INTRO CULTSOCL ANTH
INTRO CULTSOCL ANTH ANTH 1003
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STUDY GUIDE QUIZ 2 ANTH 10032 Fall 201 1 What is covered in this studV guide and Ouiz No 2 Textbook Chaps 9 11 The Tiwi of North Australia The lm Rabbit Proof Fence CONCEPTS TO KNOW Chap 9 Marriage and the Family Def1ne and discuss signi cance Sexual dimorphism Norms vs Values Marriage vs Mating what is monogamous mating Incest taboo and reasons for its universality among human groups Af nal vs Consanguineal cognatic kin Nayar Tavarad Endogamy vs Exogamy Antonio Gramsci Ralph Linton Status Role Social Identity Claude Levi Strauss What school does he exemplify Forms of Marriage Monogamy Polygamy Polygyny group marriage fictive marriage Serial Monogamy The Family in world wide perspective Family types nuclear natal conjugal consanguineal group polygynous polyandrousjoint extended Woman marriage same sex marriages Advantages of arranged marriage Parallel cousin vs cross cousin marriage Bride price wealth bride service dowry Family vs household what is a nonfamily household Five Functions ofthe family Functions of the Household Residence patterns Patrilocal Matrilocal Neolocal Am bilocal Levirate Sororate Some reasons for the high divorce rate in the US Sex vs Gender Society vs Social Structure Chap 10 Kinship and Descent Def1ne and discuss importance Ascent vs Descent Kinship Groups Corporate vs non corporate kinship groups Apical Ancestor Five functions of descent groups Usufruct Mores mos The Chinese Clas Tsu What is distinctive about it Filial piety and face Unilineal Descent Group How is a patrilineage unlike a matrilineage Double descent Am bilineal descent Lineage Clan Moiety Phratry Totemism its functions Mechanisms of social integration Eskimo kinship system Iroquois kinship system Fictive kinship Honor killings what forms of social organization are they associated with The Nuer Acephelous Political Systems Cattle Love EE Evans Pritchard Leopard Skin Chiet Principle of Segmental Opposition Tahitian Social System Kindred ranked society Primogeniture and Entail ranking principle Tapoo and Mana Economic Redistribution Ranking by Social Distance Ariori Society Period of License its functions Ram age vs Kindred Anglo Saxon Sib Bilateral kinship system Apical Ancestor Kin ofthe Neck Second Cousin vs rst cousin twice removed Chapter 11 Gender Age Common Interest Groups Social Class Caste Association vs sodality Association by kinship vs association by propinquity locality Examples of gender based groups Age Grade vs Age Set Nayakusaadeiriki vs Zulu age grades Under what conditions do societies develop strong age grades Elder abandonment examples Common Interest Association what kind of society emphasizes this kind of group Name three American common interest associations Name two on line common interest associations Ranked strati ed societies Situs Caste The Hindu Caste system how many caste levels Brahmins Kshatriyas Vaishyas Sudras Dalits Varna color vsJati Estates Social Classes Objective vs Subjective classes W Lloyd Warner s studies Status indicators Social mobility Slavery Jannissaries QUESTIONS ABOUT THE TIWI Where do the live How long have they lived there In what ways is their culture UNLIKE that of other Australian Aboriginees Why is their culture so different How did Australians arrive in Australia and how do we know What do Tiwi eat What are their favorite foods What kind of houses do they live in today What were their traditional houses like How do the Tiwi males get a wife What can they not do in order to get a wife What are their principal hunting weapons How do the Tiwi raise cash today What is the principal goal of a Tiwi male in society How was Pilling able to begin his eldwork in Tiwi society Is there a Theme to Tiwi society Who invented this concept What is a Core Culture and do the Tiwi have one Who invented this concept From the biocultural perspective what are some of the principal adaptations of the Australians 3 kinds of adaptations Among food foragers what is relative population density an indicator of How do the Tiwi rank in density in the ethnographic present What is the principal danger of living in North Australia What did the ethnographers nd most uncomfortable and dif cult How do anthropologists interpret the nature of social organization How do the Tiwi live today What is the principal concept of Tiwi religion 26 Spear ght wmsawewwr HHHHHHHHHH WWNU UIBMNHC N O NNNNN UIBMNh t Rabbit Proof Fence 1 Where does the action take place Western Australia The Rabbit Proof fence was the longest fence in the world running a thousand miles north to south across western Australia to keep rabbits from the farmlands to the west 2 What were the AAboriginal Protection Acts 1909 and again in 1943 What did they aim to do Educate the Aboriginals to become Auseful members of Australian society by teaching them domestic skills girls and the skills ofthe ranch hand boys They also had to learn English but little of use to anyone wishing to become an educated member of Australian society This was done by removing them from their families and placing children in church run boarding schools at great distance from their homes 3 What did the girls think of their new home They hated it 4 How did they escape They planned it for a time when attention was directed away from them 5 How did they keep from being recaptured on the long trek back home They hid in the days They got help from some people They did the unexpected 6 How were they originally captured 7 When they reached home why weren tthey almost immediately recaptured since the authorities knew where they were going Their mother kept them in the bush for the rest oftheir childhoods 8 What happened to the Aboriginal Protection Acts policy It was nally rescinded in the 1960s 9 What was the theory behind the Acts The Australians believed that ifthey could remove the Ah alf castes and introduce them to menial work the pure Aboriginals would eventually die out of natural causes 10 What happened to the 15 to 20000 children which had been Aeducated under this policy They became the Alost generations who lost their identities and any ties to their true parents One is now suing the Australian government for discrimination Final Exam Chapter Outlines Fall 2006 Chapter 8 I Families A Nuclear and Extended Families 1 The nuclear family consists of parents and their children 2 Most people belong to at least two nuclear families at different times in their lives a family of orientation and a family of procreation a Family of orientation is the family in which one is born and grows up b A family of procreation is formed when one marries and has children Nuclear family organization is widespread but not universal 4 In certain societies the nuclear family is rare or nonexistent or has no special role in social life 5 In some societies social units such as extended families and descent groups assume most or all of the functions otherwise associated with the nuclear family a Among the Muslims of western Bosnia nuclear families were embedded within large extended families called zadrugas each headed by a male household head and his wife b The Nayars of southern India lived in matrilineal extended family compounds called tarawads each headed by a senior woman B Industrialism and Family Organization For many North Americans the nuclear family is the only well defined kin group 2 The most prevalent residence pattern among middleclass North Americans is neolocalityimarried couples are expected to establish a new place of residence 3 Expanded family households those that include nonnuclear relatives are more common among lowerclass North Americans a An extended family household includes three or more generations b A collateral household includes siblings and their spouses and children c The greater frequency of expanded family households among poorer Americans is an adaptation to poverty that enables relatives to pool their resources C Changes in North American Kinship 1 Although the nuclear family remains a cultural ideal for many Americans other domestic arrangements now outnumber the quottraditionalquot American household more than three to one E 11 With more women joining the workforce the age of rst marriage has increased The divorce rate has also risen dramatically three times faster than the population growth rate between 1970 and 2003 as has the number of singleparent families The percentage of adults who are married has decreased The trend toward smaller families and liVing units in the United States is also detectable in western Europe and other industrial nations D The Family among Foragers l 2 Descent The two basic social units of traditional foraging societies are the nuclear family and the band Although nuclear families are as impermanent among foragers as they are in any other society they are usually more stable than bands are Typically the band exists only seasonally breaking up into nuclear families when resources become scarce Mobility and the emphasis on small economically selfsufficient family units promote the nuclear family as a basic kin group in both industrial and foraging societies A Descent Groups E A descent group is a permanent social unit whose members claim common ancestry There are two types of unilineal descent patrilineal and matrilineal a With patrilineal descent people automatically have lifetime membership in their father39s group the children of the group s men join the group but the children of the group s women are excluded b With matrilineal descent people join the mother s group automatically at birth and stay members throughout life matrilineal descent groups include only the children of the group s women c Patrilineal descent is much more common than matrilineal descent is Descent groups may be lineages or clans A lineage is a descent group whose members can demonstrate their common descent from an apical ancestor demonstrated descent A clan is a descent group whose members claim common descent from an apical ancestor but cannot demonstrate it stipulated descent When a clan s apical ancestor is nonhuman an animal or a plant it is called a totem Descent groups usually have branches local descent groups that live in different Villages B Lineages Clans and Residence l Descent groups are permanent and enduring units whose members have access to lineage estates 2 Patrilineal and matrilineal descent and the postmarital residence rules that usually accompany them ensure that about half the people born in each generation will spend their lives on the ancestral estate 3 There are two different unilocal rules of postmarital residence patrilocality and matrilocality a Patrilocalityithe rule that when a couple marries it moves to the husband s community so that their children will grow up in their father s villageiis associated with patrilineal descent b Matrilocalityithe rule stipulating that married couples live in the wife39s community so that their children grow up in their mother39s villageiis less common and associated with matrilineal descent III Marriage A There is no single de nition of marriage that is adequate to account for all of the diversity found in marriages crossculturally B Incest and Exogamy l Exogamy is the practice of seeking a spouse outside one s own group a This practice forces people to create and maintain a wide social network b This wider social network nurtures helps and protects one s group during times of need 2 Incest refers to sexual relations with a close relative a The incest taboo is a cultural universal b What constitutes incest varies widely from culture to culture C Endogarny l Endogarny rules dictate mating or marriage within a group to which one belongs 2 Most cultures are endogamous units although they usually do not have formal endogamy rules while classes and ethnic groups within a society may also be quasiendogamous 3 Caste a India s caste system is an extreme example of endogamy b Castes are stratified groups in which membership is ascribed at birth and is lifelong c Occupational specialization often sets off one caste from another d The belief that intercaste sexual unions lead to ritual impurity for the highercaste partner has helped to maintain endogamy and to ensure the pure ancestry of highcaste children e While castes are endogamous groups many are internally subdivided into exogarnous lineages IV Marital Rights and SameSex Marriage A Edmund Leach observed that several kinds of rights may be allocated by marriage 1 Marriage can establish the legal father of a woman39s children and the legal mother of a man s 2 Marriage can give either or both spouses a monopoly in the sexuality of the other 3 Marriage can give either or both spouses rights to the labor of the other 4 Marriage can give either or both spouses rights over the other s property 5 Marriage can establish a joint fund of propertyia partnershipifor the bene t of the children 6 Marriage can establish a socially signi cant quotrelationship of af nityquot between spouses and their relatives B There are no logical reasons why samesex marriage could not allocate all of the rights discussed by Leach C Because samesex marriage is illegal in the United States with the exception of Vermont and Massachusetts samesex couples are denied many of the rights and bene ts enjoyed by differentsex couples eg rights to the labor and property of a spouse the ability to establish a joint fund of property relationships of af nity with a spouse39s relatives D Samesex marriages have been recognized in various historical and cultural settings eg Native American berdaches the marriage of two women among the Igbo and the Lovedu in Africa V Marriage Across Cultures A In nonindustrial societies marriage often is more a relationship between groups than one between individuals B Bridewealth and Dowry 1 In societies with descent groups descentgroup members often have to contribute to the bridewealthia customary gift before at or after the marriage from the husband and his kin to the wife and her kin a Bridewealth compensates the bride39s group for the loss of her companionship and labor b Bridewealth is also known as progeny price because it makes the children born to the woman full members of her husband s descent group c Bridewealth is common in patrilineal groups d As the value of bridewealth increases marriages become more stable thus bridewealth is insurance against divorce 2 Dowry is a marital exchange in which the wife39s group provides substantial gifts to the husband s family a Dowry correlates with low female status b Dowry is much less common than bridewealth 3 In societies with bridewealth a woman s ability to bear children is essential to the stability of her marriage 4 Most nonindustrial foodproducing societies allow plural marriages or polygamy a Polygyny in which a man has more than one wife is common b Polyandry in which a woman has more than one husband is very rare 5 Polygyny may result from an infertile wife remaining married to her husband after he has taken a substitute wife provided by her descent group C Durable Alliances 1 Customs such as the sororate and the levirate highlight the importance of marriage as an alliance between groups 2 In a sororate marriage a widower marries one of his deceased wife s sisters or another woman from her group if she has no sister or if all her sisters are already married 3 In a levirate marriage a widow marries one of her deceased husband s brothers VI Divorce A Ease of divorce varies across cultures 1 Marriages that are political alliances between groups are harder to break up than are marriages that are more individual affairs 2 Substantial bridewealth discourages divorce and replacement marriages levirate and sororate also help to preserve group alliances 3 Divorce is more common in matrilineal and matrilocal societies eg the Hopi of the American Southwest 4 Divorce is harder in patrilocal societies as a woman may be less inclined to leave her children who as members of their father39s lineage would be expected to remain with him B In foraging societies different factors favor or oppose divorce 1 Factors favoring divorce a Since foragers tend to lack descent groups the political alliance functions of marriage are less important to them than they are to food producers Foragers also tend to have few material possessions making the process of dissolving a joint fund of property easier 2 Factors opposing divorce a Ties between spouses tend to be durable in societies in which the family is an important yearround unit with a genderbased division of labor b Sparse populations mean there are few alternative spouses Fquot C In contemporary Western societies divorce may occur when sex romance andor companionship fade while economic ties obligations to children concern about public opinion or simple inertia may keep marriages intact VII Plural Marriages A Polygamy marriage to more than one spouse at a time is illegal in contemporary North America but North Americans do practice serial monogamy remarrying after divorce B Polygyny 1 Even in cultures that encourage polygyny monogamy still tends to be the norm largely because most populations have roughly equal sex ratios 2 The custom of men marrying later than women so that there are more widows than widowers promotes polygyny 3 The context and function of polygyny vary from society to society and even within the same society 4 Some men are polygynous because they have inherited a widow from a brother while others have multiple wives because they seek prestige or want to increase household productivity C Polyandry l Polyandry is quite rare being practiced almost exclusively in South Asia Tibet Nepal India and Sri Lanka 2 Polyandry seems to be a cultural adaptation to mobility associated with customary male travel for trade commerce and military operations 3 Polyandry ensures there will be at least one man at home to accomplish male activities 4 Fraternal polyandry is also an effective strategy when resources are scarce a Brothers with limited resources can pool their resources in expanded polyandrous households b Because polyandry restricts the number of wives and heirs land can be transmitted with minimal fragmentation VIII Box Social Security Kinship Style A In Arembepe Brazil all members of the community claimed to be related although as in a clan they could not trace exact genealogical links to their distant kin B In Arembepe the rights and obligations associated with kinship and marriage comprised the local social security system which had both benefits and costs 1 The primary benefit was guaranteed help from kin inlaws and ritual kin in times of need 2 The primary costs were limits on individuals39 economic advance a Successful people were expected to share with more kin and inlaws and with more distant kin than were poorer people Chapter 9 b Increasing wealth resulted in invitations to enter into ritual kin relationships eg serving as godparents involving additional obligations I Introduction Questions about nature biological predispositions and nurture environment emerge in the discussion of human sexgender roles and sexuality Sexual dimorphism refers to differences in male and female biology besides the contrasts in breasts and genitalia Sex differences are biological but gender encompasses all the traits that a culture assigns to and inculcates in males and females in other words gender refers to the cultural construction of male and female characteristics Definitions Gender roles are the tasks and activities that a culture assigns to the sexes 2 Gender stereotypes are oversimplified but strongly held ideas about the characteristics of males and females 3 Gender stratification describes an unequal distribution of rewards socially valued resources power prestige human rights and personal freedom between men and women re ecting their different positions in a social hierarchy II Recurrent Gender Patterns F Crosscultural data indicate that the time and effort spent in subsistence activities by men and women tend to be about equal While the subsistence contributions of men and women are roughly equal crossculturally female labor predominates in domestic activities and child care Adding together their subsistence activities and their domestic work women tend to work more hours than men do Women tend to be the primary child caregivers in most societies but men often play a role There are differences in male and female reproductive strategies 1 Women work to ensure their progeny will survive by establishing a close bond with each baby and by having a reliable mate to ease the childrearing process and ensure the survival of her children 2 Men who have a longer reproductive period than women do may choose to enhance their reproductive success by impregnating several women over a longer period of time Double standards eg regarding premarital or extramarital sex that restrict women more than men illustrate gender stratification 111 Gender among Foragers A E Economic Roles and Gender Strati cation In foraging societies gender strati cation is most marked when men contribute much more to the diet than women do e g the Inuit and other northern hunters and shers When gatheringiwhich tends to be women s workiis prominent e g among tropical and semitropical foragers gender status tends to be more equal The PublicDomestic Dichotomy Gender strati cation is also reduced when the domestic and public spheres are not sharply separated Strong differentiation between the home and the outside world is called the domesticpublic dichotomy or the privatepublic contrast a Crossculturally women39s activities tend to be closer to home than men s are b Often when domestic and public spheres are clearly separated public activities have greater prestige than domestic ones do and gender strati cation is promoted SexLinked Activities Certain roles tend to be more seXlinked than others Hunters and warriors are usually men because they tend to be bigger stronger and more mobile than women Pregnancy lactation and childcare generally preclude women from being the primary hunters in foraging societies Nevertheless the activities and spheres of in uence of men and women may overlap among foragers e g the Ju hoansi San In foraging societies the public and domestic spheres are least separate hierarchy is least marked aggression and competition are most discouraged and the rights activities and spheres of in uence of men and women overlap the most Given that all humans were foragers until 10000 years ago relative gender equality is most likely the ancestral pattern of human society IV Gender among Horticulturalists A B Martin and Voorhies 1975 studied 515 horticultural societies to investigate how gender roles and strati cation varied according to economy and social structure Women were found to be the main producers in horticultural societies In half of the societies women did most of the cultivating In athird of the societies men and women made equal contributions to cultivation Men did most of the work in only 17 percent of the societies Women dominated horticulture in 64 percent of the matrilineal societies and in 50 percent of the patrilineal ones Reduced Gender Strati cationiMatrilineal Matrilocal Societies 1 Female status tends to be high in horticultural societies that are matrilineal and matrilocal 2 Women tend to have high status in matrilineal matrilocal societies because descentgroup membership succession to political positions allocation of land and overall social identity all come through female links C Increased Gender StratificationiPatrilinealPatrilocal Societies l The spread of the patrilinealpatrilocal complex consisting of patrilineality patrilocality warfare and male supremacy has been linked to pressure on resources a As resources become scarce intervillage warfare often increases b Patrilocality and patrilineality keep related men together in the same village where they make strong allies in battle 2 The patrilinealpatrilocal complex tends to enhance male prestige and as a result to increase gender stratification e g societies in highland Papua New Guinea a Women work hard growing and processing subsistence crops raising and tending pigs and doing domestic cooking but they are isolated from the malecontrolled public domain b Males dominate the public domainigrowing and distributing prestige crops preparing food for feasts arranging marriages and trading pigs and controlling their use in ritual 3 In densely populated areas of Papua New Guinea where there is strong pressure on resources malefemale avoidance is extreme men regard contact with females including sex as dangerous and polluting and they segregate themselves in men s houses and hide their precious ritual objects from women 4 In contrast sparsely populated areas of Papua New Guinea lack taboos on malefemale contacts V Gender among Agriculturalists A When the economy is based on agriculture women typically lose their role as primary cultivators 1 Martin and Voorhies 1975 found women were the main workers in 50 percent of the horticultural societies surveyed but in only 15 percent of the agricultural groups 2 Male subsistence labor dominated 81 percent of the agricultural societies but only 17 percent of the horticultural ones B Social changes accompanying the advent of agriculture affected women negatively l Belief systems started contrasting men s valuable extradomestic public labor with women s domestic role now viewed as inferior 2 The decline of descent groups and polygyny and the increased importance of the nuclear family isolated women from their kinswomen and cowives 3 Female sexuality is carefully supervised in agricultural societies while men enjoy easier access to divorce and extramarital sex C Nevertheless female status is not inevitably low in agricultural societies 1 Gender stratification is associated with plow agriculture rather than with intensive cultivation per se 2 The Betsileo of Madagascar illustrate that intensive cultivation does not necessarily entail sharp gender stratification a Betsileo women contribute slightly more than 50 percent of the labor devoted to producing and preparing rice before cooking b Although postmarital residence is mainly patrilocal descent rules permit married Betsileo women to keep membership in and a strong allegiance to their own descent groups c Betsileo women also participate in various public activitiesisuch as holding political office selling their produce and products in markets investing in cattle sponsoring ceremonials and arranging marriages VI Patriarchy and Violence A Patriarchal Societies l Patriarchy describes a political system ruled by men in which women have inferior social and political status including basic human rights 2 Such practices as dowry murders female infanticide and clitoridectomy exemplify patriarchy which extends from tribal societies such as the Yanomami to state societies such as India and Pakistan B Domestic Violence 1 Family violence and domestic abuse of women are worldwide problems 2 Abuse of women is more common in societies where women are separated from supportive kin eg patrilinealpatrilocal societies VII Gender and Industrialism A Early American Industrialism l The quottraditionalquot idea that quota woman39s place is in the homequot actually emerged in the United States as industrialism spread after 1900 a In the 1890s more than 1 million American women held unskilled factory positions b After 1900 European immigrants willing to work for wages lower than those of Americanbom workers moved into factory jobs that previously had gone to women c As machine tools and mass production further reduced the need for female labor the notion that women were biologically unfit for factory work began to emerge 2 During the world wars the notion that women are un t for hard physical labor faded 3 Increased female employment has been spurred by a number of factorsiin ation a culture of consumption the baby boom and industrial expansion 4 Today almost half of all Americans who work outside the home are women and women fill more than half of all professional jobs B The Feminization of Poverty 1 In the United States poverty is becoming feminizedithat is women and their children are increasingly represented among America s poorest people 2 The number of singleparent femaleheaded households in the United States has more than doubled since 1959 3 The feminization of poverty including an increase in female headed households is evident worldwide 4 The increase in femaleheaded households stems from a number of factors including male migration civil strife men off fighting divorce 39 J J unwed J 39 parenthood and more generally the idea that children are women s responsibility VIII What Determines Gender Variation A Gender roles and stratification have varied widely across cultures and through history B Gender is exible and varies with cultural social political and economic factors IX Sexual Orientation A Sexual orientation refers to a person s habitual sexual attractions and activities Heterosexuality refers to sexual preference for members of the opposite sex 2 Homosexuality refers to sexual preference for members of the same sex 3 Bisexuality refers to sexual preference for members of both sexes 4 Asexuality refers to indifference toward or lack of attraction to either sex B To some extent at least all human activities and preferences including erotic expression are learned malleable and culturally constructed C In any society individuals will differ in the nature range and intensity of their sexual interests and urges D Whatever the reason for individual variation culture always plays a role in molding individual sexual urges toward a collective norm E Sexual norms vary considerably both crossculturally and through time l Attitudes about masturbation bestiality sex with animals and homosexuality vary widely between societies as well as within a single society 2 In many societies eg the Azande the Etoro various forms of samesex sexual activity are considered normal and acceptable F Homosexual Behavior among the Etoro Etoro culture in which there was extreme tension surrounding malefemale sexual relations illustrates the power of culture in molding human sexuality 2 Etoro men believed that semen was necessary to give life force to a fetus a Men were believed to have a limited supply of semen b Sexuality was thought to deplete this supply and to sap male virility and vitality 3 Although heterosexual intercourse was necessary for reproduction it was deemed unpleasant because it would eventually lead to a man39s death a Heterosexual sex was discouraged and limited to only about 100 days a year b Heterosexual sex was removed from community life and could only take place in the woods 4 Although heterosexual sex was discouraged sex between males was viewed as essential a The Etoro believed that in order for boys to grow into men and eventually give life force to their children they had to acquire semen orally from older men b From the age of 10 until adulthood boys were inseminated by older men c Such homosexual acts could take place in the village 5 Etoro homosexuality was governed by a code of propriety although sexual relations between older and younger males were considered culturally essential those between boys of the same age were discouraged G Flexibility in sexual expression seems to be an aspect of our primate heritage for both masturbation and samesex sexual activity exist among chimpanzees and other primates H Like gender roles and attitudes more generally the sexual component of human personality and identityihow we express our quotnaturalquot sexual urgesiis a matter that culture and environment determine and limit X Box Indonesia39s Matriarchal Minangkabau Offer an Alternative Social System A Most scholars who have searched for a true matriarchyia society in which women rather than men have powerihave concluded that such a society does not exist and perhaps has never existed B Anthropologist Peggy Reeves Sanday believes that this conclusion is incorrect l Matriarchies have never been found because researchers have been looking for the wrong thingia society in which women control everyday affairs including government 2 Among the Minangkabau people of West Sumatra Indonesia males and females are partners for the common good of the community rather than selfinterested competitors for social and political power C Minangkabau society is based on matrilineality as well as a naturebased philosophy known as adat emphasizing the importance of nurturing growth in humans animals and plants D The Minangkabau matriarchy is focused on making women the center origin and foundation of life and the social order 1 Women control land inheritance 2 Postmarital residence is matrilocal husbands join their wives39 households E Despite womens signi cant position in Minangkabau society this matriarchy is not the equivalent of female rule 1 Decisionmaking is done by consensus 2 Males and females are seen are complementary with neither sex ruling society Chapter 10 I Introduction Anthony Wallace def1nes religion as belief and ritual concerned with supernatural beings powers and forces B Another perspective on religion focuses on bodies of people who gather together regularly for worship and who accept a set of doctrines involving the relationship between the individual and divinity the supernatural or whatever is taken to be the ultimate nature of reality C Anthropologists have stressed the collective shared and enacted nature of religion the emotions it generates and the meanings it embodies l Durkheim stressed religious effervescence the bubbling up of collective emotional intensity generated by worship 2 Victor Turner used the term communitas to refer to an intense community spirit a feeling of great social solidarity equality and togetherness D Like ethnicity and language religion also is associated with social divisions within and between societies and nations E Religion is a cultural universal although different societies conceptualize divinity supernatural entities and ultimate realities very differently II Expressions of Religion A Neanderthal burials and European cave paintings may be evidence of early religious activity B Animism l E B Tylor was the rst to study religion anthropologically 2 C l 2 3 D Magic 1 2 3 4 E Uncert l 2 Mana and Tab Tylor proposed that religion evolved through three stages rst animism then polytheism and nally monotheism a Animism was a belief in spiritual beings that according to Tylor originated from peoples attempts to explain dreams and trances in which the soul was active Polytheism is the belief in multiple gods Monotheism is the belief in a single allpowerful deity oo Mana is a sacred impersonal force that can reside in people animals plants and objects Belief in mana was especially prominent in Melanesia the area of the South Paci c that includes Papua New Guinea and adjacent islands a Melanesian mana similar to our notion of ef cacy or luck could be acquired or manipulated by people in different ways such as through magic One could acquire mana by chance or by working hard to get it Because success was attributed to mana and failure to a lack of mana the notion of mana provided an explanation for differential success that people could not understand in ordinary natural terms In Polynesia mana was attached to political of ces a Polynesian chiefs and nobles had more mana than ordinary people did Chiefs were so charged with mana that contact with them or with things they touched was dangerous to commoners Consequently the bodies and possessions of high chiefs were tabooiset apart as sacred and offlimits to ordinary people and Religion Magic refers to supernatural techniques intended to accomplish speci c aims In imitative magic magicians produce a desired effect by imitating it eg the use of quotvoodoo dollsquot With contagious magic whatever is done to an object is believed to affect a person who once had contact with it Magic can be associated with animism mana polytheism or monotheism ainty Anxiety Solace Religion and magic can help reduce anxiety eg facing death enduring life crises Malinowski argued that people turn to magic as a means of control when they face uncertainty and danger b b F Rituals 1 2 G 1 4 H 1 2 a The Trobriand Islanders turned to magic only in situations e g sailing that they could not control and that therefore were psychologically stressful b In contemporary societies magic persists as a means of reducing psychological anxiety in situations of uncertainty eg baseball pitching Rituals are formalistylized repetitive and stereotypediand performed in sacred places at set times Rituals include liturgical ordersisequences of words and actions invented prior to the current performance of the ritual in which they occur Rituals convey information about the participants and their traditions and translate enduring messages values and sentiments into action Rituals are inherently social and by participating in them performers signal that they accept a common social and moral order Rites of Passage Rites of passage are customs associated with the transition from one place or stage of life to another eg Native American vision quests Rites ofpassage have three phases a Separationiwhen participants withdraw from the group and begin moving from one place or status to another Liminalityithe period between states during which the participants have left one place or state but have not yet entered or joined the next Incorporationiwhen participants reenter society with a new status having completed the rite Liminality involves the temporary suspension and even reversal of ordinary social distinctions behaviors and expectations Communitas refers to an intense community spirit a feeling of great social solidarity equality and togetherness during collective liminality In certain societies particularly nationstates there are quotpermanent liminal groupsquot e g sects brotherhoods cults whose members adopt liminal features such as humility poverty equality obedience sexual abstinence and silence b Totemism Rituals play an important role in creating and maintaining group solidarity Social solidarity was also promoted by totemism which was important in Native Australian religions a In totemic societies each descent group had a totemian animal plant or geographical featureifrom which they claimed descent b The members of a totemic group did not kill or eat their totem except once a year when people gathered for ceremonies dedicated to the totem 3 Totemism uses nature as a model for society a People relate to nature through their totemic association with natural species b Because each group has a different totem diversity in the natural order becomes a model for diversity in the social order c At the same time because all totems are part of nature the unity of the human social order is enhanced by symbolic association with and imitation of the natural order III Social Control A The power of religion affects action B Throughout history political leaders have used religion to promote and justify their views and policies eg the Taliban Movement in Afghanistan C Leaders may mobilize communities and thereby gain support for their own policies either by persuasion or by instilling hatred or fear D Witch hunts can be powerful means of social control by creating a climate of danger and insecurity that affects everyone not just the people who are likely targets 1 In state societies witch hunts often take aim at people who can be accused and punished with least chance of retaliation 2 Witchcraft accusations are often directed at socially marginal or anomalous individuals 3 Witchcraft accusation may serve as a leveling mechanism a custom or social action that operates to reduce status differences and thus to bring standouts in line with community normsi another form of social control E To ensure proper behavior religions offer rewards and punishments and many prescribe a code of ethics and morality IV Kinds of Religion A Although religion is a cultural universal religious beliefs and practices vary crossculturally B Wallace identified four types of religion shamanic communal Olympian and monotheistic l Shamanic Religion a Shamans are parttime religious figures e g curers mediums spiritualists astrologers palm readers diviners who mediate between people and supernatural beings and forces b Shamanic religions are most characteristic of foraging societies c Shamans often set themselves off symbolically from ordinary people by assuming a different or ambiguous sex or gender role 2 Communal Religion a Communal religions have shamans as well as community rituals such as harvest ceremonies and collective rites of passage b Communal religions are polytheisticithat is their adherents believe in several deities who control aspects of nature c Although they are found in some foraging societies communal religions are more typical of farming societies 3 Olympian Religion a Olympian religions first appeared in states b Such religions have fulltime professional priesthoods that are hierarchically and bureaucratically organized like the state itself c Olympian religions are polytheistic characterized by pantheons of powerful anthropomorphic gods with specialized functions 4 Monotheistic Religion a Like Olympian religions monotheistic religions have priesthoods b In monotheism all supernatural phenomena are manifestations of or are under the control of a single eternal omniscient omnipotent and omnipresent supreme being V World Religions A Christianity with more than 2 billion members and Islam with 12 to 13 billion practitioners are the two largest religions in the world B More than a billion people claim no official religion VI Religion and Change A Revitalization Movements 1 Religious movements are social movements that occur in times of change in which religious leaders emerge and undertake to alter or revitalize a society 2 Christianity originated as a revitalization movement 3 The colonialera Iroquois reformation led by Handsome Lake is another example of a revitalization movement B Cargo Cults l Cargo cults are revitalization movements that emerge when traditional communities have regular contact with industrial societies but lack their wealth technology and living standards 2 Native communities attempt to explain European domination and wealth and to achieve similar success magically by mimicking European behavior and manipulating symbols of the desired life style 3 The cargo cults of Melanesia and Papua New Guinea blended Christian doctrine with aboriginal beliefs and practices a Cargo cults take their name from their focus on cargoi European goods that have been brought to the region by cargo planes and ships b Because of their experience with bigman systems Melanesians believed that all wealthy people eventually had to give their wealth away c Cargo cults emerged as a means of magically leveling Europeans who refused to distribute their wealth or even to let natives know the secret of its production and distribution d Cargo cults paved the way for unified political action through which indigenous communities eventually regained their autonomy VII Secular Rituals A Rituallike behavior can occur in secular contexts B If the distinction between the supernatural and the natural is not consistently made in a society e g the Betsileo view witches and dead ancestors as real people it can be difficult to define what constitutes religion and what does not C The behavior considered appropriate for religious occasions varies tremendously from culture to culture VIII Box Islam Expanding Globally Adapting Locally A Islam the world s fastest growing religion has adapted to many different nations and cultures Although all mosques share some common features they also incorporate architectural elements unique to the regions in which they are built 2 Prayers are conducted in Arabic but local people understand theological concepts in the terms of their own languages 3 Islamic concepts and traditions are also shaped by the presence of other religions such as Hinduism B Many Muslims live as minorities in nonIslamic nations eg Europe South Africa Chapter 11 I Introduction A Truly isolated societies do not exist today and probably have never existed B The modern world system refers to a world in which nations are y and y r C The world system and the relations between the countries within that system are shaped by the world capitalist economy 11 The Emergence of the World System A During the 15th century European exploration linked the Old and New Worlds forever and opened the way for a major exchange of people resources ideas and diseases B During the 16th and 17th centuries increased demand for particular goods e g sugar cotton in Europe fueled the development of colonial plantation economies based on single cash crops monocrop production C The emergence of colonial plantation economies in turn fueled the transatlantic slave trade D The increasing dominance of international trade led to the capitalist world economy a single world system committed to production for sale or exchange with the object of maximizing profits rather than supplying domestic needs 1 Capital refers to wealth or resources invested in business with the intent of producing a profit 2 The defining attribute of capitalism is economic orientation to the world market for profit E The key claim of worldsystem theory is that an identifiable social system based on wealth and power differentials extends beyond individual states and nations 1 According to Wallerstein the nations within the world system occupy three different positions of economic and political power core periphery and semiperiphery a The core consists of the strongest most powerful nations which monopolize world nance and with sophisticated technologies and mechanized production manufacture products that ow mainly to other core nations and to a lesser extent the periphery and semiperiphery b The semiperiphery consists of industrialized nations that export industrial goods and commodities but lack the power and economic dominance of core nations c The periphery consists of nations whose economiesiless mechanized than those in the semiperipheryiare focused on the production of raw materials agricultural commodities and human labor for export to the core and semiperiphery 2 The relationship between the core and the periphery is fundamentally exploitative as trade and other economic relations disproportionately benefit capitalists in the core a Today immigrants from noncore nations provide cheap labor for agriculture in core countries e g Mexicans in the United States Turks in Germany b Increasingly companies in core nations are taking advantage of cheap labor in noncore countries by quotoutsourcingquot jobs III Industrialization The Industrial Revolution refers to the historical transformation in Europe after 1750 of quottraditionalquot into quotmodemquot societies through industrialization of the economy B European industrialization developed from and eventually replaced the domestic system of manufacture or homehandicraft system in which an organizerentrepreneur supplied the raw materials to workers in their homes and collected the finished products from them C Causes of the Industrial Revolution 1 Industrialization began with particular widely used goodsicotton products iron and potteryiwhose manufacture could be broken down into simple routine motions that machines could perform 2 Agrarian societies evolved into industrial ones when manufacturing moved into factories where machinery was used to produce cheap staple goods on a large scale 3 Industrialization fueled urban growth and created a new kind of city with factories crowded together in places where coal and labor were cheap D The Industrial Revolution began in England rather than in France 1 The French were able to increase production by simply augmentingirather than transformingitheir domestic manufacturing system 2 With a smaller population England had to industrialize in order to meet mounting demand for staples 3 A number of factors favored English industrialization the country39s natural resources its location at the crossroads of international trade the demand for staples from English settler families and the Protestant beliefs and values of the emerging English middle class IV Stratification A The prosperity that resulted from industrialization was uneven 1 Although factory workers initially received wages higher than those available in the domestic system factory owners began recruiting labor in places where living standards were low and labor including women and children was cheap 2 Many social ills accompanied industrialization including pollution crowded and unsanitary housing insufficient water and sewage disposal disease and rising death rates B Industrial Stratification Marx saw socioeconomic stratification as a sharp and simple division between two opposed classes the bourgeoisie capitalists and the proletariat propertyless workers C a The bourgeoisie owned the means of production eg factories mines large farms and dominated the means of communication schools and other key institutions b Members of the proletariat or working class had to sell their labor to survive c Industrialization contributed to proletarianizationithe separation of workers from the means of production Marx viewed the nationstate as an instrument of oppression and religion as a method of diverting and controlling the masses Marx believed that through class consciousnessirecognition of collective interests and personal identi cation with one s economic groupiworkers could develop organizations to protect their interests and increase their share of industrial pro ts During the 19th century trade unions and socialist parties emerged in order to ght for better wages and working conditions Today the capitalist world system still includes capitalists and propertyless workers but the growth of a middle class of skilled and professional workersire ecting a shift of political power to the massesihas helped to reduce the polarization between owning and working classes In contrast to Marx39s strictly economicbased view of strati cation Weber argued that there are three dimensions of social strati cation wealth economic status power political status and prestige social status a Wealth power and prestige tend to be correlated even though they are separate components of social ranking b Social identities based on ethnicity religion race or nationality may take priority over class social identity based on economic status The current world strati cation system is characterized by a substantial contrast between both capitalists and workers in the core nations and workers on the periphery a Added surplus from the periphery allows core capitalists to maintain their pro ts while satisfying the demands of their workers b In contrast wages and living standards are much lower in the periphery Open and Closed Class Systems 1 2 Caste systems are closed hereditary systems of strati cation that are often dictated by religion Slavery is the most inhumane coercive and degrading form of legal strati cation in which people who are conquered or stolen from their homelands become someone s property Vertical mobility refers to an upward or downward change in a person s social status V The W A VI Chapter 12 a Vertical mobility is facilitated by an open class system in which statuses based on individual achievement and personal merit are more important than ascribed statuses b Open class systems are more commonly found in core industrial nations than in nonindustrial states and contemporary peripheral and semiperipheral nations orld System Today Worldsystem theory stresses the existence of a global culture and emphasizes historical contacts linkages and power differentials between local people and international forces The major forces in uencing cultural interaction during the past 500 years have been commercial expansion industrial capitalism and the differential power of colonial and core nations Imperialism refers to a policy of extending the rule of a nation or empire over foreign nations and of taking and holding foreign colonies Colonialism is the political social economic and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended period of time In the 20th century mass production gave rise to a culture of consumption which in turn has led to the rapid depletion of fossil fuel energy Industrial Degradation 1 One effect of the spread of industrialization in Latin America Africa the Paci c and Asia has been the destruction of indigenous 39 ecnlnoies and r l 39 quot Genocideithe physical destruction of ethnic groups by murder warfare and introduced diseasesihas occurred on a grand scale as industrial states have conquered annexed and quotdevelopedquot nonstates Many native groups indigenous peoples have been incorporated within nationstates in which they have become ethnic minorities Box The World System Meets quotthe Noble Savagequot A Recent research demonstrates that the rate of traumatic injuries among Native Americans increased significantly after the a1rival of Europeans These findings have renewed an anthropological debate concerning the degree to which humans are quothardwiredquot forirather than forced intoi violence 1 Some scholars believe the research findings support the view that humans are not naturally violentithat they become violent largely in reaction to various stresses such as those that would have accompanied the arrival of Europeans in the New World 2 Other scholars argue that violence was widespread in the New World prior to the arrival of Europeans and thus that the view of Native Americans and other traditional nonWestem societies as peaceful quotnoble savages is a myth Colonialism A Colonialism and Imperialism l Imperialism refers to a policy of extending rule of a nation or empire over foreign nations and of taking and holding foreign colonies 2 Colonialism refers to the political social economic and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended period of time Imperialism is as old as the state 4 Modern colonialism began with the quotAge of Discoveryquot during which European nations founded colonies throughout the New World 5 The first phase of European colonialism ended in the early 19th century as a result of rebellions and independence wars in Latin America B British Colonialism 1 British expansion was led by a drive for profit 2 At its peak about 1914 the British empire covered a fifth of the world39s land surface and ruled a fourth of its population 3 The first phase of British colonialism was concentrated in the New World west Africa and India and came to a close with the American Revolution 4 During its second period of colonialism Britain eventually controlled most of India Australia New Zealand Canada and large portions of eastern and southern Africa 5 British imperialism was justified by what Rudyard Kipling called quotthe white man39s burdenquotia paternalistic and racist doctrine asserting that native peoples in the empire were incapable of governing themselves and thus that British guidance was needed to civilize and Christianize them 6 The British empire disintegrated after World War II as a result of nationalist independence movements C French Colonialism In contrast to British expansion French colonialism was driven more by the state church and armed forced than by pure business interests 2 The first phase of French colonialism was focused in Canada the Louisiana territory the Caribbean and parts of India 3 During the second phase of French colonialism the empire grew to include most of north and west Africa as well as Indochina 4 To legitimize their colonialism the French claimed to be engaged in a quotmission civilisatricequotia civilizing mission equivalent to Britain s quotwhite man39s burdenquot the goal of which was to spread French culture language and religion Roman Catholicism throughout the colonies 5 The French used two forms of colonial rule E a Indirect rule refers to the French practice of governing through native leaders and established political structures in areas with long histories of state organization eg Morocco Tunisia b Direct rule refers to the French practice of imposing new government structures to control diverse societies many of them previously stateless eg in many areas of Africa 6 The French empire like the British empire began to disintegrate following World War II D Colonialism and Identity Whole countries along with social groups and divisions within them were colonial inventions 2 For example many of the modern political boundaries in West Africa are based on linguistic political and economic contrasts that were promoted under colonialism 3 Hundreds of ethnic groups and quottribesquot are colonial constructions E Postcolonial Studies 1 Postcolonial studies examine the interactions between European nations and the societies they colonized mainly after 1800 2 The term quotpostcolonialquot is also used to describe the second half of the 20th century the period succeeding colonialism as well as a position against imperialism and Eurocentrism 3 The postcolonies can be divided into settler nonsettler and mixed a Settler countries had large numbers of European colonists and sparser native populations e g Australia Canada b Nonsettler countries were characterized by large native populations and relatively few Europeans eg India c Mixed countries had sizable native and European populations eg South Africa 4 Postcolonial studies focus on various topics including the formation of empires the impact of colonization and the state of postcolonies today II Development An intervention philosophy is an ideological justification for outsiders to guide native peoples in specific directions 1 Britain s notion of quotthe white man39s burdenquot and France s quotmission civilisatricequot were both intervention philosophies 2 Economic development plans also have intervention philosophies 3 Interventionsiwhether by colonialists missionaries governments or development plannersiare based on the belief that industrialization modernization Westemization and individualism are desirable evolutionary advances and that development schemes that promote them will bring longterm benefits to local people B Neoliberalism 1 Currently neoliberalism is the dominant intervention philosophy Neoliberalism is the current form of classic economic liberalismi the view first proposed by Adam Smith that government should not regulate private enterprise and market forces Neoliberalism entails tariff and barrierfree intemational trade and investment maximization of pro ts through cost reduction and a tendency to impose austere measures that cut government expenses In exchange for loans the governments of postsocialist and developing nations have been required to accept the neoliberal premise that deregulation leads to economic growth III The Second World A The labels quotFirst Worldquot quotSecond Worldquot and quotThird Worldquot represent a common though ethnocentric way of categorizing nations 2 B Communism l The First World refers to the quotdemocratic Westquot The Second World refers to the Warsaw Pact nations including the former Soviet Union and the socialist and oncesocialist countries of Eastern Europe and Asia The Third World refers to quotless developedquot or quotdevelopingquot countries Communism spelled with a lowercase quotcquot describes a social system in which property is owned by the community and in which people work for the common good Communism spelled with a capital quotCquot was a political movement and doctrine seeking to overthrow capitalism and to establish a form of communism such as that which prevailed in the Soviet Union 19171991 Communist systems were authoritarian promoting obedience to authority rather than individual freedom and many were totalitarian banning rival parties and demanding total submission of the individual to the state Several features distinguished Communist systems from other authoritarian regimes and socialist social democratic societies a In every Communist state the Communist party monopolized power b Relations within the Communist party were highly centralized and strictly disciplined c Communist nations were characterized by state ownership of the means of production d All Communist regimes cultivated a sense of belonging to an international movement with the aim of advancing communism In the postsocialist ie postCommunist period states that once had planned economies have been privatizing previously state owned resources as well as undergoing democratization and marketization C Postsocialist Transitions 1 Despite attempts to reform the postSoviet economy according to neoliberal principles Russia has faced many problems a declining GDP gross domestic product increased poverty declining life expectancy and a lower bilthrate and corruption 2 Corruption is the abuse of public office for private gain 3 In postsocialist societies what is legal and what is considered morally correct do not necessarily correspond IV Development Anthropology A Development anthropology is the branch of applied anthropology that focuses on social issues in and the cultural dimension of economic development 1 Development anthropologists help to plan and guide policy 2 Foreign aid usually does not go where it is most needed and planners39 interests do not always coincide with the best interests of local people B The Greening of Java 1 Beginning in the 1960s and 1970s the green revolutionibased on new highyielding crop varieties as well as chemical fertilizers pesticides and new cultivation techniquesiincreased food supplies and reduced food prices worldwide 2 However on the Indonesian island of Java stratification led to problems during the green revolution a Wealthy local officials who were put in charge of spreading information about the new agricultural program benefited at the expense ofpeasants b Traditionally wealthy villagers gave loans to peasants and exploited the cheap labor they provided c To keep peasants in a state of economic dependence wealth villagers withheld information about and discouraged participation in the agricultural program d Wealthy villagers further benefited by adopting the new agricultural techniques buying peasants39 plots leaving poor villagers without their means of subsistence and purchasing laborsaving machinery 3 Stoler s research which focused on gender and stratification revealed that the green revolution permitted some women to gain power over other women and men a The status of landholding women rose as they gained control over more land and the labor of more poor women b Although poor women suffered they fared better than poor men who had no access at all to offfalm work 4 As J ava s green revolution illustrates development programs that ignore traditional social political and economic divisions can have 1 C Equity l A commonly stated goal of recent development policy is to promote equity 2 Increased equity means reduced poverty and a more even distribution of wealth 3 Wealthy and powerful people typically resist projects that threaten their vested interests V Strategies for Innovation In planning development projects using anthropological expertise to ensure cultural compatibility is costeffective B To maximize social and economic bene ts development projects must be culturally compatible respond to locally perceived needs involve men and women in planning and carrying out the changes that affect them harness traditional organizations and be exible C Overinnovation 1 Development projects must avoid overinnovation too much change ifthey are to be successful 2 People generally resist development projects that require major changes in their daily lives 3 Development projects need to be sensitive to traditional cultures and the specific downtoea1th concerns of people D Underdifferentiation l Underdiiferentiation is the tendency to overlook cultural diversity and view lessdeveloped countries as more alike than they truly are 2 Many development projects incorrectly assume either individualistic productive units that are privately owned by an individual or couple and worked by a nuclear family or cooperatives that are at least partially based on models from the former Eastern bloc and Socialist countries 3 The most humane and productive strategy for change is to base the social design for innovation on traditional social forms in each target area E Third World Models 1 The best models for economic development are to be found in target communities 2 Realistic development promotes change but not overinnovation by preserving local systems while making them work better 3 The Malagasy example illustrates the potential benefits of basing development programs on traditional social forms eg descent groups 4 Native forms of social organization will not inevitably break down into nuclear family organization impersonality and alienation as countries are drawn into the world capitalist economy 5 Descent groups with their traditional communalism and corporate solidarity have important roles to play in economic development VI Box Culturally Appropriate Marketing Chapter 13 Each time an international company expands into a new country it must devise a culturally appropriate strategy for tting into the new setting McDonald39s had a dif cult time creating culturally appropriate advertising when it rst expanded into Brazil McDonald39s enjoyed greater success when it began adapting to preexisting Brazilian eating habits rather than trying to Americanize them I Acculturation refers to changes that result when groups come into continuous rsthand contactichanges in the cultural patterns of either or both groups II Contact and Domination A ow D The term acculturation has most often been applied to cases of Westemizationithe in uence of Western expansion on native societies Acculturation may be voluntary or forced Different degrees of destruction domination resistance survival adaptation and modi cation of native cultures may follow interethnic contact 1 An initial encounter between an indigenous society and more powerful outsiders often is followed by a quotshock phasequot during which the indigenous population may be attacked exploited and repressed 2 As a result the indigenous group may suffer cultural collapse ethnocide or even physical extinction genocide 3 Political and economic colonialists and even some agricultural development projects have tried to redesign conquered and dependent lands peoples and cultures imposing their cultural standards on others Development and Environmentalism Today corebased multinational corporations rather than the governments of core nations often are the instigators of economic change in Third World nations 2 Governments of many peripheral and semiperipheral nations have supported the predatory enterprises of corporations seeking cheap labor and raw materials in their countries 3 Even wellintentioned interference e g by environmentalists may be treated as a form of cultural domination by subject populations 4 Like development projects conservation efforts must respect cultural variation and autonomy and build upon native forms if they are to be successful 5 Culture clashes related to environmental change may occur when development threatens indigenous peoples and their environments e g the Kayapo of Brazil and the Kaluli of Papua New Guinea or when external regulation threatens indigenous peoples a By declaring certain resources off limits outsiders may expect local people to give up customary economic and cultural activities without clear substitutes alternatives or incentives b Wellmeaning conservation efforts can be as insensitive as development schemes that promote radical changes without involving local people in planning and carrying out the policies affecting them E Religious Change 1 Religious proselytizing can promote ethnocide as native religious beliefs and customs are replaced by ideology and behavior more compatible with Western culture e g the Handsome Lake religion and associated changes in Iroquois society 2 Today much religious change is promoted by missionaries and proselytizers representing the major world religions especially Christianity and Islam 3 While the political ideology of a nationstate may oppose traditional religion eg in the former Soviet empire governments may also use their power to advance a religion e g Islam in Iran or Sudan III Resistance and Survival A Although oppressed people may seem to accept their own domination they always resist it in some nonpublic way 1 Scott s analysis of domination and resistance differentiates between public and hidden transcripts a Public transcript refers to the open public interactions between dominators and the oppressed b Hidden transcript refers to the critique of power that goes on offstage where the dominators cannot see or hear it 2 Gramsci s notion of hegemony refers to a stratified social order in which subordinates comply with domination by internalizing their rulers values and accepting the quotnaturalnessquot of domination 3 According to Bourdieu every social order tries to make its own arbitrariness including its oppression seem natural 4 Resistance may be curbed through hegemony by convincing subordinates that they will eventually gain power or by separating or isolating subordinates and supervising them closely B Weapons ofthe Weak 1 As Scott s work on Malay peasants suggests oppressed groups may use subtle smallscale nonconfrontational methods quotweapons of the weakquot to resist various forms of domination 2 Subordinates also use various strategies to resist publicly although in disguised form eg metaphors euphemisms and folk tales 3 Because resistance is most likely to be expressed openly when the oppressed are allowed to assemble elites discourage public gatherings e g the antiassembly laws of the antebellum South 4 Festivals such as Carnival are prime arenas for the expression of antihegemonic discourse discourse includes talk speeches gestures and actions C Cultural Imperialism 1 Cultural imperialism refers to the spread or advance of one culture at the expense of others or its imposition on other societies which it modi es replaces or destroysiusually because of differential economic or political in uence 2 While modern technologies particularly the mass media act as agents of cultural imperialism by erasing cultural differences they also allow local groups and cultures to express themselves to national and global audiences eg television in Brazil IV Making and Remaking Culture A Atext is something that is creatively quotreadquot interpreted and assigned meaning by each person who receives it 1 Any mediabome image such as Carnival can be analyzed as a text 2 The meanings and feelings that quotreadersquot derive from a text may be quite different from what the creators of the text imagined 3 The hegemonic reading refers to the reading or meaning that the creators of a text intended or the one that elites consider to be the intended or correct meaning 4 quotReadersquot of media messages may resist or oppose the hegemonic meanings of atext or they may seize on its antihegemonic aspects B Popular Culture 1 According to F iske each individual s use of popular culture is a creative act an original quotreadingquot of a text 2 Forms and readings of popular culture can express discontent and resistance by groups that are or feel oppressed C Indigenizing Popular Culture 1 People assign their own meanings and value to the texts messages and products they receive based on their cultural backgrounds and experiences 2 When forces from world centers enter new societies they are indigenizedimodified to fit the local culture eg McDonald s in Brazil D A World System of Images 1 The electronic mass media can spread and even help create national and ethnic identities 2 Crosscultural studies show that locally produced television shows are preferred over foreign imports 3 Mass media play an important role in maintaining ethnic and national identities among people who lead transnational lives E A Transnational Culture of Consumption 1 Contemporary global culture is driven by ows of people technology finance information and ideology 2 Business technology and the media have increased the craving for commodities and images throughout the world forcing most nationstates to open to a global culture of consumption V People In Motion A Today people are traveling more than ever B With so much transnational migration and other movement of people the unit of anthropological study expands from the local community to the diasporaithe offspring of an area who have spread to many lands C Postmodemity describes today39s world in which traditional standards contrasts groups boundaries and identities are opening up reaching out and breaking down 1 In its most general sense postmodern refers to the blurring and breakdown of established canons rules or standards categories distinctions and boundaries 2 The word quotpostmodemquot is taken from postmodernism a style and m v t in 39 quot ethat 39 39 39 inthe 1970s drew ona diversity of styles from different times and placesiincluding popular ethnic and nonWestem cultures D New kinds of political and ethnic units are emerging such as a growing panIndian identity and an international Pantribal movement VI The Continuance of Diversity A Anthropology has a crucial role to play in promoting a more humanistic vision of social change one that respects the value of human biological and cultural diversity B The existence of anthropology is itself a tribute to the continuing need to understand similarities and differences among humans throughout the world VII Box Cultural Diversity Highest in ResourceRich Areas A A results of a recent study indicate that cultural linguistic diversity is greatest in equatorial areas with less diversity near the poles B This pattern appears to be related to resource abundance and distribution 1 Resource abundance in equatorial regions allows diverse cultural groups to survive 2 In contrast in regions were resources are less abundant and more dispersed people must range widelyiresulting in more intergroup contact and therefore cultural homogenization