INTRO FORENSIC ANTH
INTRO FORENSIC ANTH ANTH 2014
Popular in Course
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 82 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Don Zemlak on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 2014 at Louisiana State University taught by M. Manhein in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see /class/222888/anth-2014-louisiana-state-university in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Louisiana State University.
Reviews for INTRO FORENSIC ANTH
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/13/15
Forensic Anthropologist and the Medical Examiner 0 Medical Examiners o 1 Chief medical Examiner typically a boardcertified forensic pathologist medical school plus advanced training may have pathologist working of himher o 2 Pathologists I perform autopsies I can determine if death is from accident suicide homicide natural causes unknown indeterminate 0 Attended Death under care of physician 0 Extended illness 0 Unattended Death unexpectedperhaps result of trauma or no physician present to render a decision 0 Coroner System Louisiana do not have a medical examiner system they are not elected o Elected position main job mental health and unattended deaths o If a medical doctor does not run any citizen can 0 Most are medical doctors only a few are pathologists 0 Hire pathologists to perform autopsies o In either case a pathologist usually performs the autopsies 0 Death investigation determines cause and manner of death 0 Cause massive hemorrhage car crash 0 Manner accident 0 Cause massive hemorrhage right temporal lobe blunt force trauma 0 Manner homicide o ForensicAnthropologisB 0 Main job identification of the individual 0 Secondary what happened to individual I Investigate the body or what s left of the body 39239 Antemortem trauma before death broken bones prosthetics 39239 Perimortem at or around the time of death most dedicated to understand 39239 postmortem trauma trauma that happens after death animal bites I no putative ID estimate PMI postmortem Interval age sex ancestry how long has it been since the person died insects looking at the bones change in color I still not idea of ID facial reconstruction and entry into national databases 0 First Questions to ask o Is it bone o If it is bone is it human I Wolff s law of bone transformation bone will restructure itself to optimally resist stress I Prosthetics do not always mean human animal bones have been found with metal plating to repair and strengthen bone I A lot of bones mimic human bones Foramen just a hole lion humorous the foramen told that it was from the cat family I What is the closest thing that you will see to a human hand bear fore paw 39239 Distal farthest part of the bone from the skull 39239 Proximal closest park of the bone to the skull Animal versus Human Bone Unidentifiable Fragmented Cellular Level What is exactly is bone How can it change so dramatically Organ of the body that does have to be removed and renewed Three main levels in embryology o 1 Ectoderm forms tooth enamel o 2 Mesoderm forms dentin bone cartilage o 3 Entoderm also know as endoderm forms body organs etc Steps in bone formation 0 Osteoblasts build bone matrix 0 Osteocytes maintain bone tissues participates in mineralization stablilize o Osteoclasts destroys bone tissues and calcified cartilage through reabsorption During the embryo s development initial site of penetration of blood vessels into cartilage becomes the nutrient foramen of mature bone Bone is formed and laid down in stages Maintain after your initial growth through adulthood until older when the clasts outnumber the blasts which causes osteopoisis Time of development when bone formation proliferates 0 Fetal growth and development and early childhoodrapid growth 5 h month of fetal development till birth femur doubles in length form birth to 4 yrs doubles again takes 8 more years to double again you must have a balance to maintain you have periods of rapid growth and then maintenance when you are first born you have 450 growth areas that turn into the 206 bones of an adult law enforcement situation I easy way to determine if it is a human child baby it will not have the head of the femur9 many bones are not even there at birth 39239 certain bones form at different times 39239 when you are finished growing the it seals off and fuse to the shaft 0 diet is extremely important in bone development I Skeleton in class growth stunted white lines means growth has been interrupted in the skeleton teeth there are little lines also which something interrupted again holes in eye bones9 iron poor diet premature fusing of the bones more than likely died of malnutrition 000000 0 o 00 o 00 o 00 o 00 o 00 o 00 Osteoclasts and osteoblasts are directly responsible for the gross appearance of bone 0 Bone is an organ 0 Certain concentrations in blood have to maintained at a constant level Calcium is one o Cofactor in blood clotting and is involved in contractile mechanism of muscles o If the body does not receive enough calcium it will take the calcium from the bone which is a calcium reserve 0 Maintain by 0 Dietary asportion o Rentitial o Secretion of certain glands o Exchanges of skeletal system through osteoclasts formation 0 Osteoblasts constantly at work In a single day a single osteoclast can destroy what took 100 osteoblasts to form in the same period 0 Grossly all destructive lesions in bone are a direct result of osteoactivity o Histologically osteoclasts are always associated with bone resportion at an existing bone surface 0 Maintenance 0 Bone is hard cannot expand like cartilage 0 Bone cannot be renewed without destruction by cellular activity 0 Remove and refill o Hormones effect bones greatly Human Skeleton o Wolff s law 0 The law of bone transformation 0 Bone will restructure itself in order to optimally resist stress 0 Most diseases that involve bone are caused by osteoclastic activities 0 The bone in the skull is like a sandwich 0 Outer table 0 Middle table 0 Inner layer filled with diploe bone is just packaged different 0 Four factors that lead to variation in the skeleton bone shape 0 Ontogeny growth 0 Sexual dimorphism differences in the sizes between the sexes 0 Geographic location where population was based 0 Normal variation between individuals 0 Bone is made up of minerals and organic matter 0 90 of organic matter is a protein collogen I interwoven with various mineral to make it strong 0 has to be able to absorb compressed torques twisted tension bone is dynamic o minerals I most are hydroxyapatite 39239 give bone its toughness that work with the collogen to make it dynamic I if you put bone in an acid the bone will become rubbery since it removes the minerals and leaves only the proteins 0 bone burns because of the protein 0 when dried out the bone will become brittle Teeth Skull 0 they give bone its properties Basic gross morphology of bone 0 Skull D D H I o o Baby teeth deciduous 20 teeth you are bone with tooth buds dental formula 0 21022102 I top and bottom left you have 2 incisors I 1 canine cuspids I 0 premolars bicuspids I 2 baby molars in humans there is no sexual dimorphism however in other animals there is specifically in the canines o o 000 o o 00 o 00 I adult o o dental formula 0 21232123 39 32 teeth 39 selection process ancient culture the people who have all their teeth are the ones that survived relax selection now days 39 teeth tell age for children under 18 0 1st molar 6 yrs 0 2nd molar 12 yrs 0 3rd molar 18 yrs wisdom teeth o o o o o o o o Cusps bumps on tooth Attrition 3 major areas 1 Outer layer enamel comes from ectoderm once it s gone it s gone 2 Inner layer dentin 70 inorganic so it does have organic material 3 Pul organic layer has nerve endings where DNA comes from to identify Anterior ventral posterior dorsal superior inferior lateral sides Fontanelles soft spots in skull that allow for growth it s malleable 0 Usually fuse around 2 0 Last to fuse is the one on the top of the head 9 bregmatic fontanel Has sutures that fuse together throughout life 0 Some are interlocking Cranial deformation can deform the shape ofa skull in a child beginning at birth and through childhood aka cranial reconstruction 0 Had social status element to it for certain cultures 0 Ex frontal and occipital deformation 0 Ex shrunken head called Jivaro9 there is no skull inside because you can t shrink a skull essentially trophy heads Sutures I Practiced in various cultures 27 bones in adult human skull if you count the hyoid Hyoid small ushaped bone just below lower jaw helps to anchor muscles of tongue that aid in speech and chewing o Begins as 3 pieces 35 fuses into one o Often gets broken during strangulation Cranium face top calotte back posterior portion inferior portion Skull cranium and lowerjaw mandible Colloquialism Cranium has outer table cover inner table and quotdiploequot later of spongy bone in between 0 Like a sandwich I This can be used to determine entry and exit wounds though the skull because they behave in a specific way when damaging these areas 0 Thickness varies across the skull Skull has paired and unpaired bones o Paired two of each left and a right Humans bilaterally symmetrical 9 look pretty much the same on each side Sutures joints of the skull 0 Can be used as age indicators 0 Fuse at different times 0 Wide open at birth typically all closed by around 35 yo Infant s skull o 6 major openings Coronal suture separates front of the skull from the back has jagged line because they eventually interlock Sagitall suture separates the left from the right Wormian bones extra bones that usually indicate Native American ancestry Lambdoidal suture goes across the back of the skill Sguamosal suture different because it does not interlock just has two bones that rest against each other 0 Part of temporal bone where it meets the parietal bone 0 Weak spot and may never actually fuse Don t need to know Vomer Ethmoid Lacrimal Palatine Lacrimal 7cervical Have holes in the side called foramen that other bones of the spine don t have lZthoracic o Articulates with the ribs 0 Can have 5lumbar Humerus 0 Arm bone Forearm o Radius 9 thumb side lateral o Ulna 9 pinky side Proper anatomical position involves no crossing of the bones Pelvic bone 0 nnominate 0 Hip bone Femur o Thigh bone 0 Big thick bone 0 Articulates with the hip bone via the proximal end 0 Has a large head 0 As condyles on the distal end 0 Also articulates with the tibia via distal end Patella o Kneecap o Sesamoid bone Tibia o Anterior portion is close to surface of skin Fibula o Assists the tibia in walking Hand bones 27 bones Foot bones 26 bones Field Recovery 0 Equipment needed 0 Field kit I Needs to be portable easily transported I Includesa perino pick 39239 Cane with the outer covering stripped off and that part is rounded 39239 Softer so that it won t damage the bone I Munsell chart I Always want a north arrow on your map and a scale datum point 0 Metal detector 0 Always want to do a hand drawn map I Stains on the map indicate where the body was originally laid o Shovels 0 GPS 0 Camera 0 Fresh partially decomposed or skeletal 0 Scene preservation 0 Have a standard path to follow to the crime scene 0 Need to be aware of what you do within the area of where the body was found 0 Must secure the scene 0 Map or plan view 0 Plan View looking down on the scene from above 0 One of the things last to go is the skull Killers as a rule do not take bodies more than a quarter of a mile of a nearest road 0 Often places body at place they re familiar with Bone is porous and will take on the color of the environment around it after it has been there for a while Field Recovery ofa Buried Body 0 How to find a buried body 9 only 2 ways by an informant or by accident 0 Informant o Probing 0 Depression 0 Vegetation 9 for recent burial change in color I Can help in determining kind of year 0 Unit set up 0 10 foot square 0 Back hoe o Shovel skimming Burial stain where different decomposition fluids leak out into the soil Every case is different 0 Has to do with size of body what the body was buried in o Adipocere separation of the hydrolysis of body fats referred to as llgrave waxquot o Adipose helps preserve bone fingerprints First step when body recovered 0 Take xray to find gross images such as bullets Postmortem Interval PMI 0 Time since death 0 Different quotcausesquot of death but death occurs after irreversible cardiac arrest 0 Cardiorespiratory function rails o Collapse of blood pressure 0 Supply of oxygenated blood to brain gone 0 Loss of cerebral function 0 Rigor mortis 9 most dead bodies become stiff o Occurs at variable times after death 0 Can help determine how long person has been deceased o Rigor passes body becomes limp o Physiochemical basis of rigor complex I Proteins fuse into a gel muscle become stiff lactic acid accumulates o Rigor appears more quickly in persons who die during or soon after physical exertion or exhaustion o Glycogen energy source is depleted at this time and this can speed up process 0 Since it is a chemical process it is temperature dependent 0 Cold can delay rigor mortis When a person dies 0 Circulation ceases plasma and RBCs seek lowest levels in vascular system due to gravity 0 Fluid collects especially in lower areas 0 RBCs 9 pink zone 0 Postmortem hypostatis lividity settling of RBCs with discoloration o Often called livor mortis discoloration 0 Pressure from clothing like a strap or lying on hard surface 0 Areas are pale not trauma 0 Supine position seen on back buttocks thighs calves Internal Body Temperature 0 Taken by pathologist o Rectal is best 9 NEVER AT SCENE 0 Alternate technique 0 Insert temperature gauge into ear and nasal cavities 0 Below ribs o In liver on right side Cooling of Body 0 Deep organs cool slower 0 Gross errors can occur 0 Be aware of where the location of body is before taking temperature of body Factors that play a role in postmortem decomposition 0 Temperature 0 plays a role in how long it takes 0 Clothing 0 if person was wearing something that is excellent at helping preserve the body at death 0 natural fibers decompose easily cotton linen silk 0 Clothes or blankets retarddelay decomposition 0 Being wrapped up can keep out insects from speeding up the process of decay o Insect activity 0 come at certain times 0 Trauma 0 might accelerate decomposition o invites insects o Surfaceburialwater o Predators Taphonomy transition of a body from the time of death through decomposition destruction transport or burial to fossilization Fossilization is the exception and not the rule 5 Stages of Decay everybody does not go through this 1 Fresh starts right at death ends with the beginning of bloat 2 Putrefactionbloat 3 Decay uterus and prostrate can survive up to 6 months 4 Dry 5 Skeletal Cadaver dogs 0 Have potential Putrefaction and decay o Usual course of decomposition o Moist degeneration leading to liquefaction of soft tissues o In temperate climates 9 usually seen on 3rd or 4 h day o In tropics or subtropics Louisiana or summer in temperate 9 may start within hours after death 0 Breakdown 0 Gas forms body sells bloating of face abdomen breasts and genitals o Superficial veins thighs shoulders become outlined in red or green as bacteria grow throught hem I Skin blisterd as epidermis peels off I Tongue and eyes protrude due to internal gas pressure I Bloody fluid squeezed up from decomposing lungs I Air passages leak or quotpurgequot out of mouth and nostrils 39239 In past thought to be haemorrhage Mummification occurs occasionally 0 Desiccation drying out of skin and organs or just outer skin 0 Desert like conditions Egypt South America Andes o More often seen in newborn infants 0 Virtually almost quotsterilequot emerging from uterus and may quotdry upquot before bacterial action occurs In Louisiana specifically 0 Within in 24 hours 9 body can be swollen beyond recognition 0 Within 2 weeks 9 body skeletonized in extreme cases 0 Within 68 months 9 tendons and ligementous attachments still in place 0 By one year after death typically clean bone 0 Forces that promote decay o Insect activity flies don t lay eggs in rain I Generally insects typically secondary screw worms lay eggs within minutes I Temperatures 50 F and above eggs hatch within 818 hours I Lay eggs in orifices and wounds nsects typically don t lay eggs below 50 in the rain or at night in Louisiana Insects of Special Interest 0 Hairy maggot blowfly o Canniba I Feed on the flesh and then eat the maggots o Larvae look like caterpillars 0 Can alter the timeline of death 0 Not native to Louisiana 0 Fire ants 0 Not native to Louisiana 0 Eat the larvae and the eggs Postmortem Interval o Insects entomology 0 Adult 9 egg 9 larva 9 pupa fly life cycle Climate plays a major role in decomposition 0 Generally bodies decompose twice as fast in air as they do in water Insects 0 Feed for 56 days 0 Pupate 5 or more days 0 Emerge as mature quotgreenquot flies seen clinging to nearby bushes ifjjust emerging 0 When insects leave the body 0 Usually in mass 0 After about 5 days of feeding in Louisiana 0 May be moving toward heat of rising sun 0 Typically they go about a yard or so 0 Brown trail often directs investigator in correct direction Bodies of water can mislead you Gloving the outer covering of skin can slough off Taphonomic Change 0 Postmortem interval 0 Color 0 Dryness o Postmortem environment 0 Exposed weathered o Entombed 0 Position Decomposition in water 0 Temperature of water usually retards decomposition 0 Head and limbs tend to sink 0 Hypostatis begins in those areas 0 Mechanisms that affect pattern and sequence of disarticulation for human remains s different 0 Land surface provide a staticfirm support 0 Flexible synovial joints of dangling appendates wrists ankles neck elbow and knees are most affected by wave and current action 0 This contributes to a rapid weakening of them Factors that Affect Decomposition in Water 0 Temperature 0 Depth 0 Currents 0 Water life 0 Obstructions and debris Body 0 Clothing 0 Submerged vs floating 0 Type of joint 0 Position ofjoint 0 Amount of surrounding tissue 0 Trauma Lacy Peterson 0 Mother and baby 0 Husband convicted of killing them 0 Body washed ashore only part of mother found o In water 50 F or below bacterial breakdown is retarded 0 Also retarded by salinity of water salt content 0 Body will surface when putrefaction makes it buoyant Buried bodies take about 4x slower to decompose Preservation of plants and clothing Teeth are the most important thing to tell the age of children up until the age 18 o The development and eruption of teeth are more regulated Bones that are important in Determining Sex 0 Males and females are sexual dimorphic 0 Hip bone is the best bone for measuring sex 00 O O O O O O 0 Very important in determining age and sex Pelvic inlet larger in females to accommodate child birth I Only in the hip bones are the females bones larger than the males sacrum and the two hipannominate bones the pelvis 3 pieces I 1 quotHum I 2 schium9 bone you sit on I 3 Pubis I these bones begin to fuse together at or around puberty 1214 yrs obturator foramen I oval in males I triangular in females symphysis pubis where the two pubis bones fuse I on the face where the two bones fuse is how you age an individual joints in the hip change throughout your lifetime and that s how you can determine age greater sciatic notch I narrow in males I wide in females Pubic bones derived by Phenice I Females ventral arc apparent after about 25 years of age 0 longer due to continual growth after males have stopped o concave below pubic bone o no ventral arc very smooth muscle attachment line 0 convex and shorter 0 region below the pubis symphosial face medical aspect of the ischio pubic ramus o wider 0 Use what you have 0 Skull 0 Females have bipariteal bossing spreads out retained from infancy o Males skulls go straight back Estimating age of adults 0 Pubic symphysis o Sterna rib ends Long bones o Cortical bone dense and more tightly packed o Trabecular spongy bone loosely woven o Diaphysis shaft 0 Epiphysis ends Vertebral column 0 As you get older shows wear and tear 0 Trauma repetitive actions 0 Vertebra of younger person is typically smooth 0 Cervical 7 has little foramen holes for bloodvessels 0 First cervical vertebra is the atlas and second is the axis 0 Atlas doesn t have a body but instead has a dens 0 Atlas and axis are not fused together I Both allow movement of the head 0 Thoracic 12 where ribs articulate with o Lumbar 5 0 Hold up most of the weight of the upper body 0 5 sacral and 5 o Scurvature of spine 0 Beginning stages 0 Start in pieces so not initially fused together 0 Pieces fuse at different times Clavicle o Medial clavicle is one of the last to fuse around the age of 22 Sternum o Manubrium body xiphoid process Ribs o 12 on each side Humerus 0 Has nutrient foramen all long bones have this 0 Has proximal and distal end 0 Has a head 0 Can get bony extensions with age 0 Arm Forearm o Radius and ulna Finding age using skull 0 Teeth are used up until the age of 18 0 First look at joints sutures because they fuse at different ages 0 Sutures in general fuse from the inside out o Coronal and sagittal fuse mid to late 20s 0 Lamdoidal goes across back of the skull 0 Typically fuses around 35 o Sutures tend to obliterate disappear with age Planes of the skeleton 1 Sagittal divides body into left and right sides 0 Mirror image 2 Coronal divides body from front to back 0 Anterior and posterior 3 Transverse plane 0 Superior and inferior Bregma where coronal and sagittal sutures meet Metopic suture goes down front of skull and separates frontal bone in half and fuses soon after birth Calotte top of the skull Eburnation bone against bone after cartilage has worn away Maxilla what holds the top teeth in 0 Has several sutures to use for aging o ncisive small suture that fuses at around 18 yo o Basilar suture extremely important 0 If fused it indicates the individual is over 18 0 Open usually indicates someone under 18 Foramen magnum is surrounded by occipital condoles 0 Only place where postcranial skeleteon is in contact with the skull Mandible 0 Look at presenceabsence of teeth 0 Look at condition of teeth 0 Alveolar portion helps with ligaments to hold teeth in o Begins to recede with age Hyoid Originally in 3 pieces 0 Consists of body and 2 horns o Fuses around 35 o Helps hold muscles for speech Scapula 0 Very thin 0 Gets thin with age and almost gets translucent o Glenoid fassa where the humerus articulates with the scapula 0 Can show wear and tear o Bony build up Osteoporosis thinning out of bone 0 Can be seen especially in long bones 0 Woman are more likely to have this 0 Most often associated with old age Syllabus Spring 2012 Course Introduction to Forensic Anthropology Anthropology 2014 MWF 10301 1 30 AM Classroom E130 Howe Russell Bldg Faculty Ms Mary H Manhein Professional in Residence and Director LSU FACES Laboratory Forensic Anthropology and Computer Enhancement Services Lab Of ce E105 HoweRussell and FACES Lab Phone 5786084 Of ce hrs Tuesdays 230330 PM and by appointment email gamanlsuedul Assistants Ms Charlana McQuinn MA Research Associate bmcguil lsuedu Mr Christopher Maier Graduate Assistant cmaier3lsuedu Text required Bare Bones A Survey of Forensic Anthropology Second Edition by M W Warren N M Parry K E Skorpinski and C J Zambrano Kendal Hunt Press Dubuque IA 201 1 Course Content Course consists of lectures covering topics on weekly schedule list Lectures are augmented by slides and handson teaching materials Main topics to be covered include Anatomy of the Human Skeleton Taphonomy Medicolegal Aspects of Forensic Anthropology Trauma Interpretation Recovery and Analysis of Human Skeletal Forensic Imaging Remains in a Forensic Context Personal Identi cation Estimation of Sex Age and Ancestry Mass Fatalities and Human Rights Issues Attendance Each student is expected to attend every class Failure to attend class will greatly reduce a student s ability to perform well on exams and will impact nal grade Exams TWO exams and one nal exam will be scheduled at equal intervals throughout the semester Each exam has a value of 100 points Exam structure may include any or all of the following Multiple choice llin theblank matching and truefalse questions Makeup Exams Consent of instructor only Makeups are mainly short essay and llin theblanks Grading Scale 90 and above of total points possible A 80 to 89 B 70 to 79 C 60 to 69 D 59 and below F Instructor reserves the right to curve nal grades if deemed appropriate ANTH 2014 Note Swap 4282012 71200 PM NOTES January 20 2012 Medical examiner o Chief Medical Examiner 0 Typically a boardcertified forensic pathologist medical school plus advanced training 0 May have pathologists working for himher o Pathologists 0 Perform autopsies 0 Can determine if death is from accident suicide homicide natural causes unknownundermining Attended Death o Death under care of physician o Extended illness Unattended Death o Unexpected o Perhaps result of trauma or no physician present to render opinion o Accidents homicides sudden illness etc Coroner System in Louisiana o Elected position o Main job mental health and unattended deaths o If a medical doctor does not run any citizen may run 0 Most are medical doctors only a few are pathologists o Hire pathologists to perform autopsies o Death investigation determines cause amp manner of death 0 Example Cause massive hemorrhage from car crash Manner accident Cause massive hemorrhage from right temporal lobe blunt force trauma Manner homicide o Forensic anthropologists 0 Main job identification of individual 0 Secondaryjob what happened to individual o Antemortem before death 0 Perimortem at or around the time of death What forensic anthropologists are most determined to figure out o Postmortem after death No putative ID think they know estimate PMIpostmortem interval how long has it beenage sex ancestryhow long since died Still no idea of IDfacial reconstruction amp entry into databasesgave us website the other day First question want to ask is IS IT BONEshows us some pics a paper mache one they were called out to investigate If it is bone is it human Possible TF questions guitar sh thought they were aliens passed stuff aroundafter classes can go up and look at stuff skull found in LA in 82 thought humanonly based on sizesaid had many defectsonly after an article was published found out that it is a baby caf honest errorso much of finding stuff out is accidentalserendipitous then shows a prostheticoften think it is human boneWOLFS LAW of bone transformationgtbone will restructure in order to optimally resist stressit was actually an ostrich wing boneanimals can have prosthetics Clavicecolor bone alligator femor looks like it the pointa lot of bones mimic human bones Foramena holeon side of the humoroustells from cat familya lion found in the woodsfinds lots of stuff in the woods when spell something means write it down Closest thing find to human hand is bear claw Proper anatomical positionstanding straight up with arms at side hands facing up NOTES January 23 2012 Animal vs Human o Unidentifiable fragmented o Cellular Level Bone What exactly is bone How can it change so dramatically Early in the life of a zygote initial cell of offspring three distinct ceHmarregonsappear o Ectoderm forms tooth enamel o Mesodenhfonnsden nboneca Hage o Entoderm Endoderm forms body organs etc Complicated steps in bone formation 0 Osteoblasts form bone matrix 0 Osteocytesrnaintain bone ssue par cipatein n neraHzaHon o Osteoclasts destroy bone tissue and calcified cartilage through resorp on Du ngen wyosdevdopmennintmlsteofpene a onofbmod vessels into cartilage becomes the nutrient foramen of mature bone Bone is formed and laid down in stages Osteoporosis stems from faster osteoclast activity than osteoblast activity of development when bone formation proliferates Fetal growth and development and early childhood 9 rapid growth 5th month of fetal development until birth 9 femur doubles in length From birth to 4 years 9 femur doubles again Takes 8 more years for femur to double once more VVhen born9 450 growth areasthatturnintothe 206 bones Easy way to extinguish a human child bone there will be no definite ends of the parietal and distal ends of femur Osteoclasts and osteoblasts are directly responsible for the gross appearance ofbone Bone is an organ involved in everyday physiology of an organism 9 what an organism is made of and what keeps it running Certain concentrations in blood have to be maintained at a constant levd 0 Calcium is one of these factors Cofactor in blood clotting 0 Time 0 O O O O O Involved in contractile mechanisms of muscles 0 If problem exits with intake and rendition of calcium the body will take calcium from the bones o Osteoblasts are constantly at work 9 in a single day a single osteoclast can destroy what it took 100 osteoblasts to form in the same period 0 Histologically osteoclasts are always associated with bone resorption in existing bone surface Bone is hard and cannot expanded like cartilage and renewed like soft tissue Bone is porous and will absorb the color of the environment around it The Human Skeleton Wolff s Law the law of bone transformation 0 Bone will restructure itself in order to optimally resist stress The skull has an outer middle and inner layer 0 Outer table 0 Middle table diploe 0 Inner table 4 basic factors that lead to variation in the human skeleton o Ontogeny growth 0 Sexual dimorphism differences in the size between the sexes 0 Geographic location 0 Normal variation Bone is made up of both minerals and organic matter 0 90 of the organic matter in bone is a protein called collagen Collagen is interwoven with various minerals to make it strong strong in compression tension torsion etc flexible to a certain degree 0 Hydroxyapatite minerals interwoven with collagen Basic Gross Morphology of Bone Skull Teeth o Deciduous teeth Baby teeth 20 teeth Dental formula 21022102 n 2incisors n 1 canine cuspid n 0 premolars grinding chewing n 2 baby molars 0 Adult teeth Dental formula 21232123 n 2incisors n 1 canine n 2 premolars bicuspids n 3 molars 1St molar comes in at around 6 9 2nd molar comes in at around 12 9 3rd molar comes in at around 18 o For children below the age of 18 forensic anthropologists look at the growth and development of their teeth Central and Lateral Incisors grabbing and holding Canines nipping and holding Premolars grinding and chewing Molars grinding and chewing O O O 0 NOTES January 25 2012 FIRST EXAM FEBRUARY 17 2012 Tooth o Cusps raised area o Attrition normal wear and tear over time o Enamel outer layer 0 92 inorganic o Inrenewable o Dentin middle layer 0 70 inorganic o Pulp inner layer 0 Contains the organic material in the tooth Nerve endings etc 0 Where DNA is found Protected by enamel and dentin Osteological Terms o Superior top o Inferior bottom o Anterior front o Posterior back o Lateral left or right Fontanels o 6 major openings in the skull at birth until around 2 years old o The skull bones must be apart so the brain may grow and develop o The fontanels come together eventually o The last bone to close is the bregmatic fontanel Skull Joints o Sutures o Interlocking sutures fuse together over time Most skull joints are interlocking Cranial Deformation Cranial Reconfiguration o Cultural practice where the shape of the skull of a child is deformed o Bind children s skull between various apparatuses to change the skull s shape o Found to be attractive and resulted in a elite social status o May lead to some problems but generally does not affect the person s intelligence Shrunken Heads Jivaro o The skull has been removed and the soft tissue of the head was shrunk Human Skull o 27 bones in the adult human skull counting the hyoid o Hyoid small Ushaped bone just below the mandible o Helps to anchor muscles in ton that aid in speech and chewing o Begins as three pieces and fuses into one around 35 years old o Cranium everything in the skull except the mandible 0 Face top calotte back posterior inferior portion 0 Cranium has an outer table or cover inner table and a diploe layer or spongy bone in between 0 We can determine entry and exit wounds through the skull because they behave in a specific way when damaging these areas 0 Some parts of the skull are thicker and thinner due to protecting the brain stem eyes brain etc o Skull cranium and mandible 0 Contains paired and unpaired bones Pairs two of each or a left and a right Humans are bilaterally symmetrical 9 generally we look the same on both sides even though we are different o Joints sutures o Fuse at different times in life typically all closed by around 35 years 0 Wormian bones extra bones in the skull Complex sutures and extra bones indicate a Native American background Coronal Suture separates the skull from front to back Sagittal Suture separates skull from left to right Lambdoidal Suture across the back of the skull Squamosal Suture the suture in the skull that do not interlock Part of the temporal bone The two bones rest against one another beveled The union is weak 0 O O 0 NOTES January 27 2012 Joints and Sutures cont Occipital Condyles where the skull articulates with the postcranial skeleton Basilar Suture Frontal Bone forehead o Unpaired bone Parietal Bone paired bone Occipital Bone unpaired bone Temporal Bone paired bone 0 External Auditory Meatus the housing and protection for inner ear and bones of ear 0 Mastoid process used to determine about the biological profile Part of the petrous portion dense area of bone that protects the inner ear and part of the brain Comes from the Greek petra rock or stone 0 Temporomandibular joint where the mandible articulate with cranium Sphenoid bone unpaired 0 One bone that runs all the way across the skull o Sellaturcica Turk s Saddle Saddle shaped piece in the inside of the skull that protects and houses the pituitary gland Nasal Bones paired bone Maxilla makes up hard palette some of eye orbit and face 0 Articulates with zygomatic bone lateral part of eye orbit Mandible lowerjaw Lacrimal Bone paired bone 0 Tear duct runs through it Ethmoid Bone paired bone Vomer thin line running down the middle of the nose Foramen Magnum where the spinal cord runs through skull and connects to brain Palatine Bones paired 0 Forms exterior portion of hard palette Definitions Relative to Study of Bone o Cortical Bone dense outer layer of bone o Trabecular Bone spongy bone 0 Made of the same material as cortical but loosely packaged seen especially on ends of long bones o Periosteum thin organic sheath covering all bone but subchondral bone 0 Osteogenic bone cell forming o Chondral all bone with periosteum o Subchondral bone at joints knee shoulder hip nourished by synochial fluid cartilaginous joints o Synovial Fluid lubricant which helps to cushion along with cartilage and absorb pressures placed on those areas 0 Helps to nourish nonvascular cartilage 0 These joints do not have periosteum o Diaphysis shaft of the bone PostCranial Skeleton o Positional Terms for Posterior Skeleton o Proximal closest to the skull Distal furthest from the skull Medial closest to the midline Lateral furthest from the midline O O O o Bones inferior to skull o Vertical Column 0 24 vertebra 7 cervical vertebra neck a Contain foramen 12 thoracic vertebra upper to midback portion a Articulate with the ribs 5 lumbar vertebra lower back to sacrum o Disks between each vertebra to help with protection 0 Ribs o 12 on each side 0 Articulate in the front with the sternum first 7 on each side o Sternum runs mediallaterally o Manubrium top bone 0 Body long bone of the sternum o Xiphiod Process o Sacrum sometimes counted as part of the vertebral column or pelvis o Inferior end of vertebral column 0 Articulates with each of your hip bones 0 Starts off as 5 segments and then fuses into 1 o Clavicle collarbone o Articulates medially with the sternum and laterally with the scapula o Scapula shoulder blades 0 Articulate with arms 0 Anchors shoulders and joints NOTES January 30 2012 Not on exam o Vomer o Lacrimal o Ethmoid o Palatine PostCranial Skeleton cont o Arms 0 Humerus arm bone 0 Radius and Ulna the two forearm bones In proper anatomical position the radius is more laterally located and the ulna is medially located Innominate two hip bones Femur thigh bone Articulates with the innominate Femoral Head Femoral Condyle o Patella kneecap O O Field Recovery 0 O Sesamoid bone Tibia shin bone Fibula laterally located next to tibia Assist the tibia when walking Hands 27 hand bones Feet 26 foot bones Equipment needed 0 O O O O O O O O O O O O O 0 Field kit Metal detector Shovels GPS Camera Multiple Tape Measures 10 m and 100 m Wooden stakes strings Always point stakes North Line level Pulmb Bob Flags Trowels PerinoPiks Brushes Assorted Sizes Perino a piece of outer covering of cane that won t hurt the bones Dust pants whisk brooms Bags paper and plastic assorted sizes Body Bag Pencils and Sharpies Graph paper Eye protection gloves insect repellent Partially Decomposed Skeletal Remains Burned Remains O 0 Identification Recovery Scene Preservation O 0 Create a standard path so evidence is not contaminated Bones can be scattered over long distances o Map or Plan View as if looking down at the scene from above 0 Always want a North arrow to orient people correctly 0 Always want a scale 0 The original deposition of the body is represented by a stain o Killers are lazy most killers will deposit a body no more than a quarter mile from an access road Field Recovery of a Buried Body o How to Find a Buried Body 0 Informant or by accident 0 Probing Outline the burial pit u If the burial unit is fairly neat and cornered and deep it suggests premeditation 0 Depression Evident after a few years Depression evidence that the soil has been overturned o Vegetation Disturbed Green Unit Set Up 0 10 foot square Black Hoe Shovel Skimming Pedestal Placing the body on a pedestal o Burial Stain where the various decomposition fluids spread out 0 O 0 NOTES February 1 2012 Adipocere adipose tissue can be around for a long time o Separation of fatty tissue from hydrolysis o Preserves bone and fingerprints and various evidence Postmortem Interval PMI time since death o Different causes of death but death occurs after irreversible cardiac arrest 0 O O O Cardiorespiratory function fails Collapse of blood pressure Supply of oxygenated blood to brain gone Loss of cerebral function o Rigor mortis body stiffening O O O O O O O 0 Most dead bodies become stiff Occurs at variable times after death Rigor passes 9 body becomes limp again Physiochemical basis of rigor complex Proteins fuse into a gel 9 muscles become stiff 9 lactic acid accumulates Rigor appears more quickly in persons who die during or soon after physical exertion or exhaustion 9 glycogen is depleted at this time and can speed up this process In the old feeble and some infants rigor is absent or hardly detectable Moves from smaller muscle groups 9 around eyes mouth jaw muscles fingers Only practical use is to estimate time since death Since it is a chemical process it is temperature dependent 9 cold can delay it In an average environment 14 hours in face 46 hours in limb c When a person dies 0 O O O O O O Circlation ceases plasma and red blood cells 9 gravity 9 seek lowest levels in vascular system Fluid collects especially in lower areas Red blood cells pink zone Postmortem hypostasis lividity 9 settling of red blood cells with discoloration livor mortis Supine position seen on back buttocks thighs calves Pressure from clothing or lying on a hard surface Areas are pale 9 not trauma Internal body temperature Pathologist takes it but never at scene Rectal is the best temperature gauge placement Alternate technique insert temperature gauge below ribs into liver right side 0 Cooling of body Deep organs cool slower Gross errors can occur a Countries like Saudi Arabia n Bodies may warm up Exposed skin feels warm to touch for 68 hours When a body decomposes looking at chemical processes bacterial action fungal attack and predation 9 for forensic anthropologists o Postmortem changes may be delayed for years even centuries o Factors that play a role in postmortem decomposition 0 Temperature 0 Clothing Natural fibers decompose very quickly cotton linen silk etc a 6 months to a year Synthetic fibers last for a very long time polyester etc Insect activity Can help if the death has been recent 0 Trauma Invites insects in in greater numbers 0 SurfaceBurialWater o Predators Vultures can strip a body in less than a day Predators can spread out bones Taphonomy transition of a body from the time of death through decomposition destruction transport or burial to fossilization o Fossilization is the exception not the rule 0 Occurs in very very rare occasion 5 Stages of Decay o 1 Fresh starts at death 9 ends with beginning of bloat o Gases form to being bloat o 2 Putrefaction bloat o Gases cause the body to swell o 3 Decay o 4 Dry tendons and ligaments are touch uterus females and prostates males can survive up to six months o 5 Skeletal o Not every body goes through this different scenarios results in different decompositions NOTES February 3 2012 FIRST EXAM FEBRUARY 17 Cadaver Dogs o Only as good as the individual dog o Many dogs find bones that are not human o Eagle 0 Famous Doberman o Eagle s owner claimed he can find anything 0 The owner was seeding sites with bones o Can be useful especially if the remains are fresh o Have potential but you have to be careful with them o The owners are the worst part Putrefaction and Decay Usual course of decomposition 9 moist degeneration leading to liquefaction of soft tissues o Most degeneration leading to liquefaction of soft tissues o In temperate climates 9 usually seen on 3rd or 4th day o In tropics or subtropics or summer in temperate 9 may start within hours after death o Gas forms body swells progressive bloating of face abdomen breasts and genitals o Superficial veins especially on thighs and shoulders become outlined in red or green as bacteria grow through them causing marbled appearance o Skin blistered as epidermis peels off o Tongue and eyes protrude due to internal gas pressure o Bloody fluid squeezed up from decomposing lungs o Air passages leak or purge out of mouth and nostrils o In the past though to be hemorrhage Mummification o Occurs occasionally o Desiccation drying out of skin and organs or just out skin o In desertlike conditions Egypt S AmericaAndes o More often seen in newborn infants 0 Virtually almost sterile emerging from the uterus and may dry up before bacterial action occurs o Cool dry conditions hay lofts barns etc 9 mummification is partial In Louisiana o Within 24 hours body can be swollen beyond recognition o Within 2 weeks in extreme cases body skeletonized o Within 68 months rule tendons and ligamentous attachments still in place o By one year after death typically clean bone o Forces that promote decay insect activity flies don t lay eggs in rain or at night o Generally insects typically Secondary Screw Worms lay eggs within minutes temperatures 50 F and above eggs hatch within 818 hours o Biological clock for insect activity starts when the insects access the body Postmortem Interval o Insects Entomology 0 Fly Life Cycle egg 9 larva 9 pupa 9 adult Instars are the different stages 0 Fly eggs are lain in the orifices Wounds nose mouth eyes anus vagina etc 0 Typically don t lay eggs at night 0 Insects of Special Interest Hairy Maggot Blowfly a Not native to Louisiana a Only been in Louisiana for about 10 years n They re cannibalistic will eat other maggots Fire Ants a Will eat the eggs and baby larva These insects will skew the time of death NOTES February 6 2012 Decomposition Much of what we know about decomposition is anecdotal based on case studies Various pig studies and others Tennessee shed some light on universals but much of decomposition understanding is still case specific Generally speaking bodies decompose in air twice as fast as in water In water the lower temperature retards decomposition Head and limbs tend to sink 0 Hypostasis begins in those areas In shallow water head and legs may be abraded from contact with rough bottom Body usually comes up with the spine upper most Decomposition In Water Mechanisms that affect pattern and sequence of disarticulation for human remains in a aqueous environment differ from land disarticulation Land surface provides a static firm support In water flexible joints of dangling appendages such as wrists ankles neck elbow and knees are move affected by wave and current action 0 This contributes to a rapid weakening ofjoints Factors that play a role in postmortem decomposition in aqueous environment 0 Temperature 0 Depth Currents Water life Obstructions and debris O O 0 Body Clothing Submerged vs Floating Type ofjoint Position ofjoint Amount of surrounding tissue Trauma O O O O O 0 Stages of Decay June 1 4 Kentucky climate Insects Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Newborn pig is dead quite sterile Flies have come to lay their eggs on their body Deterioration in the face and even more eggs Pig is completely gone Insects feed for 56 days Pupate for 5 or more days Emerge as mature but green flies 9 seen clinging to nearby bushes ifjust emerging When insects leave body usually in mass after about 5 days of feeding in Louisiana they head in a south to southeasterly direction 9 may be moving toward heat of the rising sun Typically they go about a yard of so maybe more burrow into grass less than in inch into soil area and pupate Maggot bodily fluids kill grass and will leave a trail Biases o Body of water can bias you c Insects can bias you c Little animals can be misleading Gloving o The outer skin of the hand can come off and can leave fingerprints Taphonomic Change o Postmortem Interval 0 Color 0 Dryness o Postmortem Environment 0 Exposes weathered o Entombed 0 Position Lacey Peterson Case Mother and baby 9 husband convicted of killing them Baby washed ashore only part of the mother found IN water 50 degrees or below bacterial breakdown is retarded Also retarded by salinity of water salt content Body will surface wen putrefaction makes it buoyant Buried Remains Takes about 4 times as long compared to bodies on the surface and even longer than in water Still quite preserved Can last a really long time NOTES February 8 2012 READ CH 16 FOR EXAM NEXT FRIDAY Calipers Calibrated in mm and cm are used on the skull Sliding calipers are used on the skull to determine sex and race etc Spreading calipers are also used on the skull Osteometric Board measures long bones and height Determining Sex The best bone to determine sex is the hipbone Determining Sex from a Skull Observing nonmetric features morphoscopic features Typically separates males from females not always Chin 0 Male square chin 0 Female rounded or pointed chin Mastoid Process 0 Male large 0 Female small External Occipital Protuberance 0 Male large 0 Female poorly developed Forehead 0 Male retreating slopes backwards 0 Female vertical Orbital Margin 0 Male rounded 0 Female sharp Supraorbital Ridge 0 Male heavy brow ridge 0 Female gracile Biparietal Bossing 0 Male straight flat 0 Female flares out Muscle Line 0 Male prominent 0 Female poorly developed Ascending Ramus 0 Male more 90 degrees 0 Female more gradual obtuse slanted Root of Zygoma 0 Male extends beyond the auditory meatus 0 Female does not extend beyond the auditory meatus Fordisc software program that was created at the University of Tennessee in which determines the sex race etc of an individual when the hip is not available Determining Sex from the Hip Can determine the age and the sex from the hipbone Only in the hips are the bones larger that in males Pelvic Inlet o For female must be large enough to accommodate a baby s head 0 Male much smaller Hipbone starts out in three pieces 0 Ilium Ischium Pubis These bones begin to fuse together around puberty If hipbones haven t fused yet the skeleton is that of a young child Left and right hip and the sacrum form the pelvis Obturator foramen hole in the hipbones 0 Male oval 0 Female triangular Pubic Synthesis where the two pubic bones come together 0 Can be used to age an individual Sciatic Notch 0 Male narrow 0 Female wide 0 O O Determining Sex from the Pubic Bones BEST WAY TO DETERMINE SEX o Pubic Bone 0 Male shorter than the female 9 convex 0 Female longer than the male bone continues to grow after males bone stops growing 9 becomes concave o Medial aspect of the ischiopubic ramus 0 Male wider 0 Female narrow o Ventral Arc 0 Male very smooth 0 Apparent apparent after the age of 25 NOTES February 10 2012 19th Century Burial o In Spring 2008 the FACES Laboratory was contacted regarding the possibility of conducting research on a set of child s remains from a probable nineteenth century cast iron coffin o The coffin was discovered at ST Joseph Cemetery in Thibodaux LA when workers were dismantling a tomb associated with the Toups family There was no headstone identifying the child o In May 2008 the coffin was transported to LSU o The coffin is opened for the first time in August 2008 o Biological Profile of Child in Coffin 0 Female based on clothing 0 Probably white based on hair 0 3 12 to 5 12 years of age based on dental development and epiphyseal fusion o Plants 0 Historically herbs and flowers were included in burials to mask the scent of decomposition during the viewing period 0 Included in cast iron coffin Heliotrope Gardenia Rose Scented Geranium Eastern Red Cedar Thyme o The plants are still green after 100 years c The preservation of the plants and clothing is important Estimating the Age of Young People o The most important way to age children is to use their teeth up until 18 years old 0 Development and eruption of teeth are more genetically controlled Estimating the Age Adults Pubic Symphysis Sternal Rib Ends Auricular Surface of Hip Bones Epiphysis areas where the bones fuse together to form the adult skeleton The first and cervical vertebra atlas and axis allow you to turn your head 0 Axis contains the dens and evolutionary speaking it suggests that the dens was the first body of the first vertebra Clavicle last epiphysis to fuse o Medial clavicle fuses by 2225 Skeletal Planes Sagittal Plane divides the left and right side of the body Coronal Plane divides the front and back side of the body Transverse Plane anything perpendicular to the coronal and sagittal plane 0 Can be many NOTES February 13 2012 Aging Skull o Suture closures different sutures in the skull fuse at different times in an individual s life 0 Standards have been created to suggest how old an individual might be 0 Metopic Suture suture that separate the frontal bone in half and fuses soon after birth 0 Sutures fuse from the inside 9 out o Coronal and sagittal suture generally fuse at mid to late twenties bregma where coronal and sagittal suture meet Calotte skull cap Lambdoidal suture generally fuses at around 35 Must be aware of premature fusion of sutures Maxilla cranial sutures are also contained in the maxilla Incisive suture fuses at about 18 years of age Basilar suture separates the occipital region from the rest of the face a If fused indicates the individual is over 18 o Occipital Condyles only area where the postcranial skeleton articulates with the skull o Mandible lower jaw Look at the presence or absence of teeth a Methamphetamines destroys teeth Look at tooth loss Alveolar bone that contains the tooth sockets n Recedes as you get older 9 can begin to see tooth roots bone is resorbed o Hyoid three pieces and anchors muscles of the tongue Often gets broken when being strangled By 35 or so the two greater horns pieces and fuse to the body third piece Easily lost at scene due to small size o Vertebra 0 As you get older vertebral column will show evidence of age 0 Bony buildup on spine Reaction to trauma or repetitive action Buildup suggests older age or trauma o Scapula o Glenoid where the humerus articulates with the scapula From injury age repetitive action can get bony buildup in that area 0 Assess scapula for thinning 9 becomes almost translucent with age Humerus always looks at humeral head 0 Repetitive action can destroy cartilage eburnation bone against bone Results in a very bright and shiny appearance Generally not seen in a younger individual unless there has been trauma Weight of Bone can sometimes tell the age of the individual 0 The bones will be very lightweight if the individual is older or has osteoporosis Women are more likely to have osteoporosis More often then not associated with age but not always Hands 0 Looking for bony extensions and arthritis Femur 0 Look for problems with the head of the femur 0 Looking for bony extensions on the distal condyle and various other places 9 suggest older individual Patella 0 Look for arthritic problems 0 Look for bony extensions on surface Tibia o Bony extensions 0 Eburnation bone against bone wear out cartilage Feet 0 Bony extensions especially in the toes NOTES February 15 2012 KNOW MATERIAL UP THROUGH SEXING Some bones can help with determining sex o Measure head of the femur and fitting into certain ranges determines sex Age Determined by the Hipbone o Auricular Surface where the hipbone articulates with sacrum o This region slowly deteriorates over time o The auricular surface of females is typically raised 9 male auricular is flat Bone billows during youth about 2526 Youthful bone has transverse striae and is finely grained Preauricular Sulcus is most often associated with females As you get older porosity is seen bone is resorbed Islands of Densification smooth dense area of bone surrounded by resorbed bone Smooth edges can be anomalies As you get older you get bone porosity loss of billowing and stria and retroauricular activity o Retroauricular Surface behind the auricular surface 0 Changes through time o Pubic Synthesis 0 The surface changes over time o Pubic Bone o Pits of Parturition Sometimes there are suggestions on the ventral portion of the pubic bone that suggests a female has had a baby Areas where bone has been resorbed A problem with this is that some women who have never had children have pits of parturition 9 nulliparous females are women who have never given birth 0 O O O O O 0 NOTES February 27 2012 Ribs can help determine the age of a person o Changes take place in the ribs as we age o People usually use the 5th or 6th ribs to determine age From young to old the ribs go from billowy and youthful to rough and jagged 9 they break down as we age There are 8 phases for the changes of the rib look at the end tip of the rib 1St ribs are the true ribs that have cartilage attached to them and as you age it ossifies and turns to bone 15 11th and 12th ribs are not good for aging 9 the change isn t as obvious Pubic Symphysis Ancestry The face of the pubic bone where they connect It is separated from left to right 9 ventral and dorsal The dorsal side would be where pits of parturition are The dorsal side is the side that changes first Ridges on the pubic symphysis indicates youth Ridge begins to form at the dorsal margin comes down and around to the ventral portion Flatness indicates an aged individual Ossific nodule raised bone indicates an individual aged 2531 Look for phases of change 9 starts very hilly 9 ridge forms 9 face flattens out and begins to break down Because chronological age are not always exactly the same we have age ranges Race is both biological and cultural Ancestry is based on the idea that populations where limited to specific geographic areas and traits have arisen that are advantageous to that area There are three main groups 0 Black 0 White 0 Mongoloid Admixture not a formal category but describes individuals of multiple ancestry One of the hardest things to discern NOTES February 29 2012 Ancestry Race Ethnicity o Three main groups 0 Mongoloid Asian Native American or Indian Eskimo South American etc Black Typically African American White Caucasoid 0 Determining Ancestry fro the Skull o Sheet on MOODLE lb 1 if 0 White sloping o Mongoloids rounded eye orbits o Black rectangular eye orbits O o Mongoloid less prominent 0 Black less prominent o Features are based on specific geographic areas 0 Characteristics are not often found in abundance due to mixing of races o Nasal Sill 0 White short silled o Mongoloid 0 Black guttered White straight Mongoloid in between Black protrude O O O 0 White simple suture patters Mongoloid more complex suture patterns 0 Wormian bones are typically associated with Native Americans and complex sutures another name for Wormian is ossicle Inca Bones extremely large Wormian bones 9 Lambdoidal suture and occipital region a Found in Native Americans 0 Black simple suture patterns 0 0 White prominent o Mongoloid blunt 0 Black blunt ill 0 White parabolic o Mongoloid elliptical 0 Black hyperbolic o Inion Hook large muscle attachment on the back of the head 0 White more often seen in white males 0 Mongoloid not often seen 0 Black not often seen o PostBregmatic Depression 0 White not often seen 0 Mongoloid not often seen 0 Black more often seen in blacks l 0 White narrow o Mongoloid wider 0 Black wide Cranial Landmarks c There are regions across the skull that are measured in order to help determine the race of an individual o Dr Giles and Dr Elliott devised the Discriminant Function Form 0 8 measurements 0 Used certain measurements to come up with sex and ancestry of an individual o Felt that these 8 were the most important regions of the skull to determine race 0 5 of these were used to determine sex 0 FORDISC was created at the U of Tenn Collected measurement data on various persons of known ancestry Created the program and taken measurements will compare to means 9 sorted through different measurements and matches to different races 9 matches with more white then is considered white This program can be wrong NOTES March 2 2012 NEXT EXAM IS MARCH 23 Trauma o Antemortem 0 Trauma committed before death 0 Can be used to find records to identify an individual o Postmortem 0 Trauma committed after death 0 Typically seen as animal gnawing marks or weather taphonomic processes 0 Bone breaks differently after death 0 Gnaw marks can look like knife marks o Perimortem 0 Trauma committed at or around time of death 0 Can help investigators evaluate violence against an individual Force used on the individual is serious enough to leave evidence on the bone If pathologist and anthropologist cooperate it is a unique opportunity to observe and correlate the relationship between the skin and soft tissue injury with the patterns of underlying skeletal trauma o Two Major Kinds of Injury to Bone 0 High velocity ballistic Different subdivisions of ballistics Objects impart their energy so suddenly that bone reacts as brittle matter and shatters When antemortem should help with identification 0 Blunt force Sharp instrument also a form of blunt force Lower energy bending forces and slower impacts from blunt force deliver a gradual rate of loading causing the bone to react more as a ductile material capable of showing plastic deformation Sharp force injuries potentially a blend of characteristics is incised bone combined with blunt force Appearance of Bone Injury Reflects o Shape o Area o Mass o Speed o Direction Considerations o Intrinsic strength of the bone injured o Anatomy of the bone o Age of the individual o Thickness of the bone o Mineral content of the bone o Overall health of the bone 0 Depends completely on the individual Function of Bone o Support weight o Anchor muscles against contracting forces o Must be light yet strong for active movement o If brittle would shatter from forces placed against it o If pliable like rope would collapse o Viscoelastic structure of bone provides adaptive responses to both extremes o Hydroxyapatite crystals and calcium salts are the stiff viscous unyielding brittle component and collagen salts are the elastic yielding ductile component 0 These two are responsible for the unique morphology of fractures and defects caused by trauma Identification o Sinus patterns are an acceptable way of identifying someone 9 unique to every individual o Lateral border of the scapula distinctive typically can be unique to different individuals o Law enforcement has the right to access medical records Trauma continued perimortem o Usually means extrinsic forces acting on skeleton o Extent of damage to skeleton determined by amount of energy transferred from impacting object and size of impacted area o In general sense trauma affects the skeleton in 4 ways 0 Partial or complete break 0 Abnormal displacementdislocation o Disruption in nerve andor blood supple 0 An artificially induced abnormal shape or contour Gunshot Wounds o Signature patterns o Orientation of victim relative to shooter o Sequence of wounds o Distinguishing characteristics of entry and exit 0 Bullet enters perpendicular to cranial bone Outside smooth round circular hole on external table As bullet punches through the layer it creates a ragged coneshaped internal bevel on the adjoining the internal table If it has enough energy it will keep going and produce a reversal of the entrance 9 external has beveled look NOTES March 5 2012 Postmortem Interval Merging of the Fields of Forensic Anthropology and Forensic Entomology Postmortem Interval o Estimating the time since death 9 HOW o More methods used 9 more accurate To estimate a Postmortem Interval o A regional database is required 0 Takes years of research Per regions andor biogeoclimatic zones 9 defined by habitat vegetation soil type and meteorological differences o Database includes 0 Length of decomposition stage seasonal and zone 0 Insect Succession Waves seasonal and zone 0 Adult Insects present seasonal zone Stages of Decomposition o Fresh 0 Egg mass 0 Begins at moment of death 0 No odor o Bloat 0 Egg mass 0 Maggots 0 Skin slippage o Purging fluid o OdOl 0 Beginning of decomp ring o Active Decomp o Maggots inmass o Lowering of limbs to complete deflation of carcass 0 Strong odor o Advanced Decomp o Maggots present but not inmass 0 About 50 of flesh and muscle is gone 0 Odor reduced unless rehydrated 0 Bone exposure 0 Only bones cartilage and desiccated skin or hide o Desiccated internal organs 0 No odor unless rehydrated Meteorological Data Required from Onsite and NOAA Weather Station Over 75 of all animals are insects Importance of Entomological Evidence at Death Scene andor Remains o Vanish evidence 9 if not collected evidence is gone o Minimum time since death based on life cycles present and succession wave preference only since insect activity began o Season of death o Location of death movement of remains o Manner of death based on the initial locations of insect activity Major PMI Players o Diptera flies o Coleoptera beetles 99 of time first insects on body are flies Each stage of a Specific Fly s Life Cycle is Dependent on o Temperature 0 RH o Precipitation Postfeeding Migration Stage o Migration up to 3 days Major PMI Players o Maggots 0 Efficient eating machines 0 Hairy maggot babies will eat other larva 9 skews time of death 0 Can move clothing o Beetles 0 Various species o Ants 0 Pray on eggs maggots and flesh o Wasps o Grasshoppers A Postmortem Interval Case o Differential Decomposition various stages of decomposition on the same body o Maggots roll the epidermis down o Blanching happens in decomp eclothes o Suicide by blasting caps o Time since death based on the insect evidence 68 days NOTES March 7 2012 3 Distinct Types o Plug and spall result of initial impact when projectile punches through external table to internal table 0 Minimal force may create this o Radiating greater force required to produce radiating fractures 0 Response to tensile forces as pressure inside skull increases Heaving concentric when radiating fracture cannot sufficiently relieve the pressure 0 Heaving concentric fractures are produced as internal pressure sequentially levers out bones of the skull Will not cross initial line of trauma Bone beveling does not lie Radiating factures will continue to form and expand until pressures subside or until energy is dissipated into an existing fracture or suture Fractures that radiate from an entrance would travel at a faster rate than the bullet 0 Can result in an atypical exit wound 0 Example a semicircular exit wound 9 fracture absorbed energy Another type of bullet entrance wound can be produced by a tangential or glancing or angled bullet entry position 0 Bullet goes on edge with bone a skipping patter across skull 0 Result fanshaped defect called a keyhole lesion 0 In such a case projectile not only bevels bone inward but also chips it 0 Usually an entry wound What about postcranial projectile wounds Can they be distinguished from blunt force 0 In some cases YES 0 Example entry wound in posterior tibia Reconstructed by forensic anthropologist Exit wound not visible because bone shattered faster than bullet could move through bone Victim from back not as shooter claimed 9 manslaughter conviction Blunt Trauma Falls Assaults Automobile accidents o Workplace injuries o Much harder to discern o Correlating soft tissue injuries with underlying one defects o Skeletal response to blunt force trauma will depend on intrinsic properties of bone geometry stress rises areas resistant to stress as noted by Gurdjan s work and bone density Extrinsic Forces o Shape weight material of striking object o Rates of duration of loading at impact site o Relative force of blow Stages of Structure Pressure in Blunt Trauma Force applied without bending or distortion stress Resilient bending under the load strain elastic deform Bending with permanent deformation plastic deform Failure fracture of structure when it separates The greater the force the greater the damage Bone is 13 stronger in compression than in tension 9 it fails first at tension o Example butterfly fractures Types of Fractures o Linear Stellate Compression Oblique Compound o Pond Hinge Comminuted Greenstick one side broken one just bend 9 ribs There are distinctive types of fractures whereby we can describe trauma Sharp Instrument Trauma o May be able to suggest singleedged blade doubleedged blade width thickness serrated straight spine features hilt shape o It is easier to look at the knife and predict the wound it will make than to look at a wound and suggest the type of instrument that made it NOTES March 9 2012 Postmortem damage can be really misleading Minimum of 35 years since death when bones turn grey in Louisiana o The bones are very dried out When people get decapitated third vertebra down Blunt force trauma warps the skull NOTES March 12 2012 An outside water source does not have to be present 9 adipocere Bring calculator to exam Determine maximum length of femur 232Femur 6553 d 394 cm Femur s maximum length 470 mm 9 47 cm o 23247 10904 6554 17457 cm o 17457 cm 254 cm 687 inches o Height 5 9 I 15 inches NOTES March 14 2012 Mock Trial o Casey Anthony charged with 1St degree murder of her daughter Caylee o Butyric acid is one of the first fatty acids released in human decomposition o Dr G states that a hidden body no report of missing persons and duct tape on the face indicates homicide not accidently NOTES March 16 2012 TEST Inclass review Ch 7912 exam Entomology Casey Anthony s Trial Today s lecture 0 Age Ancestry Trauma Height Medicolegal Death Investigation Joe Morgan o Coroner bastardized version of crowner 0 Richard the Lion Heart Crowner death tax 0 If you committed suicide your family gets kicked out of the village and possessions get taken away o What is the point of being a medicolegal death investigator 0 Just trying to find the truth 0 People in the general public are scared They want to know what kills o Jobs 0 Elected Physician Coroners o Elected Lay Coroners 0 Appointed Medical Examiners Magna Carta o Sheriff and coroner are mentioned in the document Coroners o Minimum GED o Resident of the countyparish o Some are requirements as young as 18 o Some states have basic academy 0 Alabama has none o No felonies Most Medical Examiners o 4 years of undergraduate o 4 years of medical school o 5 years of pathology residency o 1 year forensic fellowship o Pass clinical boards o Pass anatomical boards o Pass forensic boards Frontline Show Death Investigation in America END OF MATERIAL FOR EXAM 2 NOTES March 19 2012 Paleopathology Pathology vs Paleopathology c From Pathology 9 logos 9 study of c From Pathology 9 pathos 9 suffering o IN practice paleopathology is defined as the scientific study of disease processes Sir Marc Armand Ruffer 1910 Defined the term and expanded upon it to mean the science of disease whose existence can be demonstrated on the basis of human and animal remains from ancient times The very first works of paleopathology was on animal remains instead of human remains These impact human skeletal remains Paleopathology It is considered by many to be a subdiscipline of biological anthropology Focus is on abnormal variation in human remains from archaeological sites Multidisciplinary in approach and concentrates on primary and secondary sources of information Evidence Primary evidence 9 physical remains skeletal or mummified Secondary source of evidence 9 documentary and iconographic art Unfortunately artists and writers document most dramatic occurrences Dwarfism Leprosy Hansen s Disease the Black Death etc o Leprosy Carville is the only leprosy colony in the continental US Leprosy is carried by armadillos There are about 200 new cases each year of leprosy in the country 9 20 of them are in Louisiana It is very hard to transmit from human to human Multidrug therapy allows individuals to live with others ErgotismSt Anthony s Fire 9 came from ergot Achondroplasia 9 seen in the art of the past because it was somewhat unusual The Black DeathBubonic Plague Carried by rats Fleas on rats transfer to humans Killed at least 25 million people in the 13405 O O o Ignore commonplace ones that might have devastated a population 0 Measles pneumonia flulike diseases o Caution care should be taken when studying literary works to consider the in terms of the times in which they were written 0 Inaccurate description of a disease my influence the interpretation of its impact on a population o Precise dating of skeletal remains also aids in tracing the origin of a disease o Venereal Syphilis 9 Old or New World disease Medical Anthropologists o Some researchers also study populations in geographic regions which sustain contemporary traditional societies o Often these are medical anthropologists o These groups because of less influence from westernize drug therapy etc can be useful analogs to past populations REMEMBER o Important to remember that different disease may produce similar symptoms o Coughing up blood 9 TB cancer chronic bronchitis o Skin rash 9 measles leprosy chicken pox Studying Paleopathology o How does one go about undertaking a study in paleopathology 0 Must have understanding of how the disease affects the skeleton o Is this straightforward 9 Not necessarily no o Why How doe we know that bone changes have not altered in the evolution of a disease 0 We cannot be certain o With all of this why even study it o How people interacted with the environment over thousands of years 0 Detailed knowledge of a group s experience with a disease over long periods of time 0 While some diseases seen in dry bone are active at death others are long term perhaps healed perhaps chronic etc 0 Can provide info on living with a disease 0 Can also provide information about living cases o Living with a disease long enough does not necessarily lead to death 9 Scaphocephaly o A result of premature fusion of the sagittal suture o Believed to have a genetic component o Results in an elongated skull Spina bifida occulta o Inherited condition o The arch of the sacrum is open o Can cause some problems maybe not o Can be a clue to the identity of a person Periostitis o Inflamed shin NOTES March 21 2012 Test 2 Review o White Ancestry o Sloping eye orbits o Blacks o Molar patters is much more complex Check MOODLE Prosecution o John Schultz 9 Forensic Anthropologist o Michael Warren 9 Forensic Anthropologist o Arpad Vass 9 Forensic AnthropologistBiochemist o Neal Haskell 9 Forensic Entomologist o Dr G 9 Pathologist Defense o Kathy Reichs9 Forensic Anthropologist o William Rodriguez 9 Forensic Anthropologist o Barry Logan 9 Chemist o Tim Huntington 9 Forensic Entomologist o Werner Spitz 9 Pathologist o Jane Bock 9 Botanist NOTES March 26 2012 Paleopathology I ArchaeologyCultural Items o Slides of artifacts and pictures from South America Harris Lines o Lines on the bones associated with the interruption of growth Many diseases mimic one another and it s difficult for people who study pathology to sort these out NOTES March 28 2012 Genetic disease trauma deliberate alteration cultural alteration will help explain abnormal appearance in bones o Also environment 0 Food 0 Culture High heels can permanently alter your gait and affect your Achilles tendon o Can result in broken ankles Scaphylocephaly o Sagittal suture fuses prematurely and results in an elongated skull Hydrocephaly o Caused my mutation o Can be a genetic condition o Some children may be born with it o Globular appearance to skull o In the past may have resulted in death Porotic Hyperostosis o Used to be associated with an ironpoor diet o Seen in modern forensic cases o Bone is resorbed o Seen on the parietal bones and lambdoidal region maybe the eye orbits o May have an origin from a parasite o Pinprick holes Cribra Orbitale o Used to be associated with an ironpoor diet o May be parasitic o Seen in modern cases o Pinprick holes Osteoporosis o Bone integrity is not normal o Something has caused bone loss o Osteoporosis can results in fractures o Seen more often in elderly women due to diet and loss of hormones o May be cultural or part of the aging process o Not a disease or genetic Primary Hyperostosis o Grossly enlarged bones o Bony buildup Periostitis affects the periostium o Typically caused by an injury Osteomyelitis affects the entire bone shaft o Typically caused by staph Spina bifida occulta o Open spine o Seen in forensic cases o The exterior portion of the vertebral arch of the sacrum is open o Could be genetic 9 cause not certain o May affect hip muscles o Can help people be identified Lukenshadel o The bones of the skull did not calcify properly o Varying degrees in individuals o Rare these days o Not needed for exam Congenital dislocation of femur o Femur is out of the socket o May form a new acetabulum by dislocated femur o The body adapts o Not needed for exam Eagle Syndrome o Styloid process elongation o Bilateral Physical Alterations o Alterations of the body We no longer have a diet that wears teeth extensively o Heavy wear is associated with a skull from a different era 0 Applies in USA Trephination o Removing a portion of bone in the skull Parry Fracture o Fractures resulted from defense wounds o Typically seen in the forearm NOTES April 2 2012 Treponematosis o Can result in venereal syphilis Leishmaniasis o Caused by a parasite o Affects the facial area and mucus membranes o Transmitted by sand flies o Central and South America o Eats away the bone in the face Osteomyelitis o Caused by staph infection or injury to the bone 0 Injury may happen away from the bone and settle in the long bones o Holes in the bones are called cloaca 0 Where the pus and infection is draining out of the bone Pot s Disease o Tuberculosis of the spine Neoplasia o Can me malignant or benign tumors o Osteoma on the skull benign from injury o Mucocele fluidlike mucous not cancerous o Maxillary sinus tumor typically benign but can cause much damage to the bone o Metastatic tumor cancerous can move all over the body Multiple Myeloma o Often manifested in the skull o Cancerous Exostosis of the Ear Canal o Benign bony growth or tumor o Can cover the entire ear and lose hearing Osteochondroma o Noncancerous tumor often seen in youth AFIP o Armed Forces DISH o Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis o Don t know the cause of boniness NOTES April 4 2012 12 year old child skeleton o Premature suture closure o Cribra Orbitale o Bands of hypoplasia o Indentations in the enamel of the teeth 0 Thought to be a result of a poor diet o Harris Lines 0 Transverse lines on the bones o A result of ironpoor diet o Porotic Hyperostosis o More than likely died of malnutrition Forensic Imaging at the LSU FACES Forensic Anthropology and Computer Enhancement Services Laboratory Tissue Depth Markers o Markers cut to very specific lengths o They represent averages of tissue depth at various locations on the skull o Standards for males females various populations and ancestry different age groups etc Ultrasound Technology o Can move transducer across the face and captures information to a tenth of a millimeter Dimensions o Nose and the ears are typically the same length o Substrate determines the width and depth of the nose o The width of the lips are typically from canine to canine and the height of the lips are typically from gum line to gum line o Hair found at the scene is extremely helpful o If hair is not found the hairdo of the greater population is used c Always use brown eyes PUBLICITY The goal is to get the individual identified It s important to have accurate average measurements for people of various races New Technology o Working towards scanning the skull especially if the skull is damaged o Map the skull and form an unbroken skull Forensic Imaging at FACES o 3D Facial Reconstruction o 2D Facial Reconstruction o Age Progression o Photo enhancement o Photo comparisons 3D Clay Facial Reconstruction o Technique over 100 years old combining science and art o Analysis by forensic anthropologist o 21 tissue depth markers placed on skull o Plasticine clay used to build face o Formula used to create nose and mouth o Knowledge of facial muscles o Effective tool for identification o Must glue mandible to cranium for stability o Must place the skull in proper anatomical position Frankfurt Plane NOTES April 16 2012 12 40000 sets of human remains are left unidentified 2D Facial Reconstruction o Used wen skull is too damaged to apply clay o Tissue depth markers placed on skull o Photographed at 11 scale o Created on paper using same measurements as on 3D reconstruction Age Progression o Age progression of missing young children using software package o Use a blending of the mother and father at the age wished to progress to o Occasionally done with fugitives Photo Enhancement o Enhance the features of people in blurry videos or photos Photo Comparison o Compare photos of suspects and criminals New Initiative Establishing a central database for the missing and unidentified of Louisiana Louisiana Act 227 c Any law enforcement agency or other criminal justice agency located within the state shall submit all unidentified human remains found within the state to the FACES Laboratory after reasonable time Unidentified Remains Analysis don t need to know for exam 0 Age 0 Sex o Ancestry Height o Trauma o Pathology o Postmortem Interval o Dental Charting o DNA Sampling 0 CODIS Combined DNA Index System Missing Personal Information o Biological information o Dental records and xrays o Additional imaging records c Photographs Clothing o Tattoos o Circumstances of disappearance o Family reference samples NOTES April 18 2012 Unidentified Remains o Approx 200 cases entered into state database around 20 are out of state 0 Cases can be just 1 bone o All cases entered into unidentified remains portion of NAMUS website o All cases will be entered into CODIS Missing Persons o Approx 500 cases entered into state database about 300 are out of state Work with Crime Stoppers o Billboards o Playing cards IAFIS o Fingerprint database NOTES April 20 2012 CSI Cajun Country Adam Becnel Adam Becnel o Worked with the Louisiana State Police Crime Lab since 1998 Forensics c Any subject applied to the court or legal system c Chemistry biology toxicology firearms tool marks fingerprints impressions computers anthropology accounting documents Who would make a good forensic scientist o Great character o Solid education 0 Requires a science degree not criminal justice 0 4 year BS degree 0 Don t NEED a forensic science degree Training is given when hired to the crime lab o Lack of criminal history Natural inquisitiveness 0 Crime labs exonerate more than convict Desire to help people Attention to detail Good speaker Difference Between Crime Scene and Crime Lab o Someone with a criminal justice degree can work the crime scene not the crime lab o Crime scene collects evidence from scene o Crime lab processes collected evidence Main Crime Lab Unites o Drugs DNA o Toxicology o Firearms and Tool Mark Examination o Fingerprints Drugs o Identification 0 Microscopic 0 Color Tests 0 Instrumental DO NOT USE INCENSE BATH SALTS etc DNA o Forensic DNA CODIS DNA 0 Section that tracks the arrestees and convicted felons in the state and nation 0 DNA that goes into the database is 13 numbers The forensic portion of the genome that is unique enough to identify you Not your genetic code o Sources of Biological Evidence Blood Semen Saliva Urine Hair Teeth Bone 0 Tissue o Contact DNA o Mitochondrial DNA 0 Useful in unidentifiable human remains When no other biological sample other than hair bone or fingernails is available 0 Maternally inherited Limited must have maternal relative O O O O O O O Toxicology o Analysis of blood for blood alcohol level o Sometimes used for broader cases 0 What killed a person without a bullet or knife wound o Is the gunshot wound circumstantial Firearm and Tool Mark Examination o Firearms o Cartridges 0 GRC General Rifling Characteristics 0 Serial Number Registration 0 Gunshot residue o Tool marks 0 No tools are alike 0 Can match striations or tool marks microscopically Fingerprints o Latent not readily visible o Patent readily visible o Classification Pattern Types 0 Arch 0 Whirl 0 Loop o Identification and Comparison 0 Overall pattern identification 0 Minutiaenumber of matching points o Fingerprints are formed in the womb NOTES April 23 2012 Human Rights The United Nations UN o Human rights are for all without distinction o Human rights are the naturalborn rights for ever human being university they are not privileges o The Universal Declaration of Human Rights all humans have the right to 0 Life liberty and security of person 0 Freedom from slavery and servitude 0 Freedom from torture or cruel inhumane or degrading treatment or punishment 0 Equality before the law 0 Not being subjected to arbitrary arrest detention or exile 0 Freedom of movement and residence 0 Nationality o The right to marriage and to found a family 0 Freedom of thought conscience and religion 0 Peaceful assembly and association 0 Work 0 Health 0 Education How Are Human Rights Protected o Police 0 City o Countyparishschool 0 State Military International intervention 0 Amnesty International UN AAAS Human Rights Watch Physicians for human rights The Carter Center of Emory University 0 O O O O Instances of Human Rights Infringements Jewish Holocaust by the Nazis 19331945 Pol Pot s killing fields in Cambodia 19701975 Attempted genocide by Idi Amin in Uganda 19711979 Attempted genocide of Kurds in Iraq 19801988 Rwandan genocide of the Hutu by a group of Tutsi rebels 1994 Ethnic cleansing in Kosovo 1999 Lord s Resistance Army in multiple African countries 1987present Disadvantages girls face in education because they are female ongoing The use of child labor ongoing Human trafficking ongoing o Baton Rouge is among the top 10 US cities for human trafficking How Can Forensic Anthropologists Assist Clandestine mass grave detection and excavation May conduct interviews with familiesacquaintances to obtain antemortem information Positive identification Detection between a culture s normal burial patterns versus an abnormal burial Differentiate between commingled remains Trauma analysis of remains Analysis of compounds associated with decomposition o Serve as expert witnesses in a court of law How Does Human Rights Work Differ from Standard Forensic Work o For the professional forensic scientist human rights work is basically the same as everyday work The differences lie in the perpetrators of the crimes the cultural assumption and the scale of the work Karen Ramey Burns Forensic Anthropologist o Back in 1979 I was pulled into a case where I had to identify a bunch of boys killed by a psychopath in Chicago I never imaged that ten years later I d be down here Bolivia doing pretty much the same thing But there s a big difference in this case Camacho the camp commander and his men murdered those kids with all the power of the state behind that Now for me that s the worst crime of all Clyde Snow Forensic Anthropologist When did FA Enter the Humans rights scene o The firs recorded and publicized use of FA associated with human rights missions occurred in 1984 o In 1984 Clyde Snow was requested to serve as a consultant regarding the Argentinian Dirty War of 19741983 c Trip to Argentine was organized in party by Eric Stover who was the director of the cien and human rights program of the American Association for the Advancement of Science o Out of this endeavor Snow and Stover form the Equipo Argentino de Anthropologia Forense Anthropologists Know for their Work with Human Rights o Dr Clyde Snow 0 Some of Dr Snow s skeletal confirmations include victims of John Wayne Gacy victims of the Oklahoma City bombing John F Kennedy Dr Joseph Mengele King Tutankhamen 0 Worked with mass graves of civilians from the Dirty War in Argentina and so far at least 5 officers were convicted partially due to his work Founded the Equipo Argentno de Anthropologia Forense EAAF in 1986 O o The success of the Argentina mass grave mission led to the creation of the Guatemalan Forensic Anthropology Team when survivors of the Guatemalan Civil War sought Snow s help 0 Worked the American Airlines Flight 191 crash in 1979 in which 273 victims perished due 0 Most influential person in human rights work in the world o Dr Karen Ramey Burns 0 Cofounder of EQUITAS a nonprofit Colombian forensic anthropology team 0 Worked on the Amelia Earhart search in Kiribati Fiji and the Northern Mariana Islands o Dr William Haglund 0 Worked as Chief Medical Examiner in King County WA o Mr Hugh Tuller o In 2000 worked in Kosovo Croatia Bosnia And Herzegovina o Dr Rebecca Saunders 0 Professor of Anthropology at LSU 0 Worked with mass graves in Kosovo Croatia and Guatemala NOTES April 25 2012 Behind the Yellow Tape Case Study The Scene o A body was found in a rural area of Louisiana behind a small abandoned building on a residential street o The area behind the property was lightly wooded Results 0 Age 0 Pubic Symphysis No ridges 9 eliminate 2030 years Ventral margin has already formed 0 Auricular Surface Flattening out of the surface Not as extreme as a 65 year old o Sternal Rib Endings Porous no billowing Endings not as thick but not as sharp and jagged Endings becoming irregular 0 Sex MALE o Hips Narrow sciatic notch Convexity Sloping forehead Square chin Large mastoid processes Prominent muscle attachments Ancestry o Prominent anterior nasal spine 0 Rectangularsloping eye orbits 9 black or white 0 Moderate prognathism 0 Simple sutures 9 black or white 0 Rectangularrounded orbit 9 black or mongoloid Height 0 Femur 519 mm 9 519 cm 0 210femur cm 7222 d 319 o 254 cm 1 inch Pathology 0 Entomology Time Since Death 24 weeks Still fully clothed Fingerprints could still be taken April in Louisiana Body found outside Still a large amount of tissue Trauma o Fractures radiating out from high velocity entrance wound left side of skull o Beveling on the inner face of the wound O O O O O O 0 Exit wound is a gaping hole 9 destroyed NOTES April 27 2012 Where Do Forensic Anthropologists Work o Forensic Lab 0 Minimum of a master s degree most have PhD s o Professor o Expert Witness in court DMORT 0 National disaster teams o United Nations o Forensic Archaeology o Coroner s Office o Medical Examiner s office o Law Enforcement o Museums NAMUS o NCMEC National Center for Missing and Exploited Children FBI o JPAC Joint POWMIA Accounting Command o Human Rights Organizations o SOFA Society of Forensic Anthropologists 0 o Primatology Dr Yancy o Grew up across the street from a funeral home and obtained his first job there as a kid The Coroner s Office o Sexual assault exams o People who are a threat to themselves or to others o Death investigators Investigating with the coroner s office o Make sure they re dead o Positive identification o If they cannot make a positive identification they MUST contact the FACES Lab NOTES April 30 2012 Impact of Embalming and Burial on Decomposition Rates and Diffusion of Volatile Fatty Acids in Eastern Kentucky What are VFAs o Volatile Fatty Acids o VFAs are byproducts of fatty acids o Composed of fatty acids attached to short chains of carbon atoms o Remain biologically active in soil for great lengths of time and form during the period a body undergoes active decomposition o Have the potential to yield a wealth of information concerning clandestine graves secondary burials archaeological data etc Importance and Relevance o Decomposition rates are determined based upon the environment and temperature in which they are places o An old rule of thumb states that one week of putrefaction in air is equivalent to two weeks in water which is equivalent to eight weeks buried in soil given the same environmental temperature o Entomological information form this study could assist in instances where natural disasters result in casualties and disinterment of the dead o The state of a body may yield evidence in exhumations and discern between embalmed versus unembalmed remains Results o Necrophagous insects are not equally attracted to embalmed versus nonembalmed surface remains The nonembalmed control was a more attractive choice for insects c There is a noticeable delay in initial insect arrival between the two groups c There is a significant difference in sect activity between the two groups o Embalming resulted in differential decomposition o Embalming greatly delayed decomposition Additional Discoveries o Embalming arterial fluid acts to preserve and cavity fluid results in mummification o The deeper a body is burred the better preserved o It does not appear that VFA concentrations can clearly discern between an adult and an infant burial Historic Forensics Francisco Pizarro o Conquering the Inca climaxed in 1532 NOTES May 2 2012 Animal vs Human Bones o Shape of the bone o Density o Thickness o Cells o Morphology is different o Best bone to sex hip bone o Secondary sexing bone skull o Child under 18 teeth 0 Difficult to age child under 12 o Children have 20 teeth o Adults have 32 teeth o If you only have cranium o Sutures o Tooth loss 0 But be careful 9 other factors can cause premature suture closure and tooth loss Ancestry o Most difficult thing that forensic anthropologists do o Memorize trait sheet on Moodle o Inion hook white o Venus markings black o Complex sutures mongoloid Trauma o Perimortem antemortem postmortem o High velocity ballistic Pathology o Periostitis etc Taphonomy o What happens to the body after death Stature o Femur formula Insects o Stages of development FACES Lab o Services they perform Ribs o Can help with aging Speakers o Joe Morgan Georgia o Adam Becnel Crime lab o Yancy Baton Rouge Coroner s office Eagle Syndrome o Elongated Styloid process The medial clavicle is the last bone to fuse about 25 4282012 71200 PM 4282012 71200 PM
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'