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by: Hiram Kling


Hiram Kling
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H. Huang

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H. Huang
Class Notes
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hiram Kling on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to OCS 1005 at Louisiana State University taught by H. Huang in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/222877/ocs-1005-louisiana-state-university in Oceanography at Louisiana State University.




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Date Created: 10/13/15
Test 1 Notes August 22 o Polynesian migration in the Pacific Ocean 20000 years ago 0 First demonstration of ability and knowledge to navigate transoceanic voyages o The term quotPolynesiaquot means many islands 0 They had the ability to navigate transoceanic voyages utilizing stars clouds wave and wind pattern migrating birds etc o The Library ofAIexandria in Egypt was founded in the third century BC became a repository of maritime records describing the Mediterranean coast 0 The principles of celestial navigation were invented at the Library of Alexandria o Eratosthenes of Cyrene was the second librarian at Alexandria He was the first to calculate the circumference of the Earth He also invented a system of longitude and latitude I he used simple geometric reasoning based on the assumptions that Earth is spherical and that the sun is very far away Using this method he was able to discover the circumference of Earth to within about 8 of its true value 0 Vikings 0 Only notable maritime activity by Europeans during the Dark Ages 476 AD 1000 AD 0 Periodically raided various parts of Europe By 1000 AD the Vikings had colonized in Newfoundland though the colony was later abandoned 0 Chinese Contributions 0 Chinese navigators set out in the 1400s to explore the Indian Ocean Indonesia Africa and the Atlantic Their ships were laden with gifts designed to show China s wealth and degree of civilization The Chinese invented I The central rudder I Watertightcompartments I Sails on multiple masts I Magnetic compass 0 Chinese Ocean Exploration 7 voyages I The largest peacetime ocean exploration ever mounted 0 At least 317 ships and 37000 men 0 Marco Polo from Venice wrote a book known in Italy as the llBook Million about miracles of the worldquot about his journey with his father and uncle to China via the Silk Route Great Silk Road 0 The economically important Silk Road and Spice trade routes became blocked by the Ottoman Empire ca 1452 with the fall of the Byzantine Empire and Constantinople soon spurring exploration motivated initially by the finding of a sea route around Africa and triggering the Age of Discovery 0 Portugal s Prince Henry the Navigator 0 Established a center for seafaring in order to mount expeditions to open a new trading route to Asia 0 Portuguese eventually reach the southern tip of Africa 0 In 1498 Vasco De Gama reached India by sailing around the tip of Africa The Age of Discovery 0 Henry the Navigator explorers under his patronage compiled detailed charts and explored the west coast of Africa 0 Christopher Columbus Spanish quotdiscoveredquot the new world in 1492 Although in reality he never saw the mainland of North America his stories inspired other explorers to follow 0 Ferdinand Magellan Portuguese although Magellan died en route the small surviving portion of his crew circumnavigated the globe in 15191522 by sailing westward from Europe he did this for Spain 0 John Harrison s Chronometer 0 With a magnetic compass and an accurate clock you can find your location at sea 0 James Cook a commander of the British Royal Navy his cruises are considered to be the first scientific ocean exploration and greatly contributed to scientific oceanography Some of the accomplishments of James Cook and his scientists include 0 Verification of calculations of planetary orbits o Charting of New Zealand and the Great Barrier Reef Tonga and Easter Island 0 Initiation of friendly relation with many native populations 0 Sampling marine life land plants and animals 0 Recording data concerning the ocean floor and geological formations 0 Benjamin Franklin published the first map of the Gulf Stream a swift current circulating clockwise in the North Atlantic Ocean in 1770 o Mathew Fontaine Maury 0 quotFather of Physical Oceanographyquot o The Physical Geography of the Sea 1855 o Organized a vast amount of data on wind current and weather recorded in ship logbooks Longitude and Latitude o A third century BC chart showing the system of latitude and longitude developed by Eratosthenes o Longitude problem 0 Earth rotates once in every 24 hours 0 Sun rises from the east and sets in the west 0 Local noon time defined as the time the sun is exactly over your head changes depending on where you are 0 Relative to Greenwich local noon occurs 1 hour late for every 15 degrees westward of Greenwich August 27 Chapter 1 in textbook Big Bang the term used to describe the beginning of the universe probably about 14 billion years ago As the universe expanded it cooled eventually allowing the formation of atoms which then formed galaxies 0 Stars 0 Most of the substance of Earth its oceans and all living things was formed by stars 0 Every chemical element heavier than hydrogen was manufactured and released into space by stars 0 Density 0 An important concept in Oceanography 0 Density is a key concept for understanding the structure of earth 0 Measures the mass per unit volume of a substance 0 Density MassVolume 0 Something that is small but heavy has a high density 0 Something that is light for its size has low density 0 Things that have high density sink while things with low density float 0 Density is expressed as grams per cubic centimeter or kilograms per cubic meter 0 How did water and water vapor form on early Earth 0 The sun stripped away Earth s first atmosphere 0 Gases including water vapor released by the process of outgassing replaced the first atmosphere 0 Water vapor in the atmosphere condensed into clouds 0 After millions of years the clouds cooled enough for water droplets to form 0 Hot rain fell and boiled back into the clouds o Eventually the surface cooled enough for water to collect in basins o Volcanic activity is a major source of the Earth s ocean and atmosphere 0 Outgassing process releases water into Ea rth s surface 0 Comets may have also delivered some of Earth s surface water 0 Earth s atmosphere is 78 Nitrogen 20 Oxygen and 1 other 0 Water is required for any form of life Origin of Life on Earth 0 Singlecell plant organisms using sunlight perform photosynthesis using sunlight convert carbon dioxide into oxygen 0 Bacteria in the absence of sunlight using chemical compounds such as ammonia methane and hydrogen sulfide to produce food carbon dioxide fixation this is called chemosynthesis August 29 Formation of concentric layers 0 Heavier material sank toward the center of the earth and lighter material floated at surface which is the reason for the earth s concentric spherical layers 0 How do we know I Seismic tomography similar to CT scan The study of earthquakes provide evidence for layering o What evidence supports the idea that Earth has layers I The behavior of seismic waves generated by earthquakes give scientists some of the best evidence about the structure of Earth Low frequency pulses of energy generated by the forces that cause earthquakes can spread rapidly through Earth in all directions and then return to the surface 0 Earthquake waves passing through a homogenous planet would not be reflected or refracted bent The waves would follow linear paths arrows o In a planet that becomes gradually denser and more rigid with depth the waves would bend along evenly curved paths 0 P Waves compressional waves can penetrate the liquid outer core but are bent in transit A P Wave shadow zone forms between 103 degrees and 143 degrees from an earthquake s source 0 Our earth has a liquid outer core through which the sidetoside S Waves shear waves cannot penetrate creating a large quotshadow zone between 103 degrees and 180 degrees from an earthquake s source The mantle is thought to consist mainly of silicon oxygen iron and magnesium The outer and inner core consist mainly of iron and nickel 0 Which layer is least dense I nner core I Outer core I Asthenosphere I Lithosphere 0 Answer Lithosphere The least dense is at the top and then you work your way down The layering of the lithosphere and asthenosphere 0 Continental crust granitic less dense thicker and older 0 Oceanic crust basaltic denser thinner and younger o A cool rigid less dense layer the lithosphere floats on a hot slowflowing more dense layer the asthenosphere 0 Why doesn t the lithosphere sink into the asthenosphere I Because it is less dense and buoyant Buoyancy the ability of an object to float in a fluid by displacing a volume of that fluid equal in weight to the floating object s own weight 0 The principle of buoyancy a ship sinks until it displaces a volume of water equal in weight to the weight of the ship and its cargo o The buoyancy of an object depends on the density difference between itself and the fluid Large regions of Earth s continents are held above sea level by isostatic equilibrium a process analogous to a ship floating in water 0 Isostatic equilibrium lithospheric plates float in the asthenosphere in a balance called isostasy iso Greek quotthe samequot stasis Greek standingquot The simplest way to visualize it is to consider wood blocks of different thickness floating in water The thickest block stands higher above the water surface than the thinnest one History of Plate Tectonics 0 Alfred Wegener proposed Continental Drift 1915 He could not explain the source of energy to move continents o The fit of all the continents around the Atlantic at a water depth of about 137 meters as calculated by Sir Edward Bullard at the University of Cambridge in the early 1960s This widely reproduced graphic suggests that the continents might have drifted O In his book quotThe origin of continents and oceans published in 1915 Wegener proposed the Continental Drift theory I Supercontinent Pangaea could explain 0 Shape of shorelines o Mountains 0 Fossil records 0 Characteristic features left by ancient glaciers However Wegener could not explain how the continents move 0 Alfred Wegener s theory of continental drift was out of favor with the scientific community until new technology provided evidence to support his ideas I Seismographs revealed a pattern of volcanoes and earthquakes I Radiometric dating of rocks revealed a surprisingly young oceanic crust Echo sounders revealed the shape of the MidAtlantic Ridge 0 Echo sounders sense the contour of the seafloor First used on the German Meteor Expedition in 1925 in the South Atlantic Age of Ocean Floor ocean floor ages as you go away from midocean ridges 0 Harry Hess proposed Seafloor Spreading 1962 O O Postulated that oceanic crust is formed at midocean ridges and moves toward trenches where it is destroyed 0 Major features of seafloor spreading I New seafloor is being formed at midocean ridges spreading centers Old seafloor is being destroyed at trenches subduction zones Mantle Convection driven by the heat escaping from the Earth s interior provides energy to maintain sea floor spreading 0 Now Plate Tectonics synthesizes all the previous ideas 0 o In 1965 the ideas of continental drift and seafloor spreading were integrated into the overriding concept of plate tectonics primarily by the work of John Tuzo a geophysicist at the University of Toronto 0 Plate Tectonics could explain I Pattern of paleomagnetism I Pattern of sedimentation I Age of continents and oceanic crust I Ocean depth increases away from the midocean ridge I Pattern of earthquakes and volcanic activities I Shape of coastlines I Fossil records I Hot spots I Atoll and guyots o The confirmation of plate tectonics rests on diverse scientific studies from many disciplines Among the most convincing is the study of paleomagnetism the orientation of Earth s magnetic field frozen into rock as it solidifies I Paleomagnetism is the study of geological past by examining the Earth s magnetic conditions recorded in the rock samples 0 At intervals of about 100000 years Earth s magnetic poles have gone through reversals September 5 In 1965 the ideas of continental drift and seafloor spreading were integrated into the overriding concept of plate tectonics primarily by the work of John Tuzo Wilson a geophysicist at the University of Toronto 0 Main points of Plate Tectonics theory include o Earth s outer layer is divided into many lithospheric plates 0 Earth s plates float on the asthenosphere 0 Plate movement is powered by convection currents in the asthenosphere at seafloor spreading centers which is driven by the heat escaping from the Earth s interior 0 Where does the heat within the Earth s layers come from 0 Heat from within Earth keep the asthenosphere flowing This allows the lithosphere to keep moving Most of the heat that drives the plates is generated by radioactive decay given off when nuclei of unstable elements break apart 0 Three types of plate boundaries 0 Divergent spreading centers I example midocean ridges I characteristic hydrothermal activity pillow lavas shallow earthquakes o Convergentsubduction I Example deep ocean trenches I Characteristic volcanoes island arcs deep earthquakes o Transform fault two plates sliding past each other I Example fracture zones faults o Divergent plate boundaries 0 Boundaries between plates moving apart further classified as I As the lithosphere began to crack a rift formed beneath the continent and molten basalt from the asthenosphere began to rise I As the rift continued to open the two new continents were separated by a growing ocean basin Volcanoes and earthquakes occur along the active rift area which is the midocean ridge The East African Rift Valley currently resembles this stage I A new ocean basin forms beneath a new ocean o Convergent plate boundaries 0 Regions where plates are pushed together can be further classified as I Oceanic crust toward continental crust for example west coast of Africa I Oceanic crust toward oceanic crust occurring in the northern pacific I Continental crust toward continental crust one example is the Himalayas o The distribution of shallow intermediate and deep earthquakes for part of the Pacific Ring of Fire in the vicinity of the Japan trench I Earthquakes occur only on the side of the trench on which the plate subducts 0 Most transform faults are found on the ocean floor They produce zig zag plate margins and are generally defined by shallow earthquakes However a few occur on land for example the San Andreas fault zone in California 0 Afracture zone is an oceanic feature resulting from the action of offset midocean ridge axis segments Fracture zones extend past the transform faults away from the ridge axis seismically inactive because both plate segments are moving in the same direction Lithospheric plates on either side of the active transform fault move in opposite direction September 7 Chapter 4 in textbook Continental Margins and Ocean Basins Seafloor features result from a combination of tectonic activity and the processes of erosion and deposition 0 The discovery and study of ocean floor contours is called Bathymetry o How did early scientists study the ocean floor 0 Early bathymetric studies were often performed using a weighted line to measure the depth of the ocean floor 0 Advances in Bathymetry 0 Echo sounding o Multibeam systems 0 Satellite Altimetry Echo sounding is a method of measuring seafloor depth using sound pulses The accuracy of an echo sounder can be affected by water conditions and bottom contours Multibeam systems can provide more accurate measurements than echo sounders do Multibeam systems collect data from as many as 121 beams to measure the contours of the ocean floor Satellite Altimetry measures the sea surface height from orbit o Geosat a US Navy satellite operated from 1985 through 1900 provided measurements of sea surface height from orbit Moving above the ocean surface at 7 km a second Geosat bounce 1000 pulses of radar energy off the ocean every second Height accuracy was within 03 meters Ocean covers 708 of Earth s surface 0 More than 97 of all water found at or near the surface of the Earth is contained in the ocean while the bulk of the remaining 3 is contained in the glaciers in Antarctic Continent and Greenland A hypsographic curve is a plot of the area of the Earth s surface above any given elevation or depth above or below sea level Continental Margins and Ocean Basins What are two classifications of ocean floor 0 Continental Margins the submerged outer edge of a continent 0 Ocean Basin the deep seafloor beyond the continental margin Continental slope has the steepest slope and the abyssal plain is the flattest What are two types of continental margins 0 Passive margins also called Atlantictype margins face the edges of diverging tectonic plates Very little volcanic or earthquake activity is associated with passive margins 0 Active margins known as Pacifictype margins are located near the edges of converging plates Active margins are the site of volcanic and earthquake activity 0 So to reiterate Continental margins facing the edges of diverging plates are called passive margins and continental margins near the edges of converging plates are called active margins Continental margins have several components 0 Continental shelf the shallow submerged edge of the continent 0 Continental slopes the transition between the continental shelf and the deepocean floor has the steepest slope o Shelfbreak the abrupt transition from continental shelf to the continental slope 0 Continental rises accumulated sediment found at the base of the continental slope Submarine Canyons are a feature of some continental margins They cut into the continental shelf and slope often terminating on the deepsea floor in a fanshaped wedge of sediment o Turbidity currents are avalanchelike sediment movement caused when turbulence mixes sediments into water above a sloping bottom An oceanic ridge is a mountainous chain of young basaltic rock at an active spreading center of an ocean The ocean ridge system stretches some 65000 km around the Earth Transform faults are fractures along which lithospheric plates slide horizontally past one another Transform faults are the active part of fracture zones Seamounts are volcanic projections from the ocean floor that do not rise above sea level Flat topped seamounts eroded by wave action are called guyots Abyssal hills are flat areas of sedimentcovered ocean floor found between the continental margins and oceanic ridges Abyssal hills are small extinct volcanoes or rock intrusions near the oceanic ridges Trenches are arcshaped depressions in the ocean floor caused by the subduction of a converging ocean plate They are the deepest places in the Earth s crust September 10 Sediments Sediment is particles of organic or inorganic matter that accumulate in a loose unconsolidated form Sediment may be classified by grain size or by the origin of the majority of the particles Ocean sediments are important because they provide 0 A record of ocean basin history 0 A record of global climate change 0 A record of bottom physical processes bottom currants etc 0 Economic important products oil and natural gas Classification of sediments by particle size 0 Boulder Cobble Pebble Granule Sand Silt 0 Clay 0000 Water flowing near a solid surface is slowed down by friction along the boundary and the region of flow influenced by proximity to the surface is called the boundary layer 0 The boundary layer develops wherever a fluid moves over a surface whether it be water over the seabed winds over the seasurface or syrup over a table top 0 A velocity gradient a change of velocity with depth exists near the boundary Suspended load suspended grains Bedload rolling sliding bouncing grains For sandsized and coarser grain sediments the larger the particle the stronger the current must be to erode the material Surprisingly greater current velocities are required to erode clays finer sediments despite their small size than to erode fine sand Those fineparticle clays tend to form aggregates thus are cohesive and hence quotstickierquot than sand 0 Sediments of high energy conditions will have more coarse sediments 0 Sediments of low energy conditions will have more finegrained sediments Classification of Sediments by Source 0 Terrigenous Lithogenous come from land 0 Biogenous hard parts of some marine organisms o Siliceous silicon containing 0 Calcareous calcium carbonate 0 Hydrogenous precipitated directly from sea water 0 Cosmogenous from outer space 0 Most sediment deposits are mixture of terrigenous and biogenous particles 0 Terrigenoussediments o Rivers are the main source of terrigenous sediments o A Biogenous sediment that contains more than 30 of the hard parts shells of planktonic marine organisms is called ooze o Calcareous ooze calciumcontaining material 0 Siliceous ooze silicarich residues 0 Hydrogenous sediment o Manganese nodules are hydrogenous sediments o Evaporative salts due to high evaporation rate salts white material precipitate from water Coarser materials settle out first In deep water finer sediments settle out 0 Classification of sediments by location of deposits 0 Neritic of the shore or coast contains mostly terrigenous material 0 Pelagic of the open ocean contain a greater proportion of biogenous material 0 The sediments of deepocean basins o Turbidites deposit laid down by turbidity currents More prevalent in Atlantic than Pacific Trenches in the Pacific trap most of the turbidites o Clays the smallest sediment category lt0004mm About 38 of deepsea sediments are clays o Oozes sediments of at least 30 biological origin calcareous ooze siliceous ooze Siliceous oozes dominate in deep water 0 Calcium carbonate compensation depth CCD 0 At deep depths sea water becomes slightly acidic Below CCD calcareous sediments dissolve so no calcareous oozes form Siliceous oozes dominate in deep water Sediments are thinnest near the midocean ridges and thickest near the continental rise o What is a main source of terrigenous sediments o Rivers 0 What is the origin of most abyssal plain sediments o Erosion from the continent September 12 Rate ofsedimentation is almost always higher on continental shelves than in the deep ocean Shelves are closer to terrigenous so sources and usually high in biological productivity source of biogenous sediments o The Terrigenous Sediment Cycle 0 Over geological time mountains rise as lithospheric crustal plates collide fuse and subduct Water and wind erode the mountains and transport resulting sediment to the sea The sediments are deposited on the seafloor where they travel with the plate and are either uplifted or subducted Thus the material is eventually made into mountains again 0 Delta development 0 As delta grows eventually the river will find a shorter route to the ocean and the delta will be abandoned Oil and Gas Fields 0 High biological activity and high sedimentation rate to bury dead organisms near the mouth of major rivers o In the Gulf of Mexico oil and gas fields are located near salt domes salts are lighter than sediments so salts migrate toward ocean bottom thus forming salt domes Salt domes deform sedimentary layers above upward Oil and gas will collect near salt domes Oil on the water The physics of oil spills o Spreading 0 When oil is spilled it floats on the water s surface and starts to spread The rate at which the oil spreads is affected by many factors including weather conditions the amount of oil spilled and the oil s thickness Generally lighter oils ie motor oil and diesel fuels will spread more quickly than thicker oils like crude oil Warmer temperatures and strong currents can also make oil spread faster 0 0 As the oil spreads it can form narrow bands called windows that follow the wind s direction The spreading oil may reflect light in different ways creating grey metallic or rainbow sheens o Evaporation o The lighter elements in oil begin to evaporate as soon as it reaches the water s surface But like spreading the rate at which this happens depends largely on factors like the oil s original chemical composition and weather conditions 0 Approximately 2060 of crude oil will evaporate while lighter oils may evaporate entirely 0 After evaporation any residual oil will be thicker and less likely to dissolve naturally o Dispersion 0 As oil is weathered it can be broken down into small droplets Dispersion occurs when these droplets sink below the water s surface and mix into the upper water column This process can be promoted by chemical dispersants o If some of the larger droplets rise and collect on the water s surface again they will form a thin film called sheen o Sheens are classified according to how they reflect light The most recognized type of sheen is rainbow sheen but there are also grey and metallic sheens o Dissolution 0 When oil spills into an aquatic environment the water soluble compounds in oil may dissolve into the surrounding water 0 Since these same compounds are most likely to evaporate dissolution is considered to be less important than other weathering processes 0 Emulsification 0 As waves mix ocean water into the spilled oil a mixture of water and oil known as an emulsion begins to form This process can increase the oil s volume by up to four times the original mount 0 These mixtures are more resistant to other weathering processes making emulsification the main reason crude oils remain on the water s surface 0 Waterinoil emulsions are commonly known as llchocolate mousse because of their reddishbrown color and foamy texture o Oxidation 0 As the hydrocarbon in oil react with oxygen oxidation can either break down the oil or create longlasting tars as seen in tarballs o Tarballs are dense gelatinous spheres with a solid outer crust of oxidized oil and an inner core of softer less weathered oil Most tarballs are the size of a coin and they tend to last long after a spill o Sedimentation 0 After oil is dispersed or mixed with organic particles it will sink on the sea floor or wash up on shorelines o If large amounts of sediment are incorporated into the spilled oil dense tar mats may form 0 Oil and sediment mixtures may continuously build up then erode in seasonal cycles 0 Biodegradation 0 During biodegradation marine microorganisms like bacteria molds yeasts fungi and algae feed on hydrocarbons in the oil for energy These microorganisms are not capable of breaking down large amounts of oil but they can remove small amounts of dispersed oil and final traces of soiled oil on shorelines Homework 2 Meagan Dortlon September 12 2011 OCS Sec 1 N 00001 kmyr 0000538 kmyr estimated the distance to be 350 km then divided by 650000 years to reach the speed of the spreading rate of the seafloor


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