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by: Miss Don Zemlak


Miss Don Zemlak
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Class Notes
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Don Zemlak on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1003 at Louisiana State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see /class/222895/anth-1003-louisiana-state-university in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
Anthropology 1003 82813 ethnography is the description of a society or culture fieldwork living among the people emic vs etic Emic insider s view Etic outsider or analyst s views Examples paul farmer too legit to quit 83013 The Nacirema Each day the Nacirema perform a complex set of rituals devoted to the mouth Ethnocentrism vs cultural relativity Ethnocentrism Belief that one s culture is superior to all other cultures or more natural Judges other cultures from your own Measures other cultures by the degree to which they live up to one s own cultural standards Related to racism Cultural relativism what cultural anthropologist strive for Belief that cultures should be analyzed with reference to their own histories and values rather than according to the values of another culture Looking for the cultural logic in which certain practices make sense Meaning of quotracequot anthropological perspective Sociocultural construct not related to biological reality Racial categories differ from society to society even within societies at times and are not stable over time What racial categories describe often has much to do with things other than race eg socioeconomic class behavior dress ideologies developed around them History of the term race 16 h century rare indicated lineage 18 hbibliocal associations 19 h century race as biological type scientific racism Permanent separable types biological differences 20 h century race as a social construct genetic variation not linked to quotracequot Eugenics Darwinian theories of evolution and Mendellian genetics dismantle scientific racism Social construct Race and colonialism 14501800 many argue that this is when our notions of racial types racial difference and racial superiorityinferiority developed as European came into contact with them Ashley Montagu published 1942 race as a social construct not evolutionary typological Dangerous the fallacy of Race Race and human variation Races do not correlate with genetic variation There is more variation within the race All came from Africa DNA can trace ancestors to where they re from but cannot tell you the person s race Derek Todd Lee Variation in genetics is dealt with differently from society to society Historical Particularism Focused on culture as a shared set of norms and values Interested in presenting objective descriptions of cultures within their historical and environmental situations Postmodernism Focuses on issues of power and violence Culture is a context in which norms and values are contested and negotiated Plasticity Cultural ecology Focuses on the adaptive aspec t of culture Armchair Anthropologists of the 19th Century Uses secondary sources Focuses on quotprimitivequot cultures and isolated societies Writes about societies as a whole rather than one specific aspect Viewed societies in hierarchy with white European societies as superior to all others ethnocentrism led to social Darwinism and eugenics E B Tylor Wrote about primitive cultures British Subscribed to evolutionary anthropology Evolutionary Anthropology gt Eugenics 20th century anthropology Franz Boas and Bronislaw Malinowski ethnography and participant observation opposite of ethnocentrisim Fieldwork firsthand exploration of a society and culture reveals the differences between what people say they do and what they do cuture shock Malinowski and the Trobriand Islanders Anthropological Techniques Questionnaires Open ended questions Structured interviews Mapping Photography Observation Fieldwork Methods Boas The father of American Anthropology Against Evolutionary Anthropology Cultural Relativism Boas argued that all human beings have equal capacities for culture and that although human actions might be considered morally right or wrong no culture has more evolved or of greater value than another Ethnography Gathering and interpretation of information based on intensive firsthand study The major research tool of cultural anthropology Includes the fieldwork among people in a society and The written firsthand account 20th century anthropology Study one or two aspects of a society rather than society as a whole Collaborative in nature use of consultantsparticipants Prefieldwork research regionalglobal context Ethnologies comparing cultures in order to gleam crosscultural universals PostModernism Influence Feminism and Anthropology Reflexive Anthropology Collaborative Anthropology Native Anthropology Feminism and Anthropology questions the gender bias in ethnography and cultural theory Men who had limited access to women s lives performed much early fieldwork Ignoring women s perspectives perpetuates the oppression of women By the 1970s more female anthropologists were joining university faculties Liz Dalby and Geisha culture Code of Ethics AAA statement llanthropological researchers must do everything in their power to ensure that their research does not harm the safety dignity or privacy of the people with whom they workquot Project Camelot Mid 1960s US military project that used anthropologists to achieve foreign policy goals Anthropologists seen as spies in host countries AAA members raised concerns about the ethics of this project Anthropology in the Military on military bases training officers or analyzing military culture On the ground in active conflict zones collecting data on local peoples Human Terrain Systems 942013 Characteristics of culture Shared by members of a group Adaptive Change over time Enculturation The process of learning a culture Inuit Hunting people in the artic teach children to make the right decisions so that they don t dye Developing skills for solving problems Physical testspain and endurance Culture and personality theory Best understanding by examining the patterns of child rearing and considering the effect on adult lives and social institutions Margaret Mead Ethnoscience Using language to classify their worlddiffers from culture to culture ldea that culture is a mental template that determines how members of a society understand their world One position or technique within cognitive anthropology Ethnobotany Descrives the ways in which different cultures classify plants Relationship between humans and cultures Ethnomedicine Medical systems of different cultures Understanding health and sickness and the way they attempt to cure those diseases Symbolic Anthropology Symbols and how their important to the members of a culture How symbols reflect deep concerns of members Interpretive Anthropology Humanistic methods Literature Functionalism Malinowski Specific cultural institutions function to support the structure of society or serve the individuals gtreligion Ecological Functionalism Cultural institutions and their effect on the environment Hindu religion taboo against eating cows Norms and Values Norm An ideal cultural pattern that influences behavior in a particular society Value A culturally decided idea of what is true Anthropology 1001 1252012 52300 PM Anthrogologx study of people Biological Aggroach Relation of Biology and Culture What people inherit genetically or biologically and what we learn behaviorally Holistic looking at the wholecomplete system looking at ALL aspects of being human ComQarative compares cultures non judgmental to understand the meaning of human Ethnocentric or SUPERIORITY Centered around a specific ethnic group usually your own Your culture The BEST Example Yana Mami South America Name means human and if you re not apart of their culture you re not human Cultural Relativism Keeping an open mind Studying a culture based on its standards and terms Fieldwork Collecting data and research Lab work libraries culture excavation FOUR SUBFIELDS 1 Linguistic Anthrogologx Focus on language and how people communicate Cultural and Behavioral aspects body language tone of voice how men and women use language differently men impart info women bond the origins of language 2 Cultural Sociocultural Culture learned behavior that is distinct among different groups of people Passed down through generations Evolutionary evolves Culture is transmitted from parentsguardians to children Foreign places Example Culture surrounding athletes be they are treated differently than the average person About 5000 distinct culture groups on the planet can specialize in different aspects political medical how ppl respond to healthdisease and economic 3 Archaeology Archaeo old Ology to study Studying the past based on the material remains of a culture Includes Architecture pottery ceramicstools skeletons Academic archaeologist excavating crews discover remains must call in a team to study it 4 Physical Anthrogologx Studying ppl from the biological perspective Human variation what it means and where it comes from Physical Anthropology Study of human biological evolution and of human bio cultural variation AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGY Franz Boas Set the standard of American Anthropology 4 fields of anthropology approach dates back to him biocultural Prospective Trained 1St generation of well known and influential anthropologists Ales Hrdlicka Started The American Journal of Physical Anthropology Founded the American Association of Physical Anthropologists HISTORY OF EVOLUTIONARY THOUGHT Charles Darwin 4 IDEAS Idea that species can changeevolve L Adaptive Radiation Out of 1 species will branch many related species descend from a common ancestor g Gradualism Change occurs gradually A Natural Selection Recognizes the impact of environment on life forms Middle Ages Order Life was ordered there was hierarchyorder Stasis Life didn t change Religious Belief Great Change of Being Natural World Fixity of Species Once things are created they don t change Young Earth Thought that Earth was only about 6000 years old olitical System Feudal System dominated by monarchies had a fixed social order Renaissance amp Enlightenment Change of thought Exploration Diversity Technological Advances Microscope Telescope Printing Press DARWIN S INFLUENCES Carolus Linnaeus Binomial Nomenclature way of classifying organisms m Recognized the influenced of the environment Lamarck Inheritance of Inguired Characteristic Characteristics that are acquired in an individual s lifetime can be inherited by offspring Giraffe neck Example Short neck Long neck Longer neck this idea wasn t respected Cuvier Catastrophism Periodically there would be catastrophic events that caused mass extinctions REGIONAL not the whole Earth Other organisms would move in to repopulate Ea Geologist Uniformitarianism Geological processes that impact the earth in the past are still impacting the earth today ex Wind rain erosion etc Leads to the landscape of Earth changing constantly He calculated the Earth to be billions of years old Malthus Demographer studied population Population size is limited by resource availability Leads to completion for those resources and higher mortality rate Alfred Wallace Naturalist Came up with the idea of Natural Selection Environment impacts life forms Charles Darwin Joined scientific expedition around the globe after graduating college Wrote a short abstract called Origins of the Species in 1859 Had a TON of data on Natural Selection NATURAL SELECTION Survival of the Fittest Basic Processes 1 Biological Variation 2 Competition Advantageous traits Selective Pressure Any circumstance or phenomenon that effects the reproductive success of an organism in an environment Fitness How many offspring you have and how many offspring they have 3 Reproduction Inheritable Traits 4 Accumulation Over time there is a shift in frequency of traits advantageous more frequentweak less frequent 5 New Species Over time frequencies of traits will differ enough that a new species evolves ARCHAEOLOGY scientific study of material remains of past human life and activities Artifacts anything that has been used or modified by humans Ecofacts natural materials that have been used by humans Features artifacts or Ecofacts Contrast Darwin to Lamarck 1 Giraffe Neck Length Darwin Natural Selection favors longer necks and the trait is passed on to the next generation in greater proportion than the shorter neck 2 Medium Ground Finches Birds with stronger beak were able to get to the thicker seeds trait passed on to offspring while the smaller beaks died off 3 Antibiotic Resistance misuse of drug has caused resistance to tuberculosis bacteria Ex Multid rug Resistant Tuberculosis MDR TB Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA Fitness is about getting your genes to the future Heredity Homunculus means little man proposed that in every sperm cell there is a little person Blending Inheritanc Offspring wasjust a blending of their parents 5050 Cells Prokaryotic simple life form no nucleus Ex Bacteria Eukaryoti Contain nucleus and multiple organelles Cell Types Somatic Cells in the body Gametes passes genetic information from parent to offspring DNA Basis for life 2 chains of nucleotides sugar phosphate base Bases AGCT Base pair specificity AT and GC Replication development growth maintenance repair DNA copies itself exactly Nuclear DNA nDNA nucleus of every cell except RBCs 10005 of genes template for production of proteins homoplasmicidentical Mitochondrial DNA mtDNA in the mitochondria 37 genes assist with mitochondria functions heteroplasmic not identical Gene sequence of DNA Structural Gene that is responsible for the body structures codes for activity that enable life Regulatory Gene that regulates functions of other genes turns other genes on and off Ex homeotic Hox genes guide embryologic development Chromosomes 46 a sequence of genes Karyotype Autosomes 44 carry genetic info for physical characteristics Sex chromosomes 2 determine sexual characteristics XampY 23 homologous pairs pair of chromosome were each carries the same genetic information but not identical to each other Cell Division Mitosis Division of Somatic cells 2 daughter cells identical to each other and the original diploid all 46 chromosomes occurs for growth and development tissue repair body maintenance Meiosis Division that leads to Gametes Recombination exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes 4 daughter cells not identical to each other or original haploid half the of chromosomes 23 gamete development Cell Division Mistakes Nondisjunctio failure of chromosomes to separate during meiosis Monosomy 1 less chromosome in a pair 1 instead of 2 EX XO Turner Syndrome Trisomies 3 chromosomes in a pair instead of 2 EX T21T18T13 and XXYXXXXYY Mendelian Genetics Genetic Principles 1 Law of Segregation traits are controlled by discreet units that occur in pairs the pairs separate during gamete formation and then reunite during fertilization therefore each parent contributes one of the pair to the offspring 2 GenegAllele sequence of DNA responsible for some functionalternate form of a gene DominantRecessive an allele is expressed in the presence of a different allele locus ocation of an allele on a chromosome homozygousheterozygous two copies of same alleledifferent alleles present ITTt genotypephenotype genetic make up or combination of allelesphysical expression of the alleles ITtall Punnent Sguare Genetic Principles Continued 2quot generation TtY x TtYy Tall Yellow 9 Short Yellow Tall Green 3 Short Green l 3 Law of Independent Assortment 3 Law of Independent Assortmen genes that are passed down independently from each other and code different traits Inheritance in Humans 1 Mendelian Inheritance Mendelian traits trait that is controlled by alleles at one locus one locus Examples blood type alleles ABO code for antigens blood types ABABO type A AA or A0 B same AB codominant Mendelian Disorders coded for genes located at one locus on a chromosome a Dominant achond roplasiaand brachydactyly b Recessive sickle cell anemia tay sachs cystic fibrosis carriers heterozygote expression 2 Polygenic Inheritance traits coded for alleles at more than one locus Polygenic traits continuous in expression range in variation Examples skin color melanin production multiple loci contribute codominant alleles Environmental Influence more likely to effect polygenic trait than a Mendelian trait Examples height Shaq marries a tall woman more likely to have a tall kid but must get nutrition Pleiotropy one gene that is impacting multiple traits Modern Theory of Evolution Evolution a change in the genetic frequencies of a trait in a population over time occurs by the production and distribution of genetic variation natural selection environmental influence Microevolution small scale changes that occur in several generations Macroevolution large scale changes that occur at or above the species level Deme population a group of organisms that interbreed regularly and produce offspring Gene Pool all the genetic information in a deme Hardy Weinberg Eguilibrium predicts allele distribution in a population under ideal conditions Influences on Allele Frequencies 1 Mutation a change in the DNA sequence creates variation 2 Gene Flow movement of alleles between populations 3 Genetic Drift changes in allele frequencies cause by random events bottleneck effect start with large and diverse population event severely reduces population size and variation populations rebounds and leads to reduced variation founder effect start with a small group of individuals and they start a colony in a new area Example Ellis Van Creveld Syndrome extra fingers and toes 4 Natural Selection differential reproductive success under specific environmental circumstances Balanced Polymorphism Heterozygote Advantage the maintenance of 2 or more alleles in a population due to the selective advantage of the heterozygote Example Sickle Cell Allele Malaria Human Variation Voyages of Discovery 15005 17005 Monogenism all humans were descendants of a single original pair and any variation is due to environmental variation Adam amp Eve olygenism variation in humans is a result of different original pairs More than 1 Adam amp Eve Early Studies 18 early 19th centuries DescriptiveClassifying Mid 19th Century iological determinism behavioral attributes are associated with biological attributes intelligence morals values M Common Definitions species culturalethnic identity English race religious identity Jewish physical characteristics skin color face shape Ethnicity Ancestry Some argue that Race doesn t exist PROBLEMS Racism how people apply meaning to how you look one race considers themselves superior no reliable way to distinguish groups entire populations that cannot be categorized genetic variation people are more similar than they are different Race from the Rinlnnir al Am39 39 al Pershertive39 one polytypic species geographically patterned phenotypic variation cultural affiliation with biological effects cline a term that refers to gradual phenotypic or genetic variation over geographic space Human Response to Environmental Stress 1 Cultural behavior modification in response to a stress EX Temperature wearing different clothes 2 Acclimatization physiological response to an environmental extreme temporary and reversible involuntary Ex Sunburn high red blood cell production increased sweating 3 Developmental ability to change response is inherited the change happens during a critical period ofgrowth and development happens to individual Ex HA populations have bigger hearts chests and lung volumes 4 Genetic population inherited long term irreversible Characterizes a population Ex Skin color Purpose is to maintain Homeostasis internal equilibrium Solar Radiation and Skin Color Skin pigmentation protection from Solar Radiation Vitamin D Hypothesi The body s need for vitamin D and for UV radiation to produce it provided a selective pressure for lighter skins in northern latitudes Temperature Extremes sweating vasodilation when capillaries at the skin surface dilate heat moving away from core CLId shivering vasoconstriction capillaries near the skin surface constrict heat staying near core BMR basil metabolic rate colder climates higher BMRwarmer climates lower BMR Bergmann s and Allen s Rules general relationship between body size and shape Bergmann s within a species body size increases as distance from the equator increases Allen s limb length decreases as distance from the equator increases Cold Short and stockyHot Linear and long High Altitude Hypoxia condition that develops when your body doesn t get enough oxygen


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