WORLD ARCHAEOLOGY ANTH 2050
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f wwww and the RHusksome 39 1 LU T HRK 39F I Henry Toshiba 112011 Anthropology 2050 World Archaeology Human Origins a Robust vs gracile Australopithecines b Lecture outline i Evolution ii Setting for our early human ancestors e Africa iii Early Hominins our family tree in a nutshell Evolutionary Types Biological Cultural Technological a b c d Variation e Adaption f Selection g Change Darwin s Evolution Concept of Natural Selection a Individuals within species vary b Some variations are passed to offspring c More offspring are produced than can survive d Survival and reproduction are not random e Variations more suited to the environment often survive to reproduce more often Evolution biological and cultural adaptations a Biological Evolution by natural selection b Cultural adaption c Culture i Culture is our nonbiological means of adapting our natural and social environments 1 Tools VI VII VIII Anthropology 2050 World Archaeology 2 Clothing 3 Language 4 Writing Evolution Common Descent a b Every organism descended from a common ancestor Homininrefers to all great ape ancestors after the evolutionary split What do we share with other primates TWTthnUm j Stereoscopic Vision Reduced sense of smell Flexible shoulder joints vertical positioning of the trunk Hands and feet with 5 digits Grasping thumbs Flat fingernails instead of claws Generalized dentations Extended gestation and maturation Strong maternal offspring bond High degree of socialization How do we differ from primates a b c d e Bipedalism Large brain and forehead Reduced body hair Reduced physical agility Number of chromosomes humans46 chimpanzees48 Hominin or Hominid a quotHomininquot is the term currently used to refer to members of the human lineage after we split with that of chimpanzees XI Xll Anthropology 2050 World Archaeology b The term quotHominidquot is a term that is used to refer to all of the Great Apes The Cradle of Humanity Africa a East African Rift b Extended over 6000 km c Narrow zone where African plate is in the process of splitting into two new plates Nubian and Somalian subplates d EHR Valley i 3 Main characteristics important for early Hominin sites 39 Holes that fills up with sediments thus preserving potential sites ii39 Tectonically activelots of erosion iv Volcanically activelevels of volcanic ash that can be used to date sites 1 Method used is PotassiumArgon Missing Link a Eugene Dubois 18481940 b Pithecanthropusthe Apeman Our Family Tree Fossil record very scant between 104 mya SD b About 6 mya is the time when Hominin lineage diverges from our own lineage Two possible earlier ancestors Sahelanthropus ehadensis n and Aripithecus ram idus schelanthrops Schelanthrops a Discovered in 2001 XIII XIV Anthropology 2050 World Archaeology Discovered in 2001 Is it a true Hominin orjust another Hominid 7 mya Brain size of chimpanzees but overall features differ Was it bipedal Common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees qrzrhmglocr Related to both but ancestor of neither i Ardipithecus ramidus i 5 mya ii Discovered in 1993 in Ethiopia iii Human or Chimpanzee side iv Bipedal The Australopithecus quotGreat Apes of the South a Earlier well known Hominins b Emerged around 4 mya c Persisted until 25 mya d South and East Africa e Six known species i Most common are A afarensis and A africanus Australopithecines features a Upright body positioning b Postcranial skeleton looks human c Larger brains than modern chimps A afarensis quotGreat Ape from the Southquot a 34 mya b Bipedal c Brain size ca 400cc Vl d Anthropology 2050 World Archaeology Lucy found by Donald Johansson and colleagues at Hader Ethiopia in 1974 i Named after the Beatles The Letals footprints a b C Found by Mary Leaky 1978 Footprints in volcanic ash 38 mya The Leakey s at Olduvai Gorge Meaning of Bipedalism SD 999 99579gt Long distance traveling Protection from predators and increased visibility Control over body temperature in hot sunny climates Free hands Bipedalism came before tool making and evidence for larger cranium africanus quotGreat Ape from Africa Taller than Aafrensis but still gracile Ca 23 mya Discovered in 1924 by Raymond Dart in South Africa First time the term Australopithecus was assigned Parathropus robustus quotRobust Bosie Humans 39thCLnUSD Also known as Australopithecus boised 2514 mya Massive molars for chewing Diet of fruitsseeds with hard coatings Several species of australopithecines Gracile lineage most likely led to ancestors of modern humans VII VIII Anthropology 2050 World Archaeology Homo habilies a Found in 1965 Mary Leakey b Found with stone tools called Oldowan tools c Oldowan lead to Acheulean made exclusively by erectus Homo eretus a 15 mya b Discovered by Dubois c Acheulenan tools were bifacial tools twosided d Pithecanthropus The Neanderthals Ecology and the Ice Age a W MVV39L V and the J R FIIDERSDIME f 1a57HRK t 39 quot Henry Toshiba 112011 Anthropology 2050 World Archaeology Human Origins a Robust vs gracile Australopithecines b Lecture outline i Evolution ii Setting for our early human ancestors e Africa iii Early Hominins our family tree in a nutshell Evolutionary Types Biological Cultural Technological a b c d Variation e Adaption f Selection g Change Darwin s Evolution Concept of Natural Selection a Individuals within species very b Some variations are passed to offspring c More offspring are produced than can survive d Survival and reproduction are not random e Variations more suited to the environment often survive to reproduce more often Evolution biological and cultural adaptations a Biological Evolution by natural selection b Cultural adaption c Culture i Culture is our nonbiological means of adapting our natural and social environments 1 Tools VI VII VIII Anthropology 2050 World Archaeology 2 Clothing 3 Language 4 Writing Evolution Common Descent a b Every organism descended from a common ancestor Homininrefers to all great ape ancestors after the evolutionary split What do we share with other primates TWTthnUm j Stereoscopic Vision Reduced sense of smell Flexible shoulder joints vertical positioning of the trunk Hands and feet with 5 digits Grasping thumbs Flat fingernails instead of claws Generalized dentations Extended gestation and maturation Strong maternal offspring bond High degree of socialization How do we differ from primates a b c d e Bipedalism Large brain and forehead Reduced body hair Reduced physical agility Number of chromosomes humans46 chimpanzees48 Hominin or Hominid a quotHomininquot is the term currently used to refer to members of the human lineage after we split with that of chimpanzees XI Xll Anthropology 2050 World Archaeology b The term quotHominidquot is a term that is used to refer to all of the Great Apes The Cradle of Humanity Africa a East African Rift b Extended over 6000 km c Narrow zone where African plate is in the process of splitting into two new plates Nubian and Somalian subplates d EHR Valley i 3 Main characteristics important for early Hominin sites 39 Holes that fills up with sediments thus preserving potential sites ii39 Tectonically activelots of erosion iv Volcanically activelevels of volcanic ash that can be used to date sites 1 Method used is PotassiumArgon Missing Link a Eugene Dubois 18481940 b Pithecanthropusthe Apeman Our Family Tree Fossil record very scant between 104 mya SD b About 6 mya is the time when Hominin lineage diverges from our own lineage Two possible earlier ancestors Sahelanthropus ehadensis n and Aripithecus ram idus schelanthrops Schelanthrops a Discovered in 2001 XIII XIV Anthropology 2050 World Archaeology Discovered in 2001 Is it a true Hominin orjust another Hominid 7 mya Brain size of chimpanzees but overall features differ Was it bipedal Common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees qrzrhmglocr Related to both but ancestor of neither i Ardipithecus ramidus i 5 mya ii Discovered in 1993 in Ethiopia iii Human or Chimpanzee side iv Bipedal The Australopithecus quotGreat Apes of the South a Earlier well known Hominins b Emerged around 4 mya c Persisted until 25 mya d South and East Africa e Six known species i Most common are A afarensis and A africanus Australopithecines features a Upright body positioning b Postcranial skeleton looks human c Larger brains than modern chimps Anth 2050Lecture 1 8202012 43300 PM World Archaeology Overview of Archaeology Anthropology Sociocultural Ethnolinguistics Physicalbiological Archaeology the study of humans and their past through what they produce also follows what they look like 0 Prehistoric archaeology Past before writing 0 Historical archaeology Anthropology o Interested in material past o 19th century in America interested in natives o looks at different ways to study humans o in Europe archaeology was born out of geology looked for funny rocks Human Origins o Robust vs gracile Australopithecines FossHs o Mineralized bones o Extremely rare o Have to die somewhere where their bones will be preserved o In a way they are rocks c We can date things through radiocarbon dating replaces c14 isotope and can calculate the death by using the half life to find the rate of decay but if its too old 75000 years and older cannot be dated by carbon 14 History o Started simply and became more complex with the more data that we found Lecture Outline o Evolution o Setting for early human ancestors Africa o Early Hominins our family tree in a nutshell Evolution o Biological 0 Cultural o Technological Variation 0 Mutations different 0 Interspecific and Intraspecific 0 There is variability in our species Adaptation Selection Change Darwin s Evolution Concept of Natural Selection o Individuals within species vary o Some variations are passed to offspring More offspring are produced than can survive Survival and reproduction not random Variations more suited often survive to reproduce or reproduce more Evolution biological and cultural adaptation o Biological evolution by natural selection 0 Artic animals like polar bear are white to camo in the snow o Cultural adaptation o Humans wearing certain clothes for certain regions like eskimos wear large jackets Socialization American football 0 Subject to selection Big game hunting with inadequate tools Spear with weapon used to kill mammoth and shoot the mammoth then people will follow and the behavior will stick around 0 Evolution Culture o Culture is our nonbiological means of adapting to our natural and social environment 0 Tools 0 Clothing 0 Language 0 Writing o See culture when we start to see tools c We cannot use dancing and things that we cannot find to show how people develop don t know specifics of courting Evolution Common descent o Every organism descended from a common ancestor o docans book by british writer something like sisters o incrementalwe find more and more every day 0 fall in different trees where some went extinct and others are related to us today The Great Apes o 1215 myr orangutan branched off o 68 myr gorilla branched off o 46 myr humanchimps and bonobo branched What do we share with other primates o Opposable thumb grasping thumb o Large brains o 3d vision reduced sense of smell diurnal o flexible shoulderjoints vertical positioning of trunk o hands and feet with five digits AnthLectu re 2 Primate Note years What 8202012 43300 PM characteristics Summary Large brains 3D vision reduced sense of smell 0 we see in three colors 0 sense of smell is bad flexible shoulderjoints vertical positioning of trunk hands and feet with five digits grasping thumb flat fingernails instead of claws 0 lost claws so we have sensitive touch with nails generalized dentition o mush smaller K9 s extended gestation and maturation o 9 months gestation and offspring are fairly useless o tightly knit social bond between mother and child strong maternaloffspring bond high degree of socialization 0 communication hunting Chimps are not our ancestors they are our cousins and about 6 million ago we shared a common ancestor do we have that is different from other primates Reduced body hair 0 Thermal regulation We sweat to regulate heat If you sweat in a cold environment then the sweat would freeze in the hair and cause you to be colder Bipedalism Large brain and forehead vertical Reduced physical agility o More stamina and more endurance by bipedalism but we lost ability to swing in trees Number of chromosomes 0 Humans46 o Chimpanzees48 Hominin or Hominid o Homonin is the term currently used to refer to members of the human lineage after the split with that of chimps the term Homonid is a term that is used to refer to all of the Great Apes and their ancestors o Homonoid shaped like a Homonid 0 We are Homonin and Homonid o Chimp is Homonid not Homonin The cradle of humanity Africa o Africa is the earliest evidence of fossils of homonin o East African rift o Extend over 6000 km 0 Narrow zone where African plate is in the process of splitting into two new plates Nubian and Somaliansubplates Where the earliest fossils are found Great preservation Sediment that would mineralize bones Tectonically active n Breaks the earth so fossils are exposed a Because its between two plates Three main characteristics important for early hominin sites Through that fills up with sediments thus preserving potential sites Tectonically active a lot of erosion Volcanically activelevels of volcanic ash that can be used to date sites o Olduval Gorge 0 Many sites in Tanzania o The fossil Record 0 Rare to find complete specimens 0 Hard to classifyjust on parts and that39s where it is highly debatable O 0 Missing Link o Eugene Dubois 18481940 0 O O 0 Dutch doctor Great apes lived in two regions southeast asia and southeast Africa Dubois left for Indonesia got malaria in the first month had kids and wanted to excavate He found the ape man now called H erectus He is the first one to discover and argue that in the past of our lineage bipedalism developed before large brains 1000 cubic centimeters of brain size o Concept of the 19th century that people would find a link from chimp to human lineage o Piltdown Hoax O O O O Cranial reconstruction Piltdown fossil Someone buried something and then found it and after he died people stopped finding the fossils Hoax person took parts of orangutan jaw and modern human scullmore what the scientific community thought it would be The 1950s the Hoax was ended Our family tree Fossil record very scant between 104 mya Ca 6 myatime when hominin lineage diverged from lineage composing chimps O O 0 Two possible earlier ancestors Sahelanthropustchadensis Ardipithecusramidus Ardi Discovered in 2001 Is it a true homonin orjust another hominid 7 myaSahlanthropustchadensis Cranial specification for S tchadensis Brain size of chimp but overall feature differ eg flatter face AnthLectu re 3 8202012 43300 PM Fossil Hominins o Our lineage after the split from the chimps o Mineralized bones Our family tree o 7 myaSahelanthropustchadensis 0 Was it bipedal 0 Common ancestor of humans and chimps 0 Related to both but ancestor of neither o 5 myaArdipithecusramadis o 554 mya Pliocene hominins or panins on side of chimp o Ardi o 5545 mya o Sahelanthropus o 76 mya o eating fruits and ants and worms So who s the real Pliocene homininYoutube video c We don t know o It brings it back to the whole missing link thing The Australopithecines Great apes of the south o Earliest wellknown hominins o Emerged around 4 mya o Persisted until 25 mya o South and east Africa o Six known species 0 Defined on morphology therefore these are flexible o Most common are A afarensis and A africanus o Not impossible that they produced stone tools but wooden tools are likely Australopithecines sites both east and south Africa o Australopithecine features Upright position Postcranial skeleton looks human Larger brains than modern chimps Discovered only in the 1920s Sealed the deal bipedal with small brains O O O O O Ardipithecusramidus 5 mya Australopithecus anamensis 4 mya Bipedal A afarensis and A africanus3mya P robustus3 mya o Paranthropus or Robust Australopithecines o Lead to nothing o Branched off around A afarensis Homo Habilis2 mya o Discovered in the 60 s my the leakeys o The handy human because they were found by tools 0 Being human meant that we could make tools but it seems that other species such as chimps also make tools erectus 1 mya o Not the first bipedal hominin sapiens archaic o Not similar to our morphology but different from H erectus sapiensneanderthalensis o Adapted to cold o Branched from H sapiens Archaic sapienssapiens c We were endangered as a species at some point we were 2000 that is why our genetic diversity is limited o Are extremely homogeneous c From A afarensis to H sapiens sapiens including H sapiens neanderthalensis are directly related to us I I I I Australopithecus afarensis the Great ape from afar o 34 mya o bipedal o brain size ca 400 cc o Lucy found by Donald Johanson and colleagues at Hadar Ethiopia in 1974 o Proganthismprojected jaw o Lucy was named after Lucy in the sky with diamonds Beetles The Laetoli footprints o Found by Mary Leakey 1978 o Footprints in volcanic ash o The volcanic ash can be dated o 38 mya c three individuals 0 two adults and a subadult 0 two footprints overlap The Leakeys at Olduval Gorge Bipedalism o Chimps walk in a rocking fashion o Lucy has a straight alignment c We are adapted to walk for long distances Meaning of bipedalism o Long distance traveling o Protection from predators and increased visibility o Control over body temperature in hot sunny climates c Free hands o Bipedalism came before toolmaking and evidence for larger cranium Australopithecus africanus great ape from Africa o Taller than A afarensis but still gracile o Ca 23 mya o Discovered in 1924 by Raymond Dart in South Africa 0 Taung child 0 Suggested that these were hunters and using wood bone antlers teeth and ivory to make tools that wouldn t survive geological record 0 But stone tools were knives used for processing o First time the term Australopithecus was assigned Paranthropusrobstus robost beside humans Also known as Australopitheucsboisei 2514 mya massive molars for chewing diet of fruitsseeds with hard outer coatings KNM ER 406 KoobiFora Kenya Large sagittal crest which allowed them to chew Graciel and Robust Australopithecines o Robust and gracile o Several species of Australopithecines coexisting side branches that do not lead to modern humans o Gracile lineage most likely led to ancestors of modern humans The origins of culture and early technologies o Hard to learn culture since culture isn t fossilized Lecture outline o First recognizable tool industry the Oldowan o Meaning of stone tools and ways of life of early hominins o The Pleistocene and the Great Ice Age o Homo erectus and its radiation outside Africa Homo habilis handyman o 2516 mya o earliest member of genus Homo o Brain size ca 650 cc o H habilis KoobiFora Kenya Cultural chronology Lower Paleolithic 25 mya200 kya Middle Paleolithic 20040kya Upper Paleolithic 4012 kya Paleolithic old stone age alternate spelling Palaeolithic Name periods on how the objects look like and where they are found Old stone ageflaking New stone agepolishing tools AnthLectu re 4 8202012 43300 PM Culture o Nonbiological means of adaptation o Hard to study because hardly materializes and doesn t preserve c We study the things that have survived Tool Making o Thought that we were only ones that make tools o Great apes make tools but our tools are so complex o Bipedalism helped us experiment with material culture o Earliest stone tools are found 25 mya Lecture outline o Frist recognizable tool industry odowan o Meaning of stone tools and ways of life of early hominins o The Pleistocene and the great ice age o Homo erectus and out of Africa Two main lineage o One linked to us gracile o A afarensis o A africanus o Homo habilis o Not linked to our line robust Cultural Chronology see previous lecture o Paleolithicold stone age alternate spelling Palaeolithic o Chipped 0 Lower 25 mya200 kya a lower levels of ground oldawan u just cracked cobbles achulean a tool symmetry u may have been attached to spears 0 Middle 20040 kya Neanderthal Core industry a Many tools of same shape and size because they start out of a core standardized 0 Upper 4012 kya o Neolithicnew stone age 0 Polished Paleontology study of ancient species Archeology name times after what they find in the ground Homo habilis handy man o Related to gracile australopithecines 0 Slightly larger cranium Lots of variability different species Earliest toolmaker Hunter or hunted Scavenger Very questionablepeople classify them as different species Fossils are often found with teeth marks from large felines o Weren t agile and had teeth like us and were omnivores so they had to compete Issues in early hominin meat acquisition o Emerging role of hominins within subsaharanPlioPleistocene carnivores o Patterned kills once they found a good plan The Oldowan Tool Industry o Lower Paleolithic culture o 19 to 115 mya o first discovered in Olduvai gorge Tanzania o East African Great Rift Valley o Cobble tools choppers o Its simple 0 Take cobble and break it and u can use it to do things 0 Made for cutting grinding scraping The origin of tool use archaeological evidence o The oldest known stone tools date to 25 mya o Found in the hadar region Ethiopia o Almost 3000 stone tools have been recovered o The major types of tools are sharpedged flakes and cores including choppersmultifunctional tools Oldowan stone tool industry o First recognizable stone industry preoldowan not visible archaeologically o Tradition lasted for 2my o Cobble industry breaking cobbles to obtain sharp edges Oldowan tool kit o Hammertones manos unmodified used for grinding pounding etc carried over long distances o Choppers broken river cobbles How to recognize stone tools o Material brought from far away rocks don39t travel by themselves o Consistent patterns of flaking o Broken cobbles or flaked stones near butchery sites o Animal bones with cut marks from stone Meaning of stone tools o Belief that stone tools define humanity but chimps also produce and use tools 0 Hammerstones o Sticks to fish termites 0 Leaves to get water o Humans different because they make more elaborate tools 0 We are so different that we thought that no other animals thought about using their environment and using objects Flint knapping What Were Early o Deer antler works well o Different types o Impact o Pressure o More glass in a rock the more it cuts 0 As we became better some materials became favored are tools good for o First stone tools weren t made to kill it was used to scavange process plants and get meat off bones o Many things o Butchering clothing cutting processing plant fibers etc o Require mental abilities planning visualization early hominins hunters o No major hunting until Neanderthals hunting mammoths and horse o Early views held that australopithecines were hunters o Archaeologists began to question this view in the 1970s o Difficult to prove archaeology whether early hominins were hunters or scavenger o Evidence in some sits hominin sites o Sites from Olduvai gorge in Tanzania excavated by Mary Leakey o Dense scatter of stone tools and bones o The stone circle 4m diameter at DKI site o Stone materials brought in from far away o Living floors or base camps o High proportion of carnivores fighting with carnivores scavenging o Many animal bones with both cut marks and tooth marks from carnivores o Evidence doesn t fit permanent living place Early hominin meat acquisition o Questions 0 Timing of access to carcasses AnthLectu re 5 8202012 43300 PM Early Hominin Meat Acquisition Questions 0 Timing of access to carcasses Carnivores with which hominins interacted Nature and intensity of interactions Role of technology and social behavior in interactions 0 O O Homo erectus upright man 1519 mya150kya brain 1000 cc 0 occipital bun sloping forehead massive brow ridges heavyjaw no chin o lessprognathism language Material culture The Acheulean industry tool symmetrytools that require more planning and made with materials that are nicer and sharper Discovered by Eugene duboic in 1891 in Java Controversial find at the time brain size vs bipedalism very different than Neanderthals Frist of our ancestors to leave Africa Other sites in China Africa Indonesia Vietnam and Europe Femur was clearly that of a bipedal Skull was smaller and flatter than ours Tooth Called it ape man that walked up right First one in our lineage to be found upright walker Zhoukoudian China Excavated by Davidson Black in 1921 Ca 260230kya Show gradual increase in brain size through time 900 to 1100 cc Evidence of shelters Clothing Fire Hunting or scavenging Homo erectus innovations Multipurpose acheuleanhandaxes bifaces 0 Fire Clothing Architecture huts Following games seasons resources Acheulean tools signature tools of H erectus o Acheuleanhandaxes o Multipurpose tools variety of sizes 130cm o More complex than oldowan o Retouched flaked tools pressure o Symmetric tools 0 Look nice More efficient Not designed to fly in the air for long distance Why make them symmetrical Extended sexual selection through material culture 0 O O o Bifacial 0 Less fine cutting o Retouched 0 Can resharpen the tool Sexual selection and neophilia o In modern society human neophilia is the foundation of the art music television film publishing drug travel fashion and research interests which account for a substantial proportion fthe global economy Before such entertainment industries amused us we had to amuse each other on the African savannah and our neophilia may have demanded ever more creative displays from our mates This hypothesis can explain the mysterious cultural capacities that are universally and uniquely developed in humans such as language music dance art humor intellectual creativity and innovative sexual play miller o colpulation o chimps can tell if they do something that hurts like punching you in the face doesn t feel good solve problems with fighting bombs n chimps live front to back copulation o bonobo bombs a die solve problems with sex face to face copulations Acheulean hand axes and sexual selection o Could have been used as gifts Symmetry and sexual selection o Mona lisa The use of fire o Very little evidence for controlled use of fire from oldowan and acheulean sites in Africa o Tentative evidence for the use of fire by early hominins dates to 14 million years ago in Kenya at the site of chesowanja o The burnt clay at chesowanja may be from a hearth or the result of natural fires o Hard evidence that early homins used fire has not been found to date in Africa o First definite evidence at Terra Amata France dated to 300 kya AnthLecutre 6 8202012 43300 PM The use of fire o Very little evidence for controlled use of fire from oldowan and acheulean sites in Africa o Tentative evidence for the use of fire by early hominins date to 14 mya in keny at the site of chesowanja o The burnt clay at chesowanja may be from a hearth or the result of natural fires o Hard evidence that early hominins used fire has not been found to date in Africa o First definite evidence at terra amata france dated to 300 kya o Layers of burnt o Produced fires over and over Homo erectus migration o Pre10 my H erectus 0 Russian H erectus 0 African H erectus o Javan H erectus 0 Chinese H erectus o Rapid spread 20000 years to settle through Eurasia 0 Dates are very consistent with each other 0 Each generation would extent their territory by a few miles People didn t wake up one day and say that we have to go conquer Eurasia 0 Key was the construction and expansion of zones of deserts and trees in the Sahara o Java 0 Water was trapped in glaciers and water was lower so some islands we see today were connected by land so they were capable of walking so they didn t have to swim o No seafairing capacities o No remains of fish or shellfish 0 Hard to think of them as coastal folks Expansion of the hominin world middle east and Europe o Site of Dmanisi Georgia oldest known archeological site outside of Africa o Dates to 18 and 17 mya o Three nearly complete Homo erectus crania and stone tools mostly simple flakes Why did H erectus move out of Africa o Sarahan pump effect alternative green and dry Saharaexpansion of habitat to middle east o Climate allows spread of plants and animals o Random walking 0 Wasn t planned o Why not Homo habilis or Australopithecines 0 Never seen before environment Better technology Mental abilities Hunting skills Fire and clothing 0 O O O Homo erectus society o Probably lived in small band societies o First real hunters o Hunted regularly and systematically o Language 0 Hunting and complexity of society demanded articulated language but there is no evidence and no hyoid bone o Does large scale hunting require modern speech 0 Think you can be a hunter without language 0 Chimps Who were the tool makers o Lower Paleolithic 25 mya200 kya o A africanus Paranthropus o Homo habilis o Homo erectus Oldowan and Acheulean Middle Paleolithic 20040 kya o Homo erectus o Archaic Homo sapiens o Neanderthals o Upper Paleolithic 4012 kya o Neanderthals o Anatomically modern humans o Old stone age 0 Early hominin produced tools only by percussion flint knapping Pleistocene o Between the Pliocene and Holocene o Began 2 mya 0 when erectus comes out of Africa ended 10 kya CroMagnons in Europe 0 Early sapien sapiens Ecology and Ice Age Pleistocene or Ice Age is a geological era that began around 16 mya Pleistocene characterized by 0 Period of buildup of ice sheetsglacial eras and 0 Period of ice sheets retreatinterglacial era More rain and more humidity the more snow and compacted snow makes ice and glaciers More ice melts the higher the sea level When snow precipitations are greater than melting rate Three factors 0 Annual cooling of temperatures more snow precipitations o Shortening of summer periods 0 Increase in humidity which allows for greater precipitations Consequence snow turns into ice which create glaciers 30 of land under glacial ice compared to 10 today lower sea levels 100150m lower broad areas of land exposed when ice melts when glaciers recede melting rate higher than precipitations o creation of proglacial lakes and zones called periglacial deserts during the retreat of ice sheets two phenomena 0 eustatic changes sea levels rise 0 isostatic changes postglacial rebound Glaciations Wurm or Weichsel EU Wisconsin NA 8010 kya 0 When the modern humans arrived in North America World Archaeology The Neanderthals c We look very similar Group of sapiens Don t know if we could bread with them They are not our ancestor We interacted with them and the traits disappeared Adapted to extreme glacial conditions in western Europe Hunted large animals 0 Most hunting Diet was 99 meat of one individual The Neanderthals Lecture Outline Note Test o Research on Neanderthals birth of paleontology Origins of Neanderthals Neanderthals morphology Neanderthal s society The fate of Neanderthals Stone tools appear 25 mya between A africanus and H habilisand P robustus o The first bipedal hominin was Australopithecines AnthLectu re 7 8202012 43300 PM Neanderthals history of research Archaic Homo Neander valley West Germany 12 km east of Dusseldorf First remains found in 1856 Neanderthal 1 brought to Johann Karl Fulhrott Named in 1863 by William King British geologistfirst one to study and name First hominin fossils birth of paleontology 0 Because people found that they could find things in the ground of ancient species In Europe they were different so we named them differently The human from the valley of Neander Robust features were used to classify Neanderthals as an idiot or unintelligent no social skills brute Completely false Society was similar to ours and morphology is the same Hyoid bones are found so they could produce articulate speech 0 O O sapiens wise man First evidence a 500 kya in Africa Definite evidence between 400 and 200 kya in Africa Europe and Asia Huge variability through Europe Africa Asia Larger brain ca 1200 cc but retain some H erectus traits 0 We are about 13001400 Some traits later found in Neanderthals eg Atapuerca site 0 Large brow ridges o Slanting forehead o Robust Leads to selecting for traits that seem to be more evolved which doesn t make sense 0 Very similar to sapien sapiens when the species first began More globular cranium slightly taller less projecting jaw more of a chin By 150 kya groups in Europe described as Neanderthals in Africa and Asia groups transformed into archaic H sapiens WITHOUT Neanderthal traits Test Are there neanderthals in Indonesia or AfricaNO only in EUROPE Neanderthals Limited to Europe near east and central asia Ca 150 So 30 kya Culture Mousterian industry middle Paleolithic Developed a new way of making tools Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapienneanderthalensis Large brain ca 1500 cc from 1245 to 1740 cc vs modern humans ca 1400 cc Round cranium massive brow ridges large face large cheek bones big nose more robust in the torso area Large joints and muscle attachments Modern speech 0 Hyoid bone descended larynx 0 Cannot tell if actually had language unless it was written down Well adapted to survive in extreme cold conditions Note No body is more evolved Evolution is the passing of time with speciation Pleistocene the Great Ice Age and the Neanderthals Pleistocene Glaciations vs InterGlacial Neanderthals adapted to extreme cold weather 0 Large face 0 Nose sinuses away from brain warm up air brain in insulated Bulky body reduce heat loss through radiation Insulate brain Reduce heat through radiation larger bodies 0 Neanderthals and early modern humans o Neanderthals at once similar to modern humans and yet slightly distinctive Should they be considered 0 A subspecies H sapiens neanderthalensis 0 Or their own species H neanderthalensis Did we interbreed with Neanderthals The similarities between modern humans and Neanderthals are rooted in their shared ancestry They are not our ancestor we diverged and got in touch again At some point Neanderthal features disappear Neanderthal material culture o Mousterian industry 20040kya o Retouched flakes o Levallois technique and disk core technique 0 One technique of the Mousterian industry Idea is to produce a core by detaching flakes all around From detached flakes then they can be retouched Prepare a core then detach flakes that were more standardize in size 0 Detach over and over again 0 More tools with same amount of material o Many tools to be hafted o If interbred you think cultures would merge but it doesn t so it suggest that Neanderthals just disappeared O O 0 Treatment of the dead o Small pits sometimes with grave goods o Amud cave 0 Infant found in a natural niche in the side of the cave with the upper jaw of the red deer Neanderthal hunting o Overrepresentation of meaty limbs o Neanderthals were capable of hunting large game 0 Site of La cotte de stbreade 20 mammoths and 5 woolly rhinos stampeded off a cliff Bone chemistry studiesNeanderthas were essentially meat eaters one individual s diet appears to have been 97 meat Lots of injuries as seen today in rodeo perfomrers ie they were getting close to big game AnthLectu re 8 8202012 43300 PM Neanderthal Hunting o Bone chemistry 0 Different signature of isotope that marks on bones that can be studied Diet almost entirely meat Fire was around so people were cooking meat easier to digest and eat Dentition changed on types of food eaten O O O Neanderthal society c As intelligent as modern humans complex stone technology large scale hunting 0 Planning and visualization 0 same capacity to produce speech o Cared for old injured andor disabled individuals 0 La Chapelle aux Saints 0 Shanidar o Counter argument injured and disabled great apes survive on their own Katherine Dettwyler o No are per se cave portable etc 0 We say that what we are different from them is that we produce art but what is art 0 Cave paintings are not found in Neanderthal time o Flutes from Neanderthal sites 0 Visualized art may not have lasted through time o People found old skeletons first so it added to the myth of deformed creatures o Probably all that39s left is time and genetic barrier Neanderthals demise o Neanderthals survived until ca 35 kya until maybe up to 28 kya o Latest finds from Hyaena Den UK c Modern H sapiens likely descends from archaic H sapiens in Africa ca 100 kya o Modern H sapiens in Levant region ca 92 kya but not in Europe until 40 kya o What happened during overlap 0 Early models were modern humans were better adapted and more sophisticated and Neanderthals were so specific that climate change affected them and they couldn t breed as much as modern humans 0 Another model modern humans were aggressive and killed all the Neanderthals because they were different and spoke a different language 0 Simpler models and as evidence is gathered the models become more complex In different areas different things could have happened Neanderthal v modern H sapiens questions o Are Neanderthals the ancestors of modern H sapiens NO 0 Modern humans in Africa before in Europe and not enough time o Were Neanderthals replaced by modern humans YES 0 We stop finding Neanderthal features in Europe o Are Neanderthals an extinct side branch with no impact on modern human evolution 0 Did we replace them 0 Did we interbreed with them Neanderthal v modern H sapiens evidence o Disappearance of Mousterian industry suggests demise of Neanderthals o Mousterian industry replaced by Aurignacian industry with no sign of tradition 0 With upper Paleolithic tools were different in different regions 0 Tools were uniform through out then changed to be different o Sites of Qafzeh and Mr Carmel Israel 0 Both Neanderthals and modern H sapiens o Heterogeneous populations evolving into modern H sapiens 0 Two separate populations in different areas with shifting boundaries Neanderthal v modern H sapiens conclusions o Possible interbreeding between Neanderthals and modern H sapien o Not enough time for biological evolution of Neanderthals into modern H sapiens 0 Side branch 0 Or interbreeding o Debate whether or not modern H sapiens have derived Neanderthal characteristics genes The Upper Paleolithic Lecture Outline o The origins of modern humans o The spread of modern humans in the old world o Upper Paleolithic culture and technology o The origins of art What is a modern human o The term modern human refers to all members of the subspecies Homo sapiens sapiensthis includes all living humans o Modern human traits include o Globular braincase Reduced brow ridges Reduced body mass Unique pelvic shape Vertical forehead Pronounced chin Narrow trunk Reduced tooth size o Cromagnon o Is an early sapien 0 Different way of life 0 O O O O O O Origins and spread of modern humans o Multiregional model 0 Evolution from H erectus in several places No evidence to support U Need bridges so that we can still interbreed Recent OutofAfrica model 0 H sapiens developed in Africa 200100 kya radiated to other continents All information points to this model Europe 9 Neanderthals ended Africa 9 modern humans led to us Asia 9 Asian species ended Race 0 Genetic studies show that races are basically historical phenomena 0 We have developed traits that are adapted to the environment Multiregional model Gene flow between geographically separated populations prevented speciation All living humans derive from the species Homo erectus that left Africa Natural selection in regional populations responsible for regional variants races Emergence of Homo sapiens not restricted to any one area but was a widespread phenomenon o Races are historical phenomena because they change in a few years AnthLectu re 9 8202012 43300 PM Recent OutofAfrica model o After Homo erectus migration out of Africa different populations became reproductively isolated o Homo sapiens arose in one place probably Africa o Homo sapiens ultimately migrated out of Africa and replaced all other human populations without interbreeding o Modern human variation is relatively recent phenomenon Recent OutofAfrica model for Homo sapiens sapiens o Africa 0 160000 BP o Middle east 0 100000 BP o Southeast Asia 0 60000 BP o Europe 0 36000 BP o Australia 0 50000 BP o Central Asia 0 33000 BP o 25000 years in Siberia Recent OutofAfrica o Supported by molecular DNA evidence o Supported by archaeological evidence 0 Herto site Ethiopia o Modern humans at 160 kya o Klasies River Mouth Caves South Africa Genetic evidence supporting Recent OutofAfrica model o Living humans are very much homogeneous genetically o Homogeneity contrasts with our living relatives chimps greater genetic distance between chimps from same group than between humans from different populations o Highest degree of variation found in African populations because more time to accumulate genetic diversity o Small founding population ca 400100 kya The group from which we descend could have been as numerous as 2000 people and may have been endangered Archeological evidence supporting the Recent Outof Africa model o Differences between the archaeological records of modern humans in Africa and Neanderthals in Europe include 0 Greater variability is found in stone tool industries of Africa 0 There are elaborate bone tools in Africa 0 Clear evidence of fishing and collecting shellfish in Africa Greater ability to gather food Broader pattern of subsistence 0 Artwork is present in Africa Rock art appears and in Africa and then later on in Europe The Upper Paleolithic o Creative Explosion o Mostely dated between 4010 kya 0 Europe Asia Africa and Australia o Complex tool kits o Elaborate art o Prepared burials o Cave painting Lascaux Cave France 0 Sistine chapel of upper Paleolithic 0 High paintings Upper Paleolithic Innovations o Hunting technology 0 Wooden spears 400kya o Hafted stone tools 60kya o Atlatl 20kya Nahuatl a Language spoken by the Aztec Spear or dart thrower Allows for humans to throw farther the longer your arm the more energy Adds an extra length to your arm Allowed us to kill at a distance Has been found on every continent except Antarctica All humans used it Isn t a spear thrower Dartlong thin flexible shaft n Arrow on steroids Hard to find it doesn t preserve very well Some have weights made of rocks or ivory 0 Dogs 20kya Wolves savaging and symbiotic relationship with humans Would eat trash and food Humans could capture and tame wolves selecting for traits that would make it a tame animal Major change in morphology by selecting for tamer ones Helpful for hunting cleaning camps and warning Fishing technology 0 Fishmollusks 100 kya o Blombos Cave South Africa Plant processing 0 Grinding grass seeds 23 kya o Ohalo II Israel Domesticrely on humans for their reproduction Upper Paleolithic innovations Stone blades Blades obtained from single preshaped core Mass production Blades retouched with pressure flaking Many styles of projectile points o Blade 0 A flake that is at least twice as long as it is wide o 30 ft of cutting edge Blade production o Microlith Industry or Small tool Tradition o difficult to make and be extremely precise o dear antler and produce small flaves