are unable to synthesize own food molecules Trophic Pyramid openocean food web Trophic level Feeding Steps 6 Man Man 5 Tuna Tuna top consumer 10 kg 4 Medium fish Midsize fish consumers 100 kg 3 Small fish Small fish amp larvae secondary consumer 1000 kg 2 Small herbivores Zooplankton primary consumer 10000 kg 1 Primary producers Phytoplankton primary producers For each kg of tuna 10 kg of midsize fish must be consumed and 100 kg of small fish Mass of consumers becomes smaller toward top of pyramid 10 of consumed energy is stored in consumer39s flesh the rest is lost as heat and work by organisms Each trophic level 1I10 the mass of the level directly below Primary producers through consumers form a complex food web a group of organisms linked together by complex feeding relationships PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY OCEAN expressed in g carbon bound into organic material per square meter of ocean surface area per year g Clm2lyr phytoplankton accounts for 9096 of oceanic carbohydrate production Seaweeds contribute 25 Chemosynthetic organisms 25 Total ocean productivity ranges from 75 to 150 g Clm2lyr A marine total 3550 billion metric tons of carbon bound per year Approximately equal to B terrestrial productivity 5070 billion metric tons per year However total plant biomass mass of living tissue Oceans 12 billion metric tons Land GOO1000 billion metric tons MEASURE PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY Autotrophs o Seems easy to calculate since all organisms are dependent on primary productivity the mass of living tissue biomass in the area should seem directly proportional to productivity A dense population oftiny drifting autotrophs a high biomass would interfere with light penetration therefore the autotrophs would manufacture carbohydrates slowly an productivity would be low In contrast a sparse population of drifting autotrphs a low biomass might encounter ideal conditions for photosynthesis and produce carbohydrates at a rapid rate Small animals might also immediately consume this production and keep the biomass at low levels but the productivity would be high 1 Use radioactive C14 tagged H14CO3 carbon is tagged and monitored through photosynthesis process in marine organisms o Carbon14 behaves chemically in the same way as the much more common carbon12 0 Because carbon14 is radioactive its progress through photosynthesis can be monitored 0 One ofthe ions formed when carbon dioxide dissolves in seawater is bicarbonate The scientists tag the carbon in bicarbonate and add known amounts of radioactive bicarbonate to two bottles of seawater One bottle is exposed to light and photosynthesis and respiration take place The other bottle is shielded from light so only respiration occurs 0 The amount of radioactive carbon incorporated into carbohydrates is measured when the organisms are filtered out of the samples The radioactivity is measured and productivity calculated as rate of production RL RD X M R X t R total radioactivity added to the sample t number of hours of incubation RL radioactive count in the light bottle sample RD radioactive count in the dark bottle sample M total mass of all forms of carbon dioxide in the sample in milligrams of carbon per cubic meter Productivity is expressed as the amount of carbon in milligrams of carbon bound or fixed in new carbohydrate per volume of water in cubic meters per unit time per hour This data can be extrapolated to provide the amount of carbon fixed in the water column per square meter or surface per day gCmzlday 0 light bottle to dark bottle technique difference in carbon uptake measure of gross productivity done over depth 0 Researchers collect identical water samples from known depths place the samples into pairs of identical transparent and opaque bottles and then suspend an array of bottles from a buoy The transparent bottles admit light the opaque bottles block it o The difference in uptake of carbon in each pair of bottles over time gives an indication ofthe gross rate of productivity at each depth 2 Measure chlorophyll content of ocean from satellites 0 Because the amount of chlorophyll present is directly related to the rate of photosynthesis chlorophyll content is a good indicator of productivity Factors that limit productivity limiting factors a physical or biological necessity whose presence in inappropriate amounts limits the normal actions of an organism in this case production of carbohydrates Photosynthetic Autotrophs Require ocean 1 water no problem 2 Carbon dioxide no problem 3 Inorganic nutrients can be limiting 4 Sunlight can be limiting depth Inorganic nutrients required to 1 construct large organic molecules that make productivity possible 2 construct skeletons or protective shells o Nonconservative nutrients nutrients that change in concentration with biological activity After a period of rapid phytoplankton growth a phenomenon occurs called plankton m when ocean surface waters are depleted of nonconservative nutrients such as nitrate phosphate iron and silicate Lack of nutrients most common factor limiting primary productivity 0 Valuable nutrients incorporated into the bodies of dead organisms tend to sink below the sunlit zone Photosynthetic productivity cannot continue unless the upwelling of deep water returns these nutrients to the surface The opportunity for exchange of nutrientdepleted surface water and nutrientrich deep water is relatively high where there is little or no thermocine Because of the stability ofthe horizontal layers upwelling is uncommon in the tropical ocean except in the equatorial Pacific or in areas where currents impinge on interrupting islands or continents Sunlight Too little light limits productivity 0 Very little primary productivity below 330 ft 100 meters too much light is also a problem quantity Too much light limits productivity 0 Light right at the surface area is often strong enough to overwhelm the photosynthetic chemistry of some photosynthesizes especially diatoms Quality color of light important Chlorophyllgreen pigment absorbs best in red and violet wavelength Chlorophyll looks green because it reflects green light 0 Red and infrared wavelengths are effectively absorbed near the ocean surface down to about 3 meters Phytoplankton stay near the surface to absorb read like and primary productivity is thus highest in this top part of the euphotic zone Some marine plants can live in ocean depths of over 250 meters How They have special accessory pigments that can absorb the dim blue light at depth and transfer energy to adjacent chlorophyll molecules masking pigments Accessory pigments may be Brown tan olive green or red Gives seaweeds their characteristic color Absence of accessory pigments allows the bright green of chlorophyll to shine through PLANKTON 0 not a collective natural category which implies an ancestral evolutionary relationship but more of a common ecological connection a lifestyle Phytoplankton members of plankton community Plankton quotwanderingquot organisms drift or swim weakly go where the ocean currents go 1 can move vertically in water 2 cannot move laterally consistently in ocean plankton organisms large diversity Large giant drifting jellyfish with tentacle 8 meters long down to microscopic organisms phytoplankton and arrowworms mollusks and crustaceans Plankton contains many different plantlike species and virtually every major group of animals 0 plankters members of the plankton community Collecting and Studying plankton Research Vessel Meteor 19251926 used plankton nets but very small plankton slips through net 0 Plankton nets conical nets made of nylon or Dacron cloth woven in a fine interlocking pattern to assure consistent spacing between threads Because the small plankton slip through this method requires either concentration of water samples by centrifugation or entrapment by a filter filtering is used most common 0 Phytoplankton the Autotrophs quotpant39 Mostly singlecelled drifting photosynthesizers plantlike organisms Critical to life of earth 1 contribution to food webs 2 generation of 02 Account for 40 of the food made by photosynthesis on Earth 8 MAJOR TYPES OF PHYTOPLANKTON A Diatoms dominant and best studied 5600 species Larger species barely visible to the unaided eye Most are round some are elongated branched or triangular Diatom name means quotto cut throughquot reference to perforation patterns 0 These perforation patterns are located on their rigid cell walls called frustules Consist 95 of silica gives it its heaviness and glassy look Also aids in photosynthesis by acting as a protective window Consists of two closely matched halves called valves which fit together like a well made gift box Inside of the valves lies the highly efficient photosynthesis machine Diatoms 55 very high of sun energy to carbohydrate chemical bonds one of the most efficient energy conversion rates known Diatoms store energy as fatty acids amp oils compounds that are lighter than their equivalent volume of water and assist in flotation 0 they need aid in flotation because they are denser than the water around them and they need to stay afloat so they can be near the sunlight for photosynthesis Diatoms have chlorophyll and accessory pigments for more effective light absorption Xanthophylls accessory pigments yellow or brown pigments Diatoms reproduce by dividing in half and drifting apart amp auxospores Dividing in half asexual reproduction the new valve is generated within the old one during division This causes the average size ofthe individuals in the population become smaller and smaller with time 0 When the cells become too small their ratio of glass to living tissue becomes higher and they become too heavy to float This is solved by sexual reproduction During sexual reproduction an auxospore a naked cell without valves is generated If conditions are favorable for growth the auxospore will expand to the diatom s original size form two valves and begin the cycle anew B Dinoflagellates Most are autotrophs Most live free in water but some live within the tissues of other organisms Most have two whiplike projections flagella located in channels grooved in their protective outer cell wall of cellulose 0 One flagella drives the organism forward and the other rotates it in the water 0 This allows them to adjust their orientation and vertical position to make the best possible photosynthic opportunity or to obtain nutrients from upper levels Widely distributed and solitary organisms 0 Rarer form colonies Reproduce simple fission 0 During reproduction the cellulose covering that surrounds most species splits and the single cell divides in half Each daughter then replaces the missing portion of covering Responsible for quotred tidequot red coloring in ocean e so numerous that the water turns a rusty red because light is reflecting from the accessory pigment within each cell Bioluminescence the process by which energy from a chemical reaction is transformed into light energy 0 Compound luciferin is oxidized by enzyme luciferase and bluegreen light is emitted 0 Not accompanied by a release of heat so the organism does not overheat in the oxidation process Produce potent toxins by some species to filter feeders oysters clams scallops mussels toxic to man not filter feeders C Coccolithophores singlecelled autotrophs covered with disks of calcium carbonates coccoliths fixed to the outside of their cell wall 0 Live near the ocean surface in brightly lighted areas 0 Their translucent covering of coccoliths may act as a sunshade to prevent absoption of too much light 0 Highly concentrated in the Mediterranean and Sargasso seas 0 May make the water appear milky or chalky in high numbers 0 ccoliths can also build seabed deposits of ooze famous White cliffs of Dover in England D Silicoflagellates internal support structures made of silica E Most other types of phytoplankton Very small and called nanoplankton dwarf or picoplankton pico one trillionth May contribute much more to primary productivity than previously thought THE EUPHOTIC ZONE Most of biological productivity of ocean occurs in the upper half of the photic zone area near surface called euphotic zone good light less than 2 of world39s ocean volume 0 The deeper a phytoplankter s position is the less light it receives Euphotic zone marine plants trap more energy than they use Compensation depth phytoplankton not for zooplankton 0 Compensation depth At a certain depth the production of carbohydrates and oxygen by photosynthesis through a days time will exactly equal the consumption of carbohydrates and oxygen by respiration The breakeven depth Usually corresponds to the depth to which about 1 of surface light penetrates it marks the bottom of the euphoric zone Compensation depth changes with sun angle turbidity surface turbulence and other actors Compensation depth always below depth of greatest productivity Producers can still make a profit between the depth of greatest productivity and the compensation depth If a producer slips below its compensation depth for more than a few days it will consume its carbohydrate reserves and dies Diatoms have a deeper compensation depth that dinoflagellates because of their greater efficiency Open tropical seas have the deepest potential compensation depths but these regions are not generally productive because of nutrient defiencies Global quot39 quot quot of Plankton l 39 quot quot Oxygen minimum zone oxygen depleted by the animals and not replaced by phytoplankton also decomposition of biological debris Photic zone sunlit layer of water at the ocean39s surface in tropics extends 200 meters midlatitude water extends down to 100 meters more abundant organisms A Euphotic Zone upper part of photic zone sufficient light for plant production Photosynthesis gt respiration Carbohydrate production gt carbohydrate uptake B Dysphotic zone lower part of photic zone insufficient light for photosynthesis GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF PLANKTON PRODUCTIVITY For the most part distribution of phytoplankton corresponds to distribution of major nutrients 1 Near shore production primary production nearly always higher than open ocean because nutrient levels are highest near the continents due to coastal upwelling land runoff plankton most abundant there and production 2 In open ocean o Tropics water generally deficient in surface nutrients due to strong thermocline which discourages vertical mixing necessary to bring up nutrients from the depths Tropic oceans away from land Nearly devoid of visible plankton Tropical coral reefs exceptions to the general rule of low tropical productivity Productive because autotrophic dinoflagellates live within the tissues ofthe coral animals and don t drift as plankton Also nutrients are made available by coastal upwelling and by the coral s own metabolism Nutrients are circled tight within the reef and are not lost to sinking 0 Polar regions Winter months the low sun angle reduced light penetration due to ice cover amp weeks or months of darkness severely limit productivity Summer months 24hour daylight a lack of surface ice and the presence of upwelled nutrients leads to plankton blooms Booms don39t last because nutrients are rapidly removed due to the sun being at a critical angle for only a few weeks Antarctic more productive than Arctic because Arctic Ocean is surrounded by landmasses that limit water circulation and nutrient upwelling nutrients depleted quickly Southern ocean Antarctic enriched by water upwelling rich in nutrients higher productivity The rich mixture is stirred by the Antarctic Circumpolar current 0 Temperate and Subpolar Zones Greatest productivity of any open ocean area due to dependable light moderate nutrient supply high productivity pointing west from South America and Africa along the equator are a result ofwindpropelled upwelling due to Ekman transport on either side ofthe geographical equator 0 During a Particular Season North temperate Higher of the two peaks Indicates plankton bloom in spring caused by increasing illumination Smaller of the two peaks Northern fall bloom caused by nutrients moving toward the surface ZOOPLANKTON THE HETEROTROPHS o heterotrophic plankton the planktonic organisms that eat the primary producers Collectively called zooplankton Most numerous primary consumers of the ocean Graze on phytoplankton cyanobacteria diatoms dinoflagellates etc About 10 being photoplankton Copepods most abundant zooplankton 0 Account for 70 of individuals 0 Tiny shrimplike animals 05mm o Copepods are crustaceans a group that includes crabs lobster and shrimp Many zooplankton12 cm range Largest drifters are giant jellyfish bells more than 35 meters in diameter 12 ft Macroplankton larger than 1 cm Holoplankton zooplankton that spend their whole lives in the plankton community 0 The most numerous forms of both phytoplankton and zooplankton Meroplankton temporary visitors to the community who will later adopt a benthic or nektonic lifestyle Krill one ofthe ocean s most important zooplankters o the keystone of the Antarctic ecosystem Thumbsized shrimplike crustacean Mostly grazes on the abundant diatoms of the southern polar ocean Krill are eaten in tremendous numbers by seabirds squids fishes and whales Krill travel in great schools that can extend over several square miles and collectively exceed the biomass of Earth s entire human population They behave more like schooling fish than planktonic crustaceans Their primary swimming mode is horizontal not vertical OOOO Foraminifera related to amoebas amp like amoebas they extend long protoplasmic filaments to snare food 0 Most have calcium carbonate shells Oxygen minimum zone created by the decomposition of falling biological debris and the activity of zooplankton 0 Below the welllighted surface zone 0 oxygen is depleted by the animals there and not replaced by phytoplankton 0 Some species of zooplankton make nightly migrations from the oxygen minimum zone toward the darkened surface layer to feed on the smaller organisms drifting there PLANKTON AND FOOD WEBS Zooplankton and other animals eat phytoplankton o Phytoplankton supply both food and 02 Largest marine animals whale sharks and baleen whales concentrate zooplankton from the water and consume it in vast quantities filter feeders o the zooplankton they eat are not usually the primary consumers but the somewhat larger secondary consumers usually crustaceans such as krill that have themselves fed on the microscopic primary consumers LARGER MARINE PLANTS Attached autotrophs protists we call seaweeds account for 25 of ocean39s primary productivity Most marine autotrophs large or small are algae Algae o autotrophs possessing chlorophyll o capable of photosynthesis 0 But lack vessels to conduct sap they are nonvascular plants Unicellular algae singlecelled diatoms and dinoflagellates Multicellular algae large seaweed reaching 62 meters in length Algae are nonvascular they do not have vessels 0 Algae require the same four ingredients for photosynthesis as vascular plants Carbon dioxide Sunlight Water and Inorganic nutrients but in their case the ingredients are already present in one location so they vessels and flowing sap are not necessary Some types of algae form underwater forests others grow in isolation Algae bodies Flexible Easily able to absob shock Resistant to abrasion Streamlined to reduce water drag Very strong OOOOO Algae Surfaces are often covered by a slick mucilaginous material that o Lubricates them as they move 0 Retards drying o Deters grazing animals None grow below euphotic zone because they depend on photosynthesis SEAWEED 0 Large marine autotrophs suffer no droughts and nearly always have enough carbon dioxide for photosynthesis Assuming suitable nutrient levels and a good foothold only sunlight is required for productivity A seaweed doesn t require strong support structures because it has nearly the same density as the surrounding seawater so more ofthe bulk ca be dedicated to photosynthesis Many species of large seaweed are leaky Carbohydrates and other products of photosynthesis diffuse from their bodies like tea from a teabag Up to half ofthe organic matter they produce can be lost this way 0 0 Structure of Seaweed Nonvascular Vascular Blades fronds Leaves Sti es Stem Holdfast Root Gas bladder None 0 Thallus the body of the organism Composed of the blades stipes and holdfast ay be large or small branching or tufted in sheet for or filamentous encrusting or elongated rounded or pointed 0 Blades symmetrically equipped with photosynthesizing tissue They absorb gases across their entire surface and even participate in reproduction o Stipes Strong photosynthesizing shockabsorbing links tying the blades or sheets or filaments into a unit 0 Holdfast Anchors the seaweed in place and may provide incidental shelter for a rich variety of animal life Does not take up water and nutrients from the substrate as does the vascular root 0 Gas Bladders helps the plant reach up to more light Range in size from tiny grapelike bunches to single volleyballsized floats Accessory pigments light absorbing compounds closely associated with chlorophyll molecules 0 Their presence in autotrophs greatly enhances photosynthesis because they absorb the dim blue light at depth and transfer its energy to the adjacent chlorophyll molecules 0 May be brown tan olivegreen or red They give most marine autotrophs their characteristic color The combination of pigments in a photosynthesizer determines its color and optimal depth distribution 00 CLASSIFICATION OF SEAWEEDS 3 divisions based on color 1 Chlorophyta green algae 0 green color is evidence oftheir lack of accessory pigments and suggests that they live at or near the surface where red light is available 2 Phaeophyta brown algae o Largest of algae 0 Example KeIps o The tan or brown color comes from the accessory pigment fucoxanthin which permits photosynthesis to proceed at greater depths than is possible for the unmasked chlorophytes Most are in temperate and polar habitats poleward ofthe 30 degree latitude lines but a few live in the tropics O 3 Rhodophyta red algae greatest depth dim light accessory pigments biggest group 0 Most of the world s seaweeds are red algae o Smaller and more anatomically and biochemically complex than phaeophys 0 Excel in dim light because of their sophisticated accessory pigments reddish proteins called phycobiins These compounds absorb and transfer enough light energy to power photosynthetic activity at depths where human eyes cannot see light SEAWEED ZONATION Green algae down to 10 meters Brown algae surface to 35 meters Red algae surface to 268 meters Marine Angiosperms advanced vascular plants that reproduce with flowers and seeds ery few angiosperms live in water the advantages conferred by vessels and roots are largely unnecessary in an aquatic environment All live in shallow coastal water They live at the surface where the red light required for photosynthesis is abundant they have 00 no need for accessory pigments and their chlorophyll is unmasked Most prominent Angiosperms O 0 Sea gra I Mangro I I sses Not true grasses but they do have leaves and stems as well as roots capable of extracting nutrients from the substrate They form broad gray or green submerged meadows which support extraordinary rich communities of heterotrophs The life cycle fo sea grasses is much like that of other angiosperms but their stringy pollen is distributed by flowing water rather than by insects or wind Most common seagrass eelgrass Found in the muddy shallows of calm bays and estuaries ofthe US east and west coasts ves tangled masses of trees grow in water near shore estuaries Florida among the world s most widespread Consist primarily of the red mangrove Large flowering plants that are never completely submerged They thrive in the sedimentrich lagoons bays and estuaries of the lndoPacific tropical Africa and the tropical Americas Their distribution depends on the temperature currents and rainfall The sediment in which mangrove trees live must be covered with brackish or salt water for part or all ofthe day Many mangroves avoid taking up salt ions from seawater or they selectively remove salt from sap with saltexcreting cells The fine coastal mud they colonize doesn t provide firm footing so an intricate network of arching prop roots is required for support The strutlike prop roots are supplemented by many smaller roots equipped with breathing pores and air passages Atmospheric oxygen is conducted by these passages to the parts ofthe plant buried in oxygen deficient mud The root system also traps and holds sediments around the plant by interfering with the transport of suspended particles by currents The root complex also forms an impenetrable barrier and safe haven for organisms around the base ofthe tree Mangrove seeds germinate on the trees Ifthe tide is out when the seed drops the force of the fall will plant the seed in the muck where it will continue to grow Ifthe tide is in the seed will drop into the water suspend growth float to a new location and resume growth when it get a foothold in the mud Are seaweeds commercially important YES 0 The mucilaginous material that is so effective in making algal blades slick in lowering friction and in deterring grazers is also harvested and made into an important commercial product called algrin When separated and purified it s long intertwining molecules are used to make adhesives stiffen fabrics suspend oil amp water together in salad dressings manufacture shaving cream prevent the formation of gritty crystals in ice cream and replace fat in beef Marine Animals Animals active multicellular heterotrophs cannot synthesize their own food must depend on primary producers autotrophs for nutrition All animal species encounterthe same basic problems to find food avoid predators and reproduce and all have unique ways to solve these problems through a variety of survival strategies or adaptations to their environment Animals are classified on a hierarchical system based on common ancestry Invertebrates animals without backbones Vertebrates animals with backbones Grouped by similarities in external appearance and internal architecture into groups called Phyla phylum Classification of Marine OrganismsAppendix ORIGIN OF ANIMALS First organisms probably autotrophs photosynthesis Oxygen Revolution caused by 02 released by autotrophs between 2 billion and 400 million years ago Autotrophs changed composition of atmosphere from less than 1 free oxygen to 20 Abundance of free oxygen 1 made aerobic respiration practical animals eating plants taking apart food molecules of plants 2 ozone derived from oxygen helped block dangerous sun rays UV radiation Autotrophs food source plus abundant 02 heterotrophs singlecelled began to prosper in ocean 0 Animals grew in complexity as they became more abundant 0 Instead of drifting apart after reproduction some dividing cells stuck together and formed colonies 0 True animals evolved as these colonies distributed labor among specialized cells eventually increasing the degree of interdependence among cells within the colony o The colonies ceased to be simple aggregations of individuals and began to take on specific architectures for specific tasks Phylum a group of animals that shares similar architecture level of complexity and evolutionary history THE INVERTEBRATES Generally softbodied animals lacking a rigid internal skeleton for muscle attachment 0 many invertebrates possess some sort of hard protective outer covering which can be continuous snail shell or segmented lobster shell 90 of living and fossil animals are invertebrates THE PROTOZOA PHYLUM Singlecelled not technically animals but heterotrophic Protozoa quotfirst animalquot within Kingdom Protista 50000 known species majority are freeliving some are parasitic live on or within a host Nearly all marine species are freeliving Many protozoans move by bending cilia or flexing whiplike flagella Reproduce simple division and sexually Marine examples Foraminfera Radiolarians Amoebas Much of the deepocean floor is covered with calcareous andlor siliceous ooze from remains of foraminfera and radiolarians shells and skeletons 50000 foraminfera shells calcareous are found in a single gram of sediment PHYLUM PORIFERA quotHoles to bearquot Most primitive true animal Sponges 0 10000 species 0 attached 0 found from intertidal zone to abyss 0 Size of bean to a small car 0 Basic shapes Branching o Vaselike o Encrusting All sponges are suspension feeders strain plankton and organic food particles from surrounding waters Have digestive cells no digestive system 0 Water carrying food and oxygen enters the sponge through pores on its surface and is swept toward the exit opening by flagellated collar cells 0 The sticky collars snare food particles drifting past and digestion begins 0 The captured nutrients are distributed to other cells of the organism by wandering amoeboid cells in the body of the sponge Sponges also have no circulatory respiratory or nervous systems Excretion and the movement of gases into and out of the animal occur by simple diffusion A skeletal network of spicules needles of calcium carbonate or glassy silica prevents the internal chambers and canals from collapsmg o a fibrous protein called sponging often serves the same purpose PHYLUM CNIDARIA Stinging quotnettlequot Jellyfish sea anemones corals 9000 species mostly marine Carnivorous animals cnidoblasts Large stinging cells 0 deployed on tentacles that bend or retract toward the mouth 0 each cnidoblast contains a capsule from which a coiled thread is forcefully ejected o the thread can repel an aggressor or penetrate or entangle prey often immobilizing the victim with a toxin Then the prey is drawn into the mouth leading to a saclike digestive cavity Digested food is absorbed by cells of the inner layer and transported to other parts of the animal by migratory cells and by diffusion 0 Because the digestive cavity only has one opening indigestible bones and other wastes are eliminated through the mouth Eat larger zooplankton amp small fish Are built of two layers of cells 0 The gastrodermis inner layer responsible for digestion and reproduction o The epidermis outer layer responsible for capture of prey and protection from attack The layers are connected by a jellylike mesoglea Exhibit radial symmetry body parts radiate from a central axis like spokes of a wheel Sea anemones amp coral attach to rocks Jellyfish swim freely No cnidarians posses a definite head or concentration of sensory receptors but a primitive network of nerves permits some species to respond to stimuli Depend on diffusion to move wastes and gases they have no excretory or circulatory systems Two forms body plans 0 Medusa bell with trailing tentacles armed with cnicloblasts which catch prey predatory animals swim by the rhythmic contraction of their bellshaped bodies example jellyfish Some can have bell diameter of 34 meters with tentacles 18 meters long Sea wasp jellyfish can kill a human within 3 minutes o Polyp 0 Sea anemones have no skeleton amp attach firmly to substrate or burrow into it with a sticky basal disc on which they can slide slowly o Corals contain a calcareous skeleton covered by living tissue and are permanently cemented in place The coral animals themselves construct the reefs by secreting hard skeletons of aragonite a fibrous crystalline form of calcium carbonate The matrix of cupshaped individual skeletons secreted by coral animals gives the colony its characteristic shape Tropical reefbuilding corals are hermatypic mound builderquot Their bodies contain masses of singlecelled symbiotic dinoflagellates called zooxanthellae 0 They carry on photosynthesis absorb waste products grow and divide within their coral host the coral animals provide a safe and stable environment and a source of carbon dioxide and nutrients o the zooxanthellae reciprocate by providing oxygen carbohydrates and the alkaline pH necessary to enhance the rate of calcium carbonate deposition Because of the needs of its zoxanthellae hermatypic corals depend on light and warmth o Reef corals grow best in brightly lighted water about 5 to 10 meters deep 0 The animals are protected from the harmful effects of bright sunlight by a mucous coating that contains an ultravioletblocking suntan lotionquot and by their habit of feeding at night Hermatypic corals also prefer water of normal or slightly elevated salinity o Coral animals are highly susceptible to osmotic shock and exposure to fresh water is rapidly fatal 0 Thus reefs growing in shallow water have a flat upper surface because rain is lethal The problems with cnidaria 0 Their blindsac digestive system allows only one batch of food to be processed at a time o feeding opportunities arising during digestion cannot easily be accommodated the lack of a distinct head with a concentration of sense organs is a drawback as is the absence of circulatory respiratory and excretory systems only having two structural cell layers limits the complexity of systems and structures that can form within the organisms WORM PHYLA Worm body exhibits bilateral symmetry Body has a left side and a right side that are mirror images 0 0 Nearly all have some concentration of sensory tissue in what may be termed a head Many have flowthrough digestive systems and systems to circulate fluids and eliminate waste Some are efficient parasites but most are freeliving o A few burrow in cavities others roam the seabed or lurk under rocks PHYLUM PLATYHELMINTHES quotFlat wormquot 0 Flat worms simplest 0 Most marine flat worms are freeliving 0 They can be found on the shady underside of intertidal rocks or sharing colonies or burrows with other animals Central nervous systems 0 O In some species a complex of nerve cells serving as a rudimentary brain connects the animal s simple nervous system to a pair of lightsensitive eyespots The eyespots are small pigmented cups that can sense only the presence or absence of light Critical for an animal that must avoid light to prevent overheating or detection 0 Predators and scavengers Larger flatworms are necessarily thin because they lack a true respiratory and excretory system 0 Gases must be exchanged and wastes eliminated by diffusion through the animal s surface so no cell can be more than a few diameters from the outside PHYLUM NEMATODA quotThreadquot 0 First animals in our society that possess a flowthrough digestive system mouth and anus o Roundworms 12000 known species freeliving and microscopic In garden soil and marine sediment 0 4000000 individuals in some soft sediments 1m2 x 4cm Freeliving worms cannot become parasitic PHYLUM ANNELIDA quotRingquot 0 most advanced worm o Metamerism Body divided into a number of similar rings or segments 0 A convenient strategy for increasing the size of an animal simply by adding nearly identical units 0 Each segment can have its own circulatory excretory nervous muscular and reproductive systems 0 Some segments such as those forming the head are specialized for specific tasks 0 Example garden earthworm o Polychaetaclass most important and largest group of marine annelids 0 115 cm 0 brightly colored 0 have pairs of bristly projections extending from each segment 0 Some burrow and devour sediments or move freely over the bottom some are sedentary stay in one place a long time Sedentary construct fixed parchmentlike or calcareous tubes from which only parts of their heads emerge Mobile have welldeloped heads with prominent sense organs and they can function as efficient predators ADVANCED INVERTEBRATES PHYLUM MOLLUSCA quotSoftbodiedquot 0 80000 species 0 Second in size to Arthropodamost successful phylum on earth 0 Clams snails octopuses squid 0 Most mollusks are marine and have external or internal shell 1 bilateral symmetry and generally have obvious heads 2 flowthrough digestive tracts 3 well developed nervous system Three molluscan classes 1 Class Gastropoda quotStomachfootquot the snails o Largest class of mollusks 0 Usually inhabit large external shells where they can seek refuge in case of danger 0 foot amp head protrude from shell 0 Adds to and enlarges the opening as it grows o The shell is frequently coiled to compress its mass and allow for easier maneuverability o The shell itself is secreted in three principal layers A fibrous outer covering that may serve to distribute shock A strong crystalline layer of calcium carbonate CaCOa to provide strength An inner layer of smooth CaC03 to provide nonabrasive surroundings for the resident 0 Most are found wandering on rocky bottoms or other firm substrates 2 Class Bivalvia Twodoor clams scallops oysters mussels 0 Use shell for protection 0 suspension feeders on bottom 0 burrowing species did with a strong muscular foot and extend their siphons to the surface to obtain water and eject wastes 3 Class Cephalopoda quotHeadfootquot Nautiluses octopuses amp squids 0 Most highly evolved mollusks Head surrounded by a foot divided into tentacles Nautiluses large coiled external shell Squid thin vestige of shell internal Octopuses no shell 0 Large range of movement and swimming Can move by 0 Creeping across the bottom 0 Swimming with special fins 0 Squirting jets of water from an interior cavity 0 To catch prey Suction cups on tentacles to catch prey then use horny beaks to tear or bite the fresh of the prey Squid largest invertebrates Octopuses most intelligent 0 both can release ink clouds to confuse predators Some eject a kind of dummy of coagulated ink that s a rough duplicate of their size and shape so that they can run away from predators PHYLUM ARTHROPODA quotJoint footquot The most successful of Earth s animal phyla occupying the greatest variety of habitats consuming the greatest quantities of food and existing in almost unimaginable numbers 110 million species including lobsters shrimp crabs krill barnacles Important Characteristics 0 Exoskeleton strong lightweight formfitted external covering for support 0 most important 0 made of chitin tough nitrogenrich carbohydrate may be strengthened by calcium carbonate three layers serve to waterproof the covering tent it a protective color and make it resilient and strong fits like a finely tailored suit or armor muscles attached to exoskeleton to move the appendages must be shed or molted at regular intervals for growth opposite of humans An aquatic arthropod slowly substitutes body mass for water held in the tissues between molts When molting it suddenly takes on water from outside the body expanding its tissues without growing in muscle mass and the shell splits and falls away 0 Striated muscle a quick strong lightweight form of muscle that makes rapid movement and flight possible 0 Articulation bend appendages at specific points joints 0 There are no ballandsocket joints in arthropods instead each joint along an appendage moves through a different plane to ensure a full range of motion Class Crustacea quotShell or rindquot 0 has about 30000 marine species Shrimp crabs copepods lobsters krill 0 their bodies usually have between 16 and 20 segments 0 About 70 of all zooplankton are minute crustaceans graze on diatoms amp dinoflagellates Class lnsecta 0 largest class of arthropods but poorly represented at sea Only one marine species and five openocean species are knownquotwaterstriddersquot 0 Most are on land Krill thumb or beansize food supply of large whales Largest lobster caught in 1949 weighed 48 lbs King Crab 12 ft leg span PHYLUM ECHINODERMATA quotHedgehog skinquot Lack brains Have a radially symmetrical body plan based on five sections or projections Move slowly Include only two known parasitic representatives OOOO Four most important classes 0 Class Asteroidea Sea stars 5sided starshaped Arms have spiny projections on top and delicate tube feet beneath Sea stars tube feet work like suction cups work with watervascular system to open clams or mussels Watervascular system a complex of waterfilled canals valves and projections used for locomotion and feeding Operates like a hydraulic power system The plumbing of the system can transmit forces generated by muscles at one side of the sea star to arms on the other side 0 Class Ophiuroidea brittle stars Have long slender arms Called brittle starsquot because of their unusual strategy for evading capture if grasped by a predator a brittle star will often detach its arm and escape and later regenerate the arm Longitudinal grooves on the underside of each arm enable some species of brittle stars to locate food particles and transfer them by cilia to the mouth Other species wave their arms through the water to capture plankton on sticky strands of mucus strung between adjacent arm spines 0 Class Echinoidea Sea urchins amp sand dollars Sea urchin prickly appearance 0 Sand dollar smooth surface 0 Urchins can feed either by taking bits of food into the mouth with complex grasping chewing jaws or simply by absorbing food molecules into the mucous layer that covers their bodies and flows toward the mouth 0 Class Holothuroidea sea cucumbers THE CHORDATES PHLYUM CHORDATA 0 Most advanced animal phylum Posses a stiffening notochord a tubular dorsal nervous system and gill slits behind the oral opening and some time in their development 0 Critical in evolution because it permitted a more complex embryonic development by providing a rigid scaffold on which the developing embryo could be constructed and it provided an internal mechanical foundation for skeletal and muscle development Invertebrate chordates o 5 of 45000 species 0 lose their notochord as they develop Vertebrate chordates o 95 o retain notochord or the vertebral column that forms from it o fishes reptiles birds mammals O O O Invertebrate chordates o 2 of interest 0 Tunicates or sea squirts suspension feeders superficially look and function like sponges common name comes from an extraordinarily strong and flexible tunic outer covering filter water with a special mucous plankton net capable of trapping a wide variety of microscopic food particles 0 the mucus is generated by a long glandular seam on one side of a basketlike interior structure the pharynx it is then driven by tiny cilia around to the other side and is collected and swallowed by an esophagus leading to a small stomach Salps related zooplanktonic forms act almost like miniature jet engines taking in water at one end filtering it and ejecting it from the other end to force themselves ahead 0 Amphioxus sharp at both ends small semitransparent animal buries itself in sand in shallow marine waters worldwide a transitional form an invertebrate with some vertebrate features swims by undulating its body in a fishlike motion 0 O feeds by combing the water for microscopic organisms the animal s importance lies in its welldeveloped dorsal tubular nerve cord very similar to the spinal cord of a vertebrate Vertebrate Chordates 0 Members possess backbones 50000 species 0 Differfrom the invertebrate chordates by having an internal skeleton of calcified bone or cartilage or both 0 This scaffold allows uninterrupted support during growth O o It also protects vital organs and provides a foundation to which muscles may attach to permit the strength and rapid responses characteristic of active animals the central nervous system is partially enclosed within the backbone which extends from the skull the pairs of nerves passing between the vertebral segments allow rapid and efficient communication between brain and body fishmost successful amp amphibiansleast successful Fish 0000 0000 o more species and more individuals than all others vertebrates combined 0 oldest group of vertebrates live in water Possess gills for breathing Fins for swimming Most are coldblooded ectotherms o lncapable of generating and maintaining a steady internal temperature from metabolic heat therefore the internal body temperature of a fish is usually the same as that of the surrounding environment Over 30000 species 40 live in freshwater 60 live in seawater Three Living Fish Classes very different 0 Class Agnatha hagfish and lampreys Lack jaws No paired appendages to aid movement Thick snakelike bodies 0 Pierced by gill slits and in some species the openings of slime glands Round sucking mouths are surrounded by organs sensitive to touch and smell Eyes are degenerate and covered by thick skin The body ends in a flattened tail that undulates to provide forward motion Skin consists of resilient fibrous layers Hagfish 0 Live in colonies on continental shelf sediments o Burrow for polychaete worms or scavenge for weak or dead organisms o Abrade the soft inner flesh and internal organs of their prey with a rasping tongue o If a piece of food is too large a hagfish will tie it s flexible body into a loose knot pass the knot toward the head and brace against the prey for a better tearing grip o Defends itself by producing copious quantities of clinging slime from glades along the side of its body Lampreys o Posses a toothed funnelshaped mouth with which they can wear a passage into another vertebrate 0 Continuous sucking on this seeping wound provides nourishmen Class chondrichthyes Sharks skates rays Skeletons made of tough elastic tissue called cartilage True bone is entirely absent Have jaws with teeth paired fins and often active lifestyles Very active 350 species of sharks 0 Over 80 of shark species are less than 2 meters most are not dangerous 0 Great White Shark most dangerous 0 Up to 7 meters in length and weigh up to 1400 kg 0 Largest warm water wale shark 0 Over 18 meters in length and 41000 kg 0 feeds on plankton 320 species of rays 0 Have a flattened appearance with spreading pectoral fins attached to their bodies to form a triangular or rounded wing like 0 shape They glide through the water with a slow rhythmic flapping of their fins Neither sharks or rays have gas bladders and both are slightly negatively buoyant they will slowly sink if they stop swimming Nearly all are marine o Sharks tend to favor swimming through open water 0 Rays tend to be found on or near the bottom Class Osteichthyes bony 27000 plus species of bony fishes 0 about 90 of all living fishes are contained within the order Teleostei perfect bonequot 0 includes cod tuna halibut perch Have hard strong lightweight skeleton for support Gasfilled bladders 0 Assist in maintain neutral buyoyancy Speed to avoid predators Highly effective camouflage Independently movable fins 0 For wellcontrolled swimming and communication Great economic importance Over 70 million metric tons of bony fish are taken from the ocean annually for human consumption PROBLEMS OF FISHES 0 Movement shape amp propulsion 0 Water is about 1000 times as dense and 100 times as viscous as air and it impedes motion more effectively at low speeds o viscosity a fluid s internal resistance to flow Smaller animals The problem is drag the resistance to movement of an organism induced by the fluid through which it swims o The amount of drag depends on the viscosity of the water and the speed shape and size of the moving organism Larger animals the problem is turbulence water s resistance to flow around the swimmer and in the swimmer s trailing wake tends to slow the animal 0 Can be solved by streamlined shapes to make propulsion more effective 0 Forward thrust comes from body and fins muscle force Muscles within slender flexible fish cause the body to undulate in S shaped waves that pass down the body from head to tail in snakelike motion 0 the animal pushes forward against the water much as a snake pushed against the ground 0 not efficient form of movement fish with a inflexible body have a hinged scythlike tail to undulate rapidly through a shorter distance 0 more efficient o the fish s body can be shorter and can face more squarely in the direction of travel the drag losses are lower 0 Swordfish and Marlin can reach 75 mph in short bursts 0 Maintenance of Level 0 Fish tissue density greater than water ocean o Welldeveloped swim bladders below spiral columns provides enough buoyancy to keep from sinking 0 Fast bony fishes lack swim bladders because they must be able to chase prey between depth 0 Gas Exchange the process of bringing oxygen into the body and eliminating carbon dioxide 0 Take in water containing dissolved oxygen then pump it past fine gill membranes and exhaust it through rearfacing gill slits 0 High dissolved 02 concentration diffuses from the water into the animal blood 0 High C02 concentration in animals dissolved in blood causes C02 to diffuse through the gill membranes to the outside 0 gill membranes themselves are arranged in thin filaments and plates efficiently packaged into a very small space Water and blood circulate in opposite directions which increases transfer efficiency 0 Osmotic Considerations 0 Body fluids of fish are about 13 as saline as seawater lose water to ocean o Hypotonic to ocean lower concentration than surrounding ocean salinity 0 Use osmoregulation to adjust their internal salt concentration if not they would die o Bony fish actively drink seawater eliminate excess salts through salt secreting cells in gills o Feeding and defense 0 Sight very important sees prey or avoid being eaten 0 Hearing welldeveloped lateralline system ability to detect low frequency vibrations o detects prey sharks etc 0 Defense mechanisms welladvanced Armor plating sea horses lnflate with water puffer fish erect bristly spines to scare predator Countershading color blending method where dark tops and silvery bottoms make fish less obvious to predators above or below Cryptic coloration camouflage themselves change color 0 Schooling behavior about 25 of all bony species school protection in numbers confuse larger prey AMPHIBIANS Frogs toads salamanders 0 mainly 39 39 ne 39 39 arine o Depend on the constant flow of water through their skins into their bodies to provide the fluid for the formation of urine to remove nitrogenous wastes 0 Skin is too permeable to permit them to colonize the marine envioronment Marine Reptiles Sea Turtles Marine Crocodiles Sea Snakes 1 Ectothermic coldblooded 2 Breathe air with lungs 3 Covered with scales 4 Salt glands to concentrate and excrete excess salts from body fluids 5 Most require warmth of tropics Sea turtles o eight species 0 no predators except humans Crocodiles 0 only one marine species 0 hunt in packs Sea snakes o 50 species 0 most advanced marine reptile 0 all highly venomous 0 give birth in the water Marine Birds Seabirds are about 3 of known bird species 0 Endotherms warmblooded 0 Most live in southern hemisphere 0 Special saltsecreting glands to eliminate the excess salt taken in with their food 4 Groups 0 Albatrosses o wingspan up to 12 ft 0 Pelicans 0 Can neither walk or swim so must feed on flying fish caught during flight on small squid or fish obtained while hovering or on regurgitated food stolen from other seabirds o Gull o 115 species 0 Maneuverable and efficient flyers o Buoyant swimmers 0 Good runners due to long legs at the middle of the body 0 Penguins 0 can39t fly 0 native only to Southern Hemisphere Marine Mammals Most advanced vertebrate group 3 Groups of Marine Mammals 0 Order Cetacea porpoises dolphins whales 0 Order Carnivora seals sea lions walruses sea otter 0 Order Sirenia manatees dugongs All 3 groups have mammalian traits 1 Endothermic 2 Breathe air 3 Give birth to young that suckle 4 Have hair at some time in lives All marine mammals share four common features 0 Streamlined body shape for swimming 0 Thin stiff flippers and tail flukes situated at the rear of the animal drive it forward and similarly shaped forelimbs act as rudders for directional control 0 Drag is reduced by a slippery skin or hair covering 0 Generate internal body heat 0 from high metabolic rate and conserve this heat with fat andor fur 0 large size gives them a favorable surfacetovolume ratio with less surface area per unit of volume they lose less heat through the skin 0 Respiratory system modified 0 to collect and retain large quantities of 02 0 Have osmotic adaptations to free marine mammals from requiring fresh water 0 Do not have saltexcreting glands 0 They swallow little water during feeding or at any other time and their skin is impervious to water This coupled with their kidney s ability to excrete a concentrated and highly saline urine permits them to meet their water needs with the metabolic water derived from the oxidation of food Order Cetacea porpoises dolphins whales 0 79 living species 0 Range in size from 6 ft to 110 ft 0 Weigh up to 100000 kg 110 tons 1 Paddleshaped forelimbsused for steering 2 Propelled by horizontal tail flukes 3 Thick layer of oily blubberinsulation buoyancy energy storage 4 Have large brains also thought to form complex family and social groupings 0 Two Suborders of Cetacea 1 Odontoceti o Toothedwhales 0 active predators 0 very intelligent o Orca dolphins porpoises smaller whales 0 Sperm whalelargest toothed whale 0 Search for prey using echolocation 0 Biological equivalent to sonar 0 Can also be loud enough to stun debilitate or even kill their prey 2 Mysticeti suborder 0 Whale bone or Baleen whales 0 Have no teeth 0 Filter feeders o subsist on krill crustacean zooplankton 0 Polar and subpolar waters Mouths contain Baleen triangular plates that are bristly amp hornlike 0 used to filter zooplankton 0 Great Blue Whale 0 largest of all animals 0 requires 3 metric tons of krill each day about 1 million calories per day 0 Very little is known about their social structure intelligence soundproducing abilities navigational skills or physiology 0 Order Carnivora o Suborder Pinnipedia o Seals sea lions walruses 0 Leave the ocean for varying period of time to mate and raise their young 0 Suborder Fissipedia 0 Sea otters and polar bears Sea otterssmallest of marine mammals Order Sirenia o Manatees dugongs 0 Only herbivorous marine mammals 0 Eat sea grasses estuarine plants and marine algae


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