INTRO OCEANOGRAPHY OCS 1005
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dedrick Vandervort on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to OCS 1005 at Louisiana State University taught by C. Lindau in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/222876/ocs-1005-louisiana-state-university in Oceanography at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
The Origin of Earth Chapter 1 8302010 34200 PM How was the earth formed o Big Bang Theory about 14 billion years ago 0 All mass concentrated at one point then point exploded and expanded volume Temperature very hot After exploded the temperature cooled and substances begin to form 0 Nebularotating around certain point 0 Earth formed46 billion years ago o Structure of earthatmosphereocean 0 High densitysink Density of water lgcu cm Initially a gas nebula Initially Density was the same everywhere homogeneous Density stratification layered structure each layer has a different density iron mantle crust 0 Early atmosphere less atmosphere so seemed like sun was close to earth very hot severe weather the lava contains water bc it allows life Where did water come from Interior of the earth Volcanoes bring water from core to ocean outgassing a From outerspace brings water to surface What is inside the atmosphere n Lots of nitrogen a Carbon Dioxide became very few with life bc of oxygen Must be liquid water Surface temperature is unique which is beneficial to life Water required for any life o Can convert carbon dioxide to oxygen Chemosynthesisprovides animals in deep ocean with energy and food What will be the future of the earth 0 O O O n n n n n n a Sun die in about 5 billion years 8302010 34200 PM 8302010 34200 PM Chemical Oceanography 10102011 34500 PM Basic Chemistry m composed of two different components o Positive nucleus o Surrounding negative cloud of electrons Nucleus composed of protons and neutrons Protons are about 1836 times the mass of an electron Neutrons about mass of protons of nuclear protons Z atomic number o each element has diff Z number Total number of neutrons N Mass number A NZ Specific nuclear species is called a nuclide isotopes 1500 nuclides only have 100110 elements each element can have more than one nuclide Isotopes same number of protons but different number of neutrons 2 types of isotopes o Stable isotopes about 280 o Radioactive about 1220 o Neutron to Proton ratio isn t stable 0 Undergo nuclear change to reach stable NP NeutronProton ratio 0 Emit particles or electromagnetic radiation to get back to stable state 0 T12 amount of time required for 12 of radioactive atoms to disappear Most abundant atom in universe is Hydrogen Isotopes of Hydrogen o Protium no neutron stable isotope o Deuterium one neutron stable isotope o Tritium two neutrons radioactive isotope o Decays to helium which is stable 0 T 12 is approximately 123 years 10102011 34500 PM 10102011 34500 PM CHEMICAL OCEANOGRAPHY STUDY GUIDE BRING CALCULATOR Components ofAtom Nucleus neutrons and protons Electron cloud electron number proton number Atomic number Z protons Neutron number N neutrons Mass number A protons neutrons Stable and radioactive isotopes Water Molecule Lavoisier French Chemist Compound Molecule Covalent bond Polar Universal solvent Hydrogen bonding Cohesion Adhesion States of matter Dissolving Power of Water Components of a solution solute and solvent Polar nature positive and negative end Ion Ionic bonds Seawater Salinity ocean salinity range Seawater s Colligative Properties Thermocline zone is the ocean where temperature decreases rapidly Scienti c Notation Percent Partsperthousand o gkg PPM mgkg mgL 2 PPB mg1000 kg Convert from one fraction to another fraction Components of Salinity 1 kg of seawater contains what Major constituents of seawater Chemical symbols Trace elements Sources of ocean39s salt Principle of Constant Proportions Forchhammer Chemical equilibrium Chlorinitysalinity relationships and measurement methods Collection of seawater samples Residence time Definition how to calculate Conservative constituentsexamples Nonconservative constituentsexamples Dissolved Gases Major sources Distribution of 02 and C02 with depth Colder water masses dissolve more gases polar waters dissolve more than tropical water masses 02 decreases with depth due to respiration from marine animals and bacteria C02 increases with depth C02 given off by animals amp bacteria AcidBase balance Acid acidic solution Base alkaline solution PH of seawater 80 and pure water 70 PH scale Forms of C02 in seawater and relationship to pH Carbonic acidbicarbonatecarbonate Carbonate buffer system Dissolved inorganic carbon species C02carbonic acidbicarbonatecarbonate enhance buffering capacity of the ocean De nitions Compounds substances that contain two or more different elements in a fixed proportion Molecule group of atoms held together by chemical bonds Isotopes nuclei that contain the same number of protons but different number of neutrons Thermocline zone in the ocean where temperature decreased rapidly with depth Ocean39s buffering capacity enhanced by dissolved inorganic carbon species Forchhammer s Principle The constant proportion of solids or salts in seawater Covalent bond connects atoms by sharing the energy of paired electrons Polar electrically asymmetrical molecule like water with positive and negative ends polar nature of water due to angular shape of molecule Hydrogen bond bonds water molecules together weak bond Cohesion allows water molecules to stick to one another hydrogen bonding Adhesion the tendency of water to stick to other materials hydrogen bonding Solvent the most abundant constituent of a solution Solute the less abundant constituent of a solution dissolved solid or gas Ion an atom with an unbalanced electrical charge Red light waves almost completely absorbed within the first few meters of the ocean s surface biologically important Ionic bonds electrostatic attraction that exists between ions of opposite charge NaCl Salinity total concentration of dissolved inorganic solids in water Chlorinity a measure of the total mass of halogen ions in seawater Colligative properties properties of solutions water plus salts Trace elements elements present in amounts less that 1 ppm 0001o Principle of constant proportions percentage of various salts in seawater is the same in samples from many locations regardless of how salty the water is Chemical equilibrium the proportion and amounts of dissolved salts per unit volume of ocean are nearly constant Residence time the average length of time an element or atom spends in the ocean Mixing time the time necessary to mix a substance through the ocean about 1000 years Polar water masses dissolve more amounts of gases compared to tropics and temperate water masses Conservative constituent seawater constituents that occur in constant proportion or change very slowly through time long residence times Nonconservative constituents seawater constituents that are tied to biological or seasonal cycles or short geological cycles They have short residence times Acid a substance that releases a hydrogen ion in solution Base a substance that combines with a hydrogen ion in solution alkaline solution PH scale measures the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution Buffer prevents broad swings of pH when acids or bases are added carbonate buffer system in seawater 4
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