THE SOLAR SYSTEM
THE SOLAR SYSTEM ASTR 1101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Felipe Ferry on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR 1101 at Louisiana State University taught by Amy Campbell in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/222897/astr-1101-louisiana-state-university in Astronomy at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
PLANETS in solar system 0 lorbits sun 0 2big enough to become spherical in its own gravity 0 3must clear orbit o 8 planets DWARF PLANETS o lorbit sun 0 2big enough to become spherical in its own gravity 0 Pluto is one of this Kuiperbelt object o Ceres is also a dwarf planet closest to sun asteroid belt 0 Eris is also also known as Xena twice as far from sun to Pluto o in order of distance from the sun Ceres Pluto Eris SMALL BODIES o everything else TERRESTRIAL PLANET o rocky 0 close to sun 0 very small 0 few satellites o no rings VOLC ANOE S 0 Mars I Has largest one in Solar System I Olympus mons dormant and big as Missouri 0 Venus is very active ATMOSPHERES Venus and mars have them Venus clouds are very thick Venus has high speed winds acid rain Mars atmosphere is thin o No atmosphere on Mercury JOVIAN PLANETS GAS 0000 o Refers to Jupiter 0 Very similar to the sun 0 lprimarily hydrogen some helium and some metals cosmic abundance 74 24 2 of each 0 2all eXist far from the sun where water is frozen 0 3several satellites o 4all have rings I Not all are obvious JOVIAN ATMOSPHERES 0 active upper atmospheres o Jupiter I Great red spot 0 Can t two earth s in it o Neptune I Great dark spot 0 One earth can t in it AU ASTRONOMICAL UNIT average distance from sun to earth Sednafarthest object in solar system Solar system surrounding by debris Oort Cloud 0 Sedea 7 farthest object from sun SUN 0 Not all life on earth needs direct sun 0 Has direct effect on weather 0 Big violent gas ball 0 Promence 7 big re loops I Solar airs 7 particles creates interference static on radio I Solar wind 7 particles at high rates of speed 0 Sun46 billion years old SUN SPOTS 0 sun spot cycle is 11 year cycle 0 been in minimum for a few years if continues mini ice age SUN S A FUSION REACTOR Coronal Mass Ejection sun throws off up to 20 of atmosphere Sun is a thermonuclear reactor modern tech allows astronomers insight in sun core sun emits neutrinos I neutrinos are produced in thermonuclear reactions on earth I neutrinos are detected via salt mine and cleaning solutions NEBULA STELLAR NURSERIES Nebularelatively high density gravity bound gas and dust gas and dust must be cold hydrogen and helium 1 Need materials 2 Gravity must collect items together I Must overcome speed of particles I Escape velocity 7 minimum speed an object must have to escape gravitational pull Supernovae 0 every element is produced in a supernova 0 its the only way to produce elements heavier than iron 0 death of certain stars 0 gold is the result of supernova Our sun will become a red giant 0 Mercury and Venus will be sucked up earth will be up front 0 Take off atmosphere 0 13 billion years til it dies 0 Currently 46 billion years old GALAXIES o gravity bound stars planets and what not we live in milky way spiral galaxy sun is 23 away from galactic center center of galaxy harbors supermassive black hole 0 high density of stars that will supernova in middle of galaxy supernova could kill us Most calendars are based on positional astronomy Constellationsonly 6000 stars are observable from earth there are 88 constellations in the sky 0 originally they were directly related to mythological creatures 0 pictures in stars I story telling o to revere them for a good deed 0 Orion is revered 0 To punish them 0 Casipia is sent to spend the rest of eternity upside down 0 O O O 0000 O O O O Celestial Sphere 0 Reality box I Sun is center everything revolves around it o Celestial model box I Earth is in center I Unmoving I Everything is in the ball called celestial sphere and rotates around Sun I Prime meridian is the line for the coordinate system Zenith means overhead Rise easterly dip North set westerly Earth uses coordinates so does space as an extension of earth declinationhow far north or south of the equator in degrees right ascensionhow far east or west of vernal equinox in hours minutes and seconds celestial poles are an extension of earths poles Earth has a 235 degree tilt from its orbital plane Because the earth is tilted observers from the northern hemisphere will observe celestial objects rise from the eastern Horizon dip south as the object cross your meridian then set in western horizon SUN S PATH ACROSS THE CELSTIAL SPHERE o Suns path is THE ecliptic o Takes one year to go around the ecliptic o has a inclination of 235 degrees from celestial equator o ecliptic in reality is the orbital plane of the eart IMPORTANT POSITIONS o Vernal Equinoxsets the time RA Dec00 HOURS Summer Solstice6 HOURS Autunmal Equinoxl 2 HOURS Winter Solstice18 HOURS sun is on equator at equinoxes 1 degree of movement4 minutes of time solar day24 hrs and 4 min earth moves one degree in relation to the sun per day Earth is tilted 235 degrees from its orbital plane orbital position affects amount of sunlight received by a hemisphere ZODIAC 0 Because the sun slides along the ecliptic stars rise about 4 minutes earlier everyday 2 hours earlier a month SIDEREAL DAY 0 The time it takes for the earth to rotate a true 360 degrees 0 Reference for this measurement is the background stars SOLAR DAY 0 Solar day is de ned as the time between meridian crossings 0 Must keep in mind that the earth orbits the sun 0 Solar day is about 4 minutes longer than sidereal day AFFECT OF TILT 0 simple exposure to heat source 0 more vertical the sun is the more light hits the ground 0 the amount of sunlight received by a hemisphere will change with orbital position 0 sun rises south of east after vernal equinox PRECESSION OF EARTH o Rotational axis of earth has precession bc of gravity pull of moon and sun 0 period of26000 years 0 vernal equinox will shift eastward o Polaris will not always be North Star changes every 26000 years 15th longitude is MAGIC NUMBER for time zones every multiple of 15 is middle of time zone 00000000 0 o Yeartime required to have sun move from and back to vernal equinox o monthbased on 30 day lunar cycle 0 weeknamed after the original 7 planets I planets wanderers 0 Sun Sunday Moon Monday Saturn Saturday Gregorian and Julian calendar were used to 1500s MOON the same side of the moon always faces the earth not all of the face is illuminated by the sun all the time the moon has synchronous rotation moon s rotation rate is equal to earth s orbital rate half the moon is seen and lit at all times 295 days for a full set of phases total solar eclipsetotal eclipses block out the sun leaving the corona visible stars rise 4 minutes earlier new moon is rising it s 6 am sun is at 9pm at full moon sun is at 7pm at waxing gibbous 0 First quarter waXing gibbous full waning gibbous third quarter waning crescent new waXing cresecnt ECLIPSES AND THE LINE OF NODES o Phases of the moon has nothing to do with the shadow of the earth Moon s orbital plane has 5 degree inclination to the ecliptic The line of nodes is where the ecliptic and orbital plane eXist in the same place Moon must be in full phase Lunar phase must occur at a node Is not the earth s shadow totality of the moon will last 5 min to 3 hours moon is red in totality moon is new is solar eclipse OOOOOOOOOO OOOOOOO TOTAL 0 The moon is blocking out the sun 0 Must be at new moon 0 Total eclipses block out the sun leaving the corona sun s upper atmosphere visible ANNULAR o The moon hasn t completely blocked the area of the sun MOON HAS ELLIPTICAL ORBIT 0 Since the moon does not have circular orbit its angular diameter changes 0 When it is at its closest to earth it has its largest angular diameter PARTIAL 3 types of solar eclipse EVERYONE on earth can see LUNAR eclipses not everyone can see solars Geocentric and heliocentric models 0 geocentricearth center of universe 0 heliocentricsun is center of universesolar system 0 Aristotlegeocentric model 350 BC 0 Ptolomymathematic model of solar system how solar system worked 150 AD 0 they believed it was earth mars mercury Venus sun THEN outer planets THEN stars geocentric model lasted for 1200 years Copemicusbelieved geocentric model shown motions too complicated to be reality 0 geocentric model didn t eXplain retrograde motion 0 built the rst mathematical heliocentric system 0 believed heavens were perfect and planets orbited in perfect circles around the sun 0 couldn t eXplain why planets moved faster in certain locations along orbit o ended up adding epicycles as a correction HELIOCENTRIC MODEL 0 Inferior planets Planets whose orbits lie within our own I Eastern elongation Western elongation Short 0 Superior planets I Big long tall Galileo Galilei 0 rst to build astronomical telescope 0 observed mountains and craters on the moon 0 observed spots on the sun 0 discovered 4 largest moons of Jupiter 0 observed phases of Venus Phases of Venus 0 Venus is closet to un in inferior conjunction 0 Appears largest in new phase Tycho Brahe o believed in geocentric model 0 best naked eye observer 0 developed parallaX measurements to determine distance Johannes Kepler o inherited Brahe s data archive 0 used planet data as his guide 0 interpreted planet data as mathematics to create 3 laws Kepler s laws 0 rst planets have an elliptical orbit average distance between the planet and sun is semimajor aXis I planets move faster in orbit when closer to sun 0 second I if there was a string that connected the sun to a planet then that string will sweep equal areas in equal time intervals around the orbit I planets move faster in orbit the closer they are to the sun 0 third I p2 a3 I p is years I a is AU average distance between earth and sun Sir Isaac Newton 0 Father of modern astronomy 0 Developed calculus o Developed mathematic relations for the force of gravity Forces 0 F ma I M is mass kg I a is acceleration msz o W mg I W weight N I M is mass kg I g is acceleration due to gravity msz I forces are equal and opposite I Universal gravitation o FG G M1M2 G 667 x 103911 N mZkgz R2 Universal law of gravitation 0 As mass increases forces increases I Fm 0 As distance r increases Orbits of planets o Orbits of objects moving about the sun need no be elliptical they can be circular parabolic or hyperbolic 0 Known as conic sections Tidal forces 0 Recall that gravitational force is inversely proportional to the distance 0 Small changes in distance literally means changes in gravitational force Tidal forces on galactic scales 0 Gravity has no boundary therefore the effects of gravity can be see on very large scales 0 Here we see an example of galactic cannibalism 0 Dust and stars on the far side will soon no belong to either galaxy
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