THE SOLAR SYSTEM
THE SOLAR SYSTEM ASTR 1101
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Felipe Ferry on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR 1101 at Louisiana State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/222899/astr-1101-louisiana-state-university in Astronomy at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Astronomy Midterm Review De nitions Geocentric Model an ea rthcentered theory of the universe Heliocentric Model a suncentered theow of the universe Spectroscopy study of spectra and spectral lines Gravitational force force with which all matterattracts all other matter arallax apparent displacement of an object due to motion of obsener Retrograde Motion apparent westward motion ofa planet with respect to background stars Right Ascension cuurdinaLe nu 39 39 39 4 objects on 39 39 39 Declination Angular distance of celestial object north or south of celestial equator Celestial Equator great circle on celestial sphere 90 degrees from celestial poles North Celestial Pole point directly above Earth s North Pole where Earth s axis of rotation if extended would intersect celestial sphere South Celestial Pole Point directly above Earth s South Pole where Earth s axis of rotation if extended would intersect celestial sphere Ecliptlc a parent annual path of sun on celestial sphere CircumpolarStars starthat neither rises nor sets but appears to rotate around one of celestial poles e point in orbit where satellite or moon is farthest from Earth Perigee Point in orbit where satellite is nearest to Earth Conjunction geometric arrangement of planet in same part of sky as the sun so thatthe planet is at elongation of 0 degrees Opposition configuration of planet when quot39 39 g quot of 4 39 g 39 39 39 Lhe sun int e s Inferior Planet planetthat is closertothe sun than Earth is Superior Planet planet more distant from the sun than Earth is Accomplishments tolemy Wrote Almagestquot a bookthat explains motions of stars and planets Created Geocentric model with Earth at center of universe in which the Earth didn t move Planets and stars moved in perfect circular orbits Planets followed small circles or epicycles around Earth Departed from traditional 39 39 39 39 LnaL me e bodies had 39epicycles had quot Catalogued 1028 stars and described all known variations of constellations and legends that went with them Gave these formations Greek Roman names which are still used today Renowned cartographer wrote the booktitled quotGeographiaquot This book contained detailed maps of the world and sened travelers for hundreds ofyears Brahe Obsened and measured the rough distance to a supernova plu ing Lynn 5 39 quot39 quot but a 39 Made planetary 39 39 39 Lime and for long thereafter Brahe s data was used by Keplerto develop Kepler s laws C pernicus True Renaissance man Was a lawyer tax collector doctor militaw governor judge vicargeneral of canon law and Polish astronomer Said Earth was not station Said Earth turns on its axis once a day and doubted that Earth was in the middle ofthe universe Said sun was at center of universe and all planets revolved around the sun Published book on revolution of heavenly bodies Most famous work is the book quotDe Revolutions l Kepler Created three laws to explain planetaw motion Planets travel in elliptical orbits around an offcentersun 2The speed of a planet s orbit depends on its distance from the sun A planet orbits faster when it is closerto the sun When a planet is further away it travels slower 3 The farther a planet or dwarf planet is from the sun the longer its orbit Newton Created the three laws of motion Every object in a state of uniform motion tendsto remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it 2 Relationship between objects mass In its acceleration a and applied forceis FMA Acceleration and force are vectors as indicated bytheirsymbols being displayed in slant bold font in this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction ofthe acceleration vector revew action there is an equal and opposite reaction Ptolemy Geocentric mo el Brahe Geocentric model CopernicusHeliocentric model Kepler Heliocentric model Newton Heliocentric model Why was Ptolemy s model accepted for so long Was long acce For religious reasons Copernican system was less intuitive than the Ptolemaic system Doesn t look like Earth moves Aquot 39 39 required 39 39 Newton s law of inertia explains how the planets rotate in orbit around the sun This law described whatthe human eye could not see thatthe planets were revolving around each other because an unbalanced force gravity In the Ptolemaic system it was believed that the Earth was at the centerof the universe and eventhing revolved around the Earth Order ofthe planets 1 n 2 Mercury 3 Venus 4 Earth 5 Mars 6 Jupiter 7 Saturn 8 Uranus 9 Neptune 10 Pluto declassified as a planet because of its size and irregular orbitthrough ltuiper belt Retrograde Motion All planets fartherfrom the Sun than Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune show retrograde motion This is an optical illusion produced as Earth orbits fasterthan the other outer planets Earth catches up and passes these outer planets in its orbit The change ofview from Earth tothe planet makes it seem like the planet has stopped and begun to move backwards though it is still orbiting in its regulardirection Differences between inner and outer planets Mass The inner planets are smaller because they are made of solid rocky material The outer planets are bigger because they are made of gases mostly helium and hydrogen Density e inner planets have more density because they are made of heavier materials The outer planets are less dense because they are made of gases Atmosphere The inner planets are varied atmospheres while the outer planets have similar atmospheres Rotational speeds The inner planets spin slowerwhile the outer planets spin faster hemical Com position nner Planets Mercury has no atmosphere but sodium and helium can be detected above the surface Venus has an atmosphere with mostly carbon dioxide and a small amount of nitrogen Earth has an atmosphere with mostly nitrogen and a smaller amount of oxygen and even smaller amounts of other gases Mars has an atmosphere similarto Venus by having carbon dioxide and nitrogen but has a thinner atmosphere Outer Planets upiter has an atmosphere of hydrogen helium and smaller amounts of othergases Saturn has an atmosphere of hydrogen helium and smaller amounts of other gases Uranus has an atmosphere of hydrogen helium methane and smalleramounts of other gases Neptune has an atmosphere of hydrogen helium methane and smaller amounts of other gases Moons The inner planets have fewer moons Only one moon orbits Earth while two moons Phobos and Deimos orbit Mars Mercuw and Venus have no moons The outer planets have many moons 63 moons orbit Jupiter 60 orbit Saturn 27 orbit Uranus and 13 orbit Neptune Terrestrial Planets Mercury Venus Earth and Mars Gas Giants Jupiter Saturn Uranus and Neptune The seasons are caused by a tilt on a planet s axis of rotation which causes winterand summer Date Sunrise Sunset Length Change Dawn Dusk Length Change Today 0627 1806 11 9 0603 1830 1227 1 day 0626 1807 1141 0002 longer 0602 1831 1229 0002 longer 1 week 0719 1911 1152 0013 longer 0655 1935 1240 0013 longer 2 weeks 0710 1915 1205 0026 longer 0646 1939 1253 0026 longer 1 month 0651 1925 1234 0055 longer 0626 1949 1323 0056 longer 2 months 0619 1944 1325 0146 longer 0553 2010 1417 0150 longer 3 months 0603 2003 1400 0221 longer 0535 2030 1455 0228 longer 6 months 0642 1926 1244 0105 longer 0618 1950 1332 0105 longer The closeryou are to the North Pole the higherthe altitude of Polaris will be Polaris is also considered the North Star and has been used for navigation for centuries Period of a planet 2 339 DC Porbita period of planet asemimajor axis of orbit P2 P2 planet ear th 3 3 39 a39planet Hearth Phases ofmoon based on high and lowtides WW9 b Tide Earth39s Centrifugal Force Moon39s I Gravitational pun Low Tide Sunset Low Tide Midnight High Tide Sunrise Low Tide Noon High Tide Spring Tides Lunarand solartides add togetherto make big amplitude Neap Tides Lunar and solartides partly cancel to make low amplitude F IR WAXING QUARTER CRESCENT WAXl MG GlBBOUS VANING CRESCENT WANIMG GIBBOUS Eam Sula m m Sum Iran slumram Lunar na quotlira ulnar man my Neon Ilua Conyrighr r9 2qu Pearson Plemlca Hall inc Phase of moon based on time it rises sets or crosses local meridian The time of daythat the Moon rises or sets depends on its phase T is should be obvious when you rememberthat the phase of the Moon depends on the relative positions of the Sun Moon and Earth For example when the Moon is Full it is opposite the Earth from the Sun so when the Sun sets the Moon must rise and vice versa Here is a table summarizing that Moon phase Moonrise Moonset New Moon Sunrise Sunset 1st quarter Local noon Local midnight Full Moon Sunset Sunrise 3rd quarter Local midnight Local noon By local noon and local midnight I mean the points when the Sun crosses the meridian and exactly 12 hours later This can be different from the time on your watch because we define time zones which all use the local time at the centre ofthe zone Total Lu nar Eclipse ATotal Lunar Eclipse occurs at Full Moon but only when the Sun Earth and Moon are in perfect alignment A Total Lunar Eclipse occurs at night and as the Moon orbits the Earth it enters Earth39s shadow firstly into the penumbra shadow Earth39s outer shadow where only some ofthe light is blocked and then into the umbra shadow the inner deeper and complete shadow where all of the light is blocked When the Moon is completely inside the umbra a Total Lunar Eclipse occurs Penumbra Total Solar Eclipse ATotal Solar Eclipse can only occur when there is a New Moon and only when the Earth Moon and Sun are in perfect alignment or near perfect alingment The Moon passes between the Earth and the Sun and the Moon fully covers the Sun blocking sunlight reaching Earth39s surface and turns daytime into darkness while still allowing observers to view the beautiful corona atmosphere of the Sun Solar Eclipses occur during daytime when the New Moon is in the daytime sky and moves across the sky but is invisible due to the glare ofthe Sun and only becomes visable when the eclipse begins As the Moon continues moving acrossthe daytime sky it makes 1st contact against the SunThis isthe beginning ofthe eclipse J 39 J 39 i the 39 the beautiful corona atmosphere ofthe Sun umbra m the Em m cl mumy Partial Lunar Eclipser A partial lunar eclipse occurswhen only a portion ofthe Moon entersthe umbra elliln39rlira Schematic diagram ofthe shadow cast bythe Earth 39thin the central umbra shadow the Moon is totallyshielded from direct illumination bythe Sun In contrast within the penumbra shadow only a portion ofsunlight is bloc ed Partial Solar Eclipse an eclipse ofthe sun inwhich the moon does not completely hide the solar surface or photosphere so that some direct rays of sunlight reachthe observer all the parts ofa total solar eclipse are outside ofthe path oftotality Emma 33mm Humilth Umranu Pulurnwn x Win in Hmmwmlu rMutiun ufthe Moan New moons Full moons l filllm n lh nh m n 39 ppasite side ufthe earth sa the entire sunlit part ufthe moon is facing us 39 a 39 a 39 39 quothalf moonquot degree angle with respecttu the earth and sun a 39ng Crescentr A erthe new hull lh n h If Waxing Gib n 57 he 39 39 39 39 Waning Gihhnusr he u E a E I 39Ayalliallullal nl a partiun Ul lhn lln lnr mr l Angular Sixe lnrmula D linear size of abject d ngularsize ai abject in arcsec abject istance D the Newton s law nlgravitatinn Farce A canstant called a x rnass aiiirst ub39ect x rnass ufsecund ub39ect divided by the square ufthe distance betweenthern AISD can be written as G ml quot12 2 F Parallax r y Parallax is the shiit in position at an abject caused by your awn matian meme stars f Neav stay pavaHax Earth s mmmn around Sun Huw cu ur uf hght 5 cunnected wwth energy frequency wave ength and ve umty llKruwng mum w k m Mmnm w A pzmcxesmmh exmbnswzveme behzvmr zsu trave sthruugh space THE RomAstcsnsnauM Wavelengm mm Rm39iy mew unyma V SM Miami my Sanmanly m m7 ml m m uu mu WVVVVWWVWW Ulslhie hum gt 4 mum14gt I 2 a Wavelength mug Light is connected to energy because the more energy an object has the higheralong the light spectrum an object gets When applied to a star a star s energy is related to its tempera ure For example a blue star has more energythan a red star because the blue star is on a higher end ofthe spectrum than the red star To see foryourself look at the above diagrams with respect to where red and blue is on the spectrum Light is connected to wavelength because an object that has more energy has a shorter wavelength than an object with less energy Wavelength of light V V Av 39 r J VlV AxaJ39V V 9 ihsl al quotim Order of wavebands of full spectrum and visible spectrum Visible spectrum red orange yellow green blue indigo violet Full spech39um Radio Microwave nfraredVisible Ultraviolet XRay Gamma Ray lJ39ght observable on Earth Visible spectrum along with Radio waves lJ39ght observable from Space Gamma Rays X Rays Ultraviolet Rays Infrared and longwavelength radio waves Spectroscopy The 3 spectra of light Continuous Spectrum Emission Lines Absor tion Lines u z Con nuous Spech39um A continuous spectrum is an emission pecuum 39 39 me D 39 ofvisible light eg white light Source of a continuous spectrum is a blackbody Emission Spech39um spectrum that contains bright emission lines Source of an emission spectrum is a hot tenuous cloud Absorption Spectrum dark lines superimposed on continuous spectrum ource of an absorption spectrum is a blackbody cool tenuous cloud Telescopes Types of Telescopes 0p al Telescope telescope designed for use with visible light Refracting Telescope A refracting or refractortelescope is a type of optical telescope that uses a lens as its objective to form an image also referred to a dioptric telescope mm lgllua r 1 m m rlr39un mm Refech39ng Telescope or combination of curved mirrors that reflect light and form an A reflecting telescope also called a reflector is an optical telescope which uses a single m my Malia rm ms my 1 mm w m mm m p r a m a Wrqu vac a angmgn wQ uvramwaw Ice amp Rock Mom celestial pom elenial sphere Earth s north pole 1 Earth39s equator Kama mm W r r Saulh celeinal paxe 5 my In the northern helm hem wuuer in the rumhem hemisphere nnsphere ummer m rhe smuheru hemisphere p autumn In the southern h uornh pole quot0th pet In onlinuous nus Murlh pole In unlinuuus dayligm Soulh pole n unnh polo sz Snulh pole in rnmihunus duyligm suruh pole in ruminunue darkness summer in Ike nnnhern hemixpheve h wmrerinrhesourhem hemisphere 539quot 5 50 Au um mare nonhemh sphere arhquot p sprmg m the snmhern hemrsphere unmerumn SUN AT LENGTH SEASON TEMP NOON OF DAY Winter C 00 L 0W Shun Fall Autumn Middle Middle 12 hours Summer High 011 any an emu run 7 Na 94 emu e Um v1 nod
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