INTRO TO ARCHAEOLOGY
INTRO TO ARCHAEOLOGY ANTH 2015
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tyson Cormier PhD on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 2015 at Louisiana State University taught by H. McKillop in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see /class/222886/anth-2015-louisiana-state-university in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Archaeology o the study of the material remains of culture o culture patterned learned behavior 0 helps us to adapt and survive on a daily basis Anthropology 0 Archaeological Record c All the things that have been found that contribute to the knowledge of archaeology o Includes 0 Bones pottery tools homes buildings fire pits footprints written language soil etc What is the time frame of archaeology o Earliest humans to present o How long ago was that 0 100000 years ago in Africa 0 homosapien sapens o Lucy o Australopithecus afarenesis 0 First to walk upright and therefor considered our first pre human ancestor o Studied by paleoanthropologist Archaeologist as a science o Have to have a reason for archaeology especially to obtain funding o Scientific Method o Hypothesis testing 0 Use if then statements o Have to ask questions Why Study the past o Consulting Archaeology 0 CRM Culture Resource Management 0 National Historic preservation act Archaeological assessement 0 Archaeological assessment Money had to be set aside to assess pipelines buildings etc Federal money funds the state archaeology offices Archaeologist has to assess area and proposals first States in charge of this This created a state archaeology office Assessor reports back any archaeological significance to the site and state office decides what happens to this If significance found the company has to go around it or mitigate the site o Curiosity about the past 0 John Lloyd Stephens NY lawyer that traveled to central America with an artist in search of ruins and found them and explored them The artist illustrated these ruins Stephen wrote books Like a Incident of Travel in the Yucatan Many people read these books and got the public interest in the past Went to Copan archaeological site and bought Copan for 50 dollars a Now owned by Honduran gvt o Heinrich SchliemannTroy 0 Belize o Adventure Wanted to find troy Went to turkey and hired people to excavate and they didn t find the right troy but he enlisted the publics interest in the past British museum was looking for carved monuments in the early 19005 They found many in Belize from the ancient Mayan culture 0 Raiders of the Lost Ark Harrison Ford o SenderoLuminoso 0 Shining path force in peru Threatened the researchers Researchers left 0 John amp Theresa Topic Kidnapped by some banditos Theresa persuaded them not to kill them and just to take money and let them go 0 Trent University o Belize 0 British navy Attacked by the navy 0 Killer bees o Pseudoarchaeologist o Erick Bon Daniken All humans innovations and discoveries were introduced by being from outer space aliens Nazca Lines n 1 Desert coast of Peru Patterns made of stone on a large scale only seen from aerial view Daniken says that they are landing strips for alien gods Andes mountains are right near these lines where there are settlements that have pottery with the same designs and the lines are visible from these settlements o Thor Hyerdahl Easter Islands n n n Believed that the islands were settled by people from Peru Built a huge reed boat Got to the islands and said that this proved that the people of Peru settled the Easter islands All he proved is that you can get from Peru to the Easter Islands in a reed boat Archaeological evidence that proves that the Polynesians settled the Easter islands 0 Have to think what are they leaving out o Explains problems 0 Rise and fall of civilizations o Origins of agriculture 0 Cultural anthropology All past in the present graphic analogy Used by archaeologist to connect similarities in the past to the present Assumes that everything that occurred in the past has some example in the present and there is nothing to be discovered in the present Test your idea 0 Ethno 1 Similar to something in the present or are there some differences 0 Critical archaeology View that is held by few o Expla o garb Our view of the past are tempered by the fact that we live in a capitalist world Therefore we have a bias in looking at the past Used in historical archaeology a lot in the present William Rathje age project he started as a mayaarchaeologiest got to university of Arizona and started looking at local archaeology students wen door to door picking up trash with permission from the city and taking the trash to a ware house and picked through the garbage and putting it into categories in Tucson what people throw out vs what people say they throw out also interviewed people and asked what they throw out lied or forget Difference in what people say they do and what they actually do 13 of 1 fast food 14 newspapers 1 0 Dental floss project o Chinampas o Floati O O O O o Foren 0 Work Surveyed use of dental floss in different areas Also picked up garbage and looked at dental floss content Results were non conclusive ng gardens of the Aztecs Get more crops this way Mexican gvt decided to try to make some of these Trying to produce more food Terraced hill slopes in peru etc sic archaeology with the police on crimes Eg Unsolved murders 0 War crimes 0 Mass Eg Former Yugoslavia Eg Guatemala Argentina disappeared mass graves disasters Eg World Trade Center a What is the effect of environment on human society History 0 Don t have to answer just something to think about 99 of human past a lot of history isn t written down Kinds of archaeology Prehistoric 0 Study prehistory 0 Cultural area is usual specified among individuals 0 Pick some part of archaeology o Specialize Classical 0 Greek and roman o The study of the art and building of classical Greece and rome mainly 0 Not mainly about the people Historical o Combining archaeology where there are written records 0 Joe Last privies n outhouses n found unexpected things underwater o shipwrecks o inundated terrestrial sites places that used to be above water but have sunk below sea level CRM 0 Culture resource management 0 AKA consulting archaeology 0 Based on the fact that developers have to higher an archaeology to scope out land that they want to develop according fed law Forensic archaeology 0 Police implication o Goes out to crime scenes and look at the context and special distribution of the discoveries 0 Help to ID age health status and sex of skeletal remains 0 Help solve crimes Looting and Atinquities Trade Who is at fault UNESCO 0 United Nation Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization History of Archaeology o Creation Stories explain the origin of the work and peoples place in the world 0 Popol Vuh Maya Text that was found in Guatemala in the 18005 Translated from maya into Spanish etc View of the historic maya up until recent With the continued decipherment of the ancient maya written record archaeologist realized that this text went way back in time o Lubaantun Southern belize Crystal skull found here u Anna Mitchell Hedges found it under suspicious circumstances a Likelihood is that it was brought over from England where crystal skulls were abundant and planted for anna to find Santiago Coc n Caretaker at this site a Different world view o Renaissance o Pompeii People in western Europe were looking to the past in the renaissance especially in Greece etc Pompeii was excavated at this time 0 Great age of art learning and discovery 0 Explorers to the new world Colombusmarco polo etc Going out into a world that they didn t know 0 Papal Edict New World Americas 16th century Human Catholicism u If these people were human then they had to be converted to be Catholic Edict that these people were indeed human and indeed needed to be converted o Antiquarian 0 17th and 18th century O 0 interested in the past curious educating themselves and were honestly trying to learn and recorded and collected what they found not archaeology Archbishop James Ussher O O O 4004 BC 6000 years human history did some demographic research and calculated how long ago the world was created taking into consideration all of the generations in the Bible Catastrophism O O 0 George Cuvier The world was created by a series of divine creations and destructions The layers in the soil represent the different occurrences of the creation and destruction Humans bones were being found with bones of extinct animals from long ago couldn t be Uniformitarianism O O O O 0 William Strata Smith 18th century Geologist Charles Lyell Principles of Geology Layers of the soil were created by the natural processes that we see today and they layers build up over time Ex Of natural processes gt wind volcanic eruption earth quake Charles Darwin 0 0 On the Ori in of S ecies 1859 natural selection was the explanation of the variety and multitude of species that were on the earth today Extinct Fauna amp Humans O Jacques Boucher de Perthes Farmer in Abbeville Abbeville France Found stone tools and remains of extinct animals Called john who was an antiquarian John Evans a Society of Antiquarians n Saw the finds and talked to Perthes and said that this is really spectacular and asked to report this at the society and Jacque said sure a People accepted the evidence that was presented and said that humans were around when there were extinct animal a This was against catastrophism and common perception n Widely accepted in England People in Colorado had been finding sites with tools and extinct animals in early 1900s but experts said cant be in a They found a stone tool in an extinct mammoth and sent a telegram to experts to see this and when they saw this they said that they were right Huge turning point o Foundation for Anthropology in 19th century 0 O O Uniformitariansm geology Layers of soil created by natural processes Biological evolution Darwin Social progress Industrial revolution Things are getting better Time of Victorian England and Britain ruled the seas greatness in Europe Idea that you could get ahead Anthropology o Unilinear cultural evolution 0 0 00000 00 0 19th century single pathway through which all cultures passed through Henry Morgan Edward Tyler Frederick Engels Important early thinkers who were collecting Hear and read about the accounts of people exploring and visiting places all over the world and fit them into some evolutionary framework just like layers of the soil and evolution Is civilization better than a hunting culture There was this idea that things were getting better and that there was a trajectory Path was Savagery
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