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EDUC, SCHOOL, & SOC EDCI 2001
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Chapter 9 Responding to Diversity 0 Vocabulary o Bilingual education Cognitive styles Compensatory education Culturally responsive teaching Culture Enculturation English as a Second Language ESL Gender equity Inclusion Individualized Education Program Least Restrictive Environment 0 Multicultural Education 0 Diversity and Culture 0 Teaching diverse students is a reality 0 Population differs in many different ways 0 Culture is one importance difference I Includes macrocultures and microcultures subgroups I Language symbols and artifacts I Customs practices and interactional patterns I Shared values beliefs norms 0 PAGE 214 OOOOOOOOOO o Culturally Responsive Teaching 0 Responds to sociocultural context of teaching 0 Observant to behaviors and interactions 0 No quotone size fits all approach 0 Each student studied individually 0 Based on constructivist view oflearning students create their own meaning 0 Teachers need to integrate culture naturally into instruction and assessment 0 Children need to see themselves in curriculum materials 0 PAGE 217 o Culturally Responsive Teaching Strategies 0 Emphasizing verbal interactions 0 Teaching students to use selftalk o Facilitating divergent thinking 0 Using smallgroup instruction and cooperative learning o Employing verve into the classroom high level of energy and enthusiasm for learning 0 Focusing on realworld tasks 0 Promotin teacherstudent interactions Multicultural Education 0 PAGE 219214 0 Broader response than cultural responsive teaching 0 Recognizes accepts broad view of differences and similarities 0 Primary Goals I Help students gain selfunderstanding by viewing themselves from the perspective of other cultures Provide students with cultural ethnic language alternatives from the traditional Anglocentric curriculum Enable all students to learn in order to participate in any culture Reduce discrimination against groups Help students gain skills needed to be effective in global and technological world 0 5 dimensions according to Banks Creating Equal Educational Opportunities for Students With Disabilities 0 The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act I IDEA 0 Six major principles I Zero reject 0 Schools must educate all children with disabilities I Nondiscriminatory identification and evaluation I Free appropriate public education I Least restrictive environment I Due process safeguards I Shared decision making 0 Schools must collaborate with parents A Continuum of Services 0 Least restrictive regular classrooms 0 Most restrictive homebound hospital setting incarcerated Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act 0 Schools must I Prevent discrimination I Remove physical barriers I Remove programmatic barriers I Make reasonable accommodations Promoting Gender Equality 0 Differences in the educational experiences of girls and boys 0 Strategies for Achieving Gender Equity 0 Eliminate inequitable practices 0 Resist genderrole stereotyping 0 Use positive instructional strategies 0 Ensure accurate testing of abilities Chapter 4 The Impact of Educational Theories on Educational Practice 0 Vocabulary o Authentic assessment 0 BacktoBasic Movement 0 Behavioral objective 0 Classical conditioning o Constructivism 0 Critical literacy o Crucial theory 0 Cultural literacy 0 Great Books 0 Hegemony 0 Hidden Curriculum 0 Operant Conditioning 0 Premack Principle 0 Theories of Education 0 Definition of Theory a composite of systematic thinking and generalization of schooling 0 IIelps teachers explain what they are doing and why they are doing it 0 Most teachers include several theories into teaching o Perennialism 0 Include traditional philosophies such as idealism realism and neo Thomism 0 Purpose ofSchooling I To teach eternal truths cultivate rational intellect I Learning is a lifelong process 0 Cannot teach in the public school I Christian doctrine o Socratic Method 0 Progressivism o Developed from philosophy ofpragmatism I Darwin I Dewey 0 Purpose ofSchooling I School should model life I Includes moral economic educational and political goals I Encourages cooperation not competition 0 Curriculum I Experience centered relevant and re ective I Based on interests needs and experiences oflearners I Open classrooms o No walls 0 Instructional Methods I Group work and projects I Involve critical thinking problem solving decision making and cooperative learning 0 Behaviorism 0 Two types ofbehaviorism I Classical conditioning Pavlov s dog example I Operant conditioning any response to any stimulus can be conditioned using immediate reinforcement or reward 0 Negative or positive 0 Purpose ofSchooling I Increase appropriate behaviors decrease inappropriate behaviors I Schools modify and reinforce behavior 0 Curriculum I More interested in environmental variables than subject specific content 0 Instructional Methods I Providing reinforcement of appropriate behaviors o Essentialism 0 Did not agree with Dewey and his people 0 Content schools are watered down 0 Philosophies ofidealism and realism embedded 0 Purpose ofSchooling I Primary purpose is to train intellect and teach culture and traditions of past 0 No wasted time on subjects outside of core classes I Kill the arts I Don t believe in theater or arts or music 0 Social Reconstructionism 0 Based on philosophies of pragmatism and existentialism 0 Purpose ofSchooling I Critically examine all cultural and educational institutions I Not to settle for quotwhat is but explore quotwhat might be 0 Critical theory amp critical thinking skills 0 Community building less emphasis on control 0 Postmodernism 0 Based on critical theorycritiques institutions and makes assumptions about the political nature of those institutions 0 Purpose ofSchooling I To prepare students for critical citizenship and inquiry I Create awareness 0finequity of society 0 Curriculum I Believe curriculum taught is biased I Examines social justice and all unequal power relationships 0 Identifying your philosophy of education 0 You can be a miX ofvarious philosophies I Few teachers operate from a single philosophical or theoretical perspective 0 Philosophies can change over time I Your ideas about education may change over time Chapter 2 0 Key vocabulary terms 0 Action Research 0 Career Ladder 0 Code of Ethics 0 Formative EvaluationAssessment 0 Master Teacher 0 Mentoring 0 National Board Certification 0 PRAXIS 0 Profession 0 Professional Development 0 SelfRenewal o Summative EvaluationAssessment o TeacherLeader 0 Teaching as a Profession o Is teaching a profession 0 Has it attained the status of other professions I Teaching does not really have the status as a profession o Aprofessional model is a series of organizationaloccupational characteristics ofa profession that exists 0 Requirements of a Profession o Specialized knowledge and preparation I In uenced by teacher preparation programs INTASC principles 0 Provision of essential services to society I Importance of education in democracy is recognized o The exercise of discretion I Teachers routinely exercise discretion and judgment with students 0 Be exible 0 Be able to have discipline 0 Reliable for the safety of students 0 Autonomy and freedom from supervision I Teachers work with relatively high degree of autonomy 0 Code ofprofessional standards I Teachers are policed by public agencies at the state level professional practice boards or commissions I Every profession has agencies at different levels 0 Professional codes of ethics I Standards for behavior ofmembers I Page 31 in textbook 0 Principle 1 Commitment to the Student o Principle II Commitment to the Profession 0 Increased Professionalization ofTeaching 0 Great strides have been made to professionalize teaching in the 1990s I Standards have been raised for teacher education programs I State licensing requirements increased I Entrylevel exams for teachers have been mandated I Professional certification programs have been implemented I Performance based pay more common 0 Some states have implemented performance based I Increase ofadvancement opportunities 0 Increase level of education 0 Development of Professional Standards I NBPTS standards for experienced teachers I INTASC standards for beginning teachers I NCATE standards for teacher education programs I State standards and organizational standards such as NCTM 0 Professional Development 0 Ongoing and continuing process I Forever I So many hourscredits per year 0 NCLB has placed higher expectations on teacher quality 0 State or district sponsored activities 0 Professional conferences 0 Other options for professional development include I Lesson study I Learning walks I Faculty study groups I Action research 0 Done through Universities in the classroom 0 Career Advancement 0 Career Ladders 3 types I Performancebased ladder 0 Being looked at right now in our society I Iobenhancement ladder I Professional development ladder 0 Career Ladders 4 stageslevels I Apprentice teacher probationary 0 Evaluation periods I Professional teacher I Senior teacher 0 Not always good when they get put in mentor teacher roles 0 Not teaching in the classroom anymore 0 Teacher Tenure 0 Originally designed to protect teachers from political or personal abuse Designed to stabilize teaching force Mostly designed for public school teachers I Private schools write their own charters and can pick and choose their teachers 0 Teachers go for religion get away from discipline 0 Reasons FOR tenure I Protect the teacher from arbitrary dismissal I Protect rights of the individualdue process I Assures teacher understands problems and is given opportunities to correct 0 If they are a weak teacher at the beginning you can get help correcting the issues I Security of tenure may encourage some to enter teaching 0 Reasons AGAINST tenure I Teachers under probation remain in classroom 0 Not able to teach the content but still in the classroom teaching the content improperly I Cumbersome dismissal procedures 0 Hard to get rid of tenure teachers 0 Move the teachers around so they don t have to go through the dismissal process 0 Try to wear the teachers out so they leave without having to go through the dismissal process I Tenured teachers not evaluated as frequently 0 After the first three years you get evaluated maybe once a year or every three years 0 In the first three years you get evaluated every semester I May attract less people if tenure not available 0 Evaluating Teacher Performance 0 49 states have adopted legislation mandating formal evaluation of teachers 0 Summative teacher evaluation I At the end of activity for overall performance I For personnel decisions 0 Formative teacher evaluation I Ongoing intended for continuing feedback 00 0 Good principlesadministrators coming in and out of classrooms and knowing what is going on in their schools I Purpose for selfimprovementgrowth 0 Teachers make their own goals and attempt to reach their own goals 0 When you fail you work harder or give up 0 National Teacher Organizations Unions 0 Two major ones are NEA and AFT I NEA is largest employee union in United States I AFT more concentrated in urban areas I Both work for the same goals I Both provide professional development 0 Teacher Organizations 0 Local Organizations for Teachers I Many benefits professionally and socially I Includes collective representation of teachers in discussions for salary and working conditions 0 Specialized Organizations for Teachers I For each discipline and role I Provide professional development 0 Public Policy Issues I 2000 9 AFT and NEA formed a partnership Chapter 13 Governance and Financing of Elementary and Secondary Education 0 Vocabulary o Adequacy Categorical funding Choice Equalized foundation grant Equity Flat grant Full state funding Local property tax 0 Organization for Education 0 American education is operated through state agencies not a national or federal system 0 Policies are set by governors state legislature state boards of education and local school boards 0 Education is largest item in state budget Historically the federal government has had a very limited role but recently has expanded I Because ofNo Child Left Behind 0 Very decentralized system states set up districts that are responsible for the operation of schools 0 Governing body of school districts is a school board 0 District budgeting I Personnel costs are majority of school budgets o Sitebased management I Shifts decision making from central administrators to site based councils I This has been proven to raise teacher morale and student performance 0 Charter schools I Gives parents a choice between traditional public schools 0 Totally current expenditures by function 20012002 I Instructional services 698 0 Teachers salaries 0 Teaching materials I Student services 77 I Maintenance and operations 76 I School site leadership 55 I Central administration and school board 49 I Heating cooling utilities 24 I Other 21 0 Education at the State amp Federal Level 0 Statelevel governance 0000000 0 I State department of education I State board of education I Chief state school officer 0 Federal Government and Public Education I Federal government has expanded to offer programs ans services to schools I Gathering and reporting national data I Research supported by federal monies I Performance and assessment NCLB US deartment 0 Financing of Education 0 Financing for schools differ among states 0 States must be responsible for education and for designing and implementing a program that provides equality for each student Public policy goals in state school finance based on I Equity equal treatment ofpersons in equal circumstances I Adequacy must provide for quality of staff sufficient materials and facilities Choice includes control of funding and power ofparents to select school 0 State school finance programs I States use several basic approaches to allocate funds to schools including 0 Full state funding from state level taxes not very commonHawaii 0 Flat grants allocated funds per unit not usually a primary source of funding 0 Equalized Foundation Grants determined by multiplying the umber and type of students to determine a per pupil expenditure Collected through a uniform taX rate applies to assessed value of property in district most common type 0 Sources of Revenue vary for each state I Local sources of taX revenue 0 Ad valorem taX local property tax 0 90 of money from taxes comes from property tax 0 Very stable source of revenue for schools 0 Violates principles of equity and progressivity O o Puts larger burden on lower income residence I Local sources of nontaX revenues 0 Schools may charge participation or user fees for eventsactivitieselectives etc could be considered discriminatory if activity is based part of school program 0 Concessions 0 Dances 0 School events 0 Donor activities booster clubs etc 0 Enterprise activities leasing facility and services 0 Includes inschool commercialism I State sources of revenue 0 Sales taX and income taX also are sources of funding for schools 0 20 states earmark lottery profits for public schools I Federal sources of revenue 0 Primary source is federal income taX 0 Private education 0 000 US has provided alternatives to public education since the colonial period State has the right to regulate private schools Take different forms according to needs ofparentscommunity Enrollment in private schools slight decline may be due to choice for parents with charter option Enrolled in private schools with probably remain stable unless government provides vouchers Homeschooling is a form ofprivate schooling and allowed in all states I Has increased dramatically in last 20 years I Parents primarily concerned about instruction or safety in schools American Education European Heritage and Colonial Experience 0 Education in Ancient NonWestern Societies 0 Hindu I Centered on teaching ofVedas Hindu sacred scripture I By 6th century BC turned to new religious movement of Buddhism I Best teacher would have been Buddha 0 Education centered around religion 0 Hebrew I Prepared individuals to serve God 0 Centered around religion 0 China I Preparing sons of nobility for government service I Later schools based curriculum on Confucius I Education was more focused on the state rather than religion 0 Male dominance o Nobility 0 Egypt I Connected with templelearned by hieroglyphics I Invented papyrus the first form ofpaper I Believed in many gods 0 Education in Ancient Western Societies 0 Greece I First educators in Western world 0 Socrates o Aristotle o Plato I Sparta and Athens did not agree on approach to education 0 Sparta military state inculcate patriotism and sacrifice 0 Athens democracy no compulsory education 0 Required education 0 Rome I Theories of Greeks had great impact on Rome I Quintilian Roman educator concerned with education of whole person s intellectual and moral nature 0 Against corporal punishment 0 First public school teacher 0 Philosophies of Socrates Plato and Aristotle o Socrates I Knowledge virtue ethically and morally important to all men I Education and society tied closely together I Socratic method inquiry or questioning process 0 Plato I Studied under Socrates I State should operate educational system I Prepare the individual for their role in society 0 Aristotle I Studied under Plato I More scientific realist o Prove it to me Introduced scientific method 0 Education in Middle Ages 0 End of Roman Empire 0 Roman Catholic Church becomes dominant force education under church I Roman Catholicism was the dominant religion at this time period 0 Thomas Aquinas I Reconciled religion with rationalism of Aristotle I Curriculum contained theology and liberal arts I Catholic I Neotheoism 0 Medieval Universities I Latter middle ages great universities were established I Students listened to lecture and debated each other 0 No interaction like there is today 0 Teacher would tell exactly what to say 0 In uence ofArab scholars on Western education 0 Translated ancient Greek manuscripts o Invented algebra and advanced science and medicine 0 Contributed to the Arabic numbering system 0 Education during the Renaissance o 111 116th centuries 0 Period of great change 0 Dominant philosophy was humanism I Stressed dignity free will and value of human spirit 0 Focused on classic works o Erasmus used text to teach language and Christian doctrine model for later New England Primer most important textbook in colonial America 0 Martin Luther I Objected to the power and authority of Catholic Church I Believed that everyone should read scriptures themselves I Children should be provided free and compulsory education I Education should be supported by the state 0 John Calvin I Stressed universal compulsory statesupported education I Produced well educated citizenry and religious indoctrination I In uence was brought to the colonies of the New World 0 Later European Educational Thought 0 Reformation gave way to Age of Enlightenment or Reason Reliance on scientific inquiry 0 Francis Bacon I Emphasized critical thinking in schools 0 Comenius I Education must allow children to experience and do things I First person to propose a theory of growth and development 0 John Locke I Tabula Rosa come into world with blank slate o Rousseau I Naturalism freedomindividuality o Pestalozzi I Childcentered philosophy 0 Education in quotNEWquot Old World 0 In uenced not only by English but by French and Spanish 0 French empire educated and converted Native Americans 0 Spanish empire in Southwest and Southeast established missions taught Spanish language and taught vocational skills 0 Native American Education I 300 tribes and 200 languages Each group had formal or informal training ofyouth I Included skills and values of culture I Relied more on oral tradition than written word 0 Colonial Education 0 New England Colonies I Included Maine New Hampshire Rhode Island Connecticut and Massachusetts I Universities include Harvard 1636 Yale 1701 Brown 1764 and Dartmouth 1769 o MidAtlantic Colonies I Included New York Pennsylvania New Iersey Maryland and Delaware Parochoial schools with no governmental support I Universities include Princeton 1746 Pennsylvania 175 3 Columbia 1754 and Rutgers 1766 0 Southern Colonies I Included Virginia North Carolina South Carolina Georgia and East Florida I Universities include William and Mary 1693 o Vocabulary o Atrisk Chapter 10 o Bullying 0 Drop out o Resiliency o AtRisk Children and Youth 0 Includes children and adolescents who need special services or treatment 0 Are experiencing or will experience physical and mental health problems Cannot always see all mental health problems 0 Achieving below grade level or face educational problems in the future 0 Identifying AtRisk Students 0 Early identification is best way to develop and implement programs 0 Most prominent factors include Underachievement Retention in grade Social maladjustment 0 Culture 0 Society Discipline problems Dropping out of school Low parental support Physical problems Using and abusing drugs or alcohol 0 Average age 12 or 13 0 Usually get it from their parents Engaging in premature unprotected sexual activity Being a victim or perpetrator ofviolence Contemplating or attempting suicide 0 Includes disproportionate number of ethnicminority children Black Hispanic Native American nonEnglish speaking children children of singleparent families and gay lesbian and bisexual and transgender youth 0 Many atrisk children and youth are resilient and have been able to cope with adversity o Resilient children and youth are most often socially competent autonomous have problemsolving skills and have a sense of purpose or future 0 Key protective factors include supportive relationships family factors community factors school factors and cultural and religious factors 0 Tobacco Drug and Alcohol Use and Abuse 0000 O O O O Decrease in amount of tobacco marijuana and cocaine in last ten years Still 1 in 5 high school students in United States current smokers Smokeless tobacco peaked in 90s and then declined in all grades Alcohol use remains stable Strongest predictor of alcohol use is a pattern or changes in the person Teachers should become familiar with educational prevention programs offered in school or district Become acquainted with treatment programs in community I Cannot make recommendations to students for the community programs Safe and Drug Free Schools and Communities SDFSC Act I Prevents violence and illegal use of alcohol tobacco and drugs in and around schools I Supports school based programs providing drug awareness and drugfree areas I Effective prevention programs address more than one risk factor I Parental involvement is important at all levels 0 Adolescent Suicide 0 O O O O Suicide is the second leading cause of death among 1519 year olds Highest rate ofa suicide attempts by females 93 llighest among American IndianAlaskan Native females and lowest among African American and White adolescent males Substance abuse and depression are among key risk factors for suicide Prevention includes programs that emphasize decision making problem solving and lifeskills training Often incorporated in health program curriculum Crisis Intervention Team is leading approach for intervention 0 Dropping out of School 0 O A student who leaves school for any reason before graduation or completion ofa program without transferring to another school Every day 7000 students drop out of school OO O Highstakes testing has worsened the problem I Ifyou don t pass you don t get promoted Significant difference in drop out rates among racialethnic groups Dropouts twice as likely to live in poverty and more likely to be incarcerated Costs the nation considerable in welfare and social support programs It is possible for schools to identify potential dropouts by 9th grade with 85 accuracy Early identification and prevention I Negative school experiences I Premature transitions to adulthood work pregnancy I Retained at least one grade I Lack of basic skills I History of school transfers I Parent or older sibling as dropout I Dislike for school I Low socioeconomic status I Lack of parental involvement I Others 0 Prevention and Intervention for Dropouts 0 000 O 0 Pay attention to transition years of school 6th and 9th grades Absences greater predictor than test scores among 9th graders Students behind in credits need identification Potential dropouts need ongoing comprehensive personal attention and monitored closely Curriculum should be academically challenging and relevant to personal experiences Some states have passed quotno pass no drive laws 0 Teen Pregnancy 0 O 0 00000 0 HIVAIDS and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections 2006 teen birthrate increased from 1991 Largest increase for nonHispanic Blacks US has highest teen pregnancy and birthrate than any other industrialized country More likely to live in poverty Often lack prenatal care Mortality rate of teenage mothers is high Infants more often atrisk for health problems Most schools advocate only an abstinenceonly health curriculum to revent teen renancy 0 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency Virus HIV which destroys the body s immune system 0 Black and Hispanic adolescents are disproportionately affected by HIVAIDS o Sexually transmitted infections STIs are a major health threat 0 Chlamydiabacterial infections most commonly reported 0 Debates among best intervention strategies 0 Child Maltreatment 0 Major types of maltreatment include neglect physical sexual and emotional I Child neglect failure to provide a child s basic physical educational or emotional needs I Physical abuse I Sexual abuse 9 of children were Victims in 2010 o CHILD ABUSE MUST BE REPORTED BY SCHOOL COUNSELORS OR TEACHERS TO THE LOCAL CHILD PROTECTIVE AGENCY DEPARTMENT OF WELFARE OR LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCY Chapter 11 o Vocabulary 0 000000 0 Administrative law Case law Child Benefit Theory Lemon Test Secular humanism Stare decisis TaX b en efit Voucher 0 Federal Constitution Provisions Affecting Education 0 Constitutions are uniquely American 0 Student and Teacher First Amendment Rights Religion PAGE 267 O o Vocabulary Aesthetics Axiology Cosmology Deductive logic Epistemology O O O O O O O O O O O 0 Ethics Chapter Three The Major Philosophies Hermeneutics Inductive logic Metaphysics Ontology Philosophy of education Scientific Method 0 Philosophy 0 Philosophies can change over time Teachers parents governmental figures all have hands in education 0 Teachers can believe in one thing but their students believe in something different Can cause trouble for the teacher 0 Paddling in schools corporal punishment Both can be issues 0 Branches of Philosophy 0 Metap hysics Deep part ofphilosophy Experience and interaction with environment pragmatism How do we know we exist 0 Concerned with reality and existence Two subcategories o Ontology what is the nature of existence 0 Cosmology origin and organization of the universe The mind and eternal ideas that represent perfect order idealism Physical things or nature and our experience or perception of those things realism Physical objects and human beings including our minds and ideas are a creation ofGod neothomism Existence precedes essence the individual determines personal reality by choice existentialism o Epistemology How do we know that we know I Tentative truth determined by the scientific method or function pragmatism I Logic is a key 0 Deductive logic from general to specific 0 Inductive logic from specific facts to generalization I A rational orderly body of truth idealism I The discovery oflogical orderly truth of the external world via sensing and the scientific method realism I Faith and reason enable us to know God neothomism I The individual is responsible for personal knowledge existentialism o Axiology I What is the nature ofvalues I Ethical conduct and moral codes are determined by what works aesthetics are determined by experimental consequences pragmatism I Absolute eternal and universal a re ection of the ideal God idealism I Natural law or moral law governing what is good realism I Goodness follows reason Beauty follows knowledge Ignorance is the source of evil neothomism I Values consist ofpersonal choices existentialism I Two subcategories 0 Ethics study of human conduct and examines moral values 0 Aesthetics values beauty nature and aesthetic experience often associated with music art literature dance theater and other fine arts o Philosophies 0 Traditional I Idealism I Realism I Neotheism 0 Contemporary I Pragmatism I Existentialism 0 Anal tic Philoso hy 0 Major Traditional Philosophy Idealism o Considered the oldest philosophy ofWestern culture 0 The world of mind ideas and reason is primary I Metaphysics stresses mind over matter nothing is real except for an idea in the mind Epistemology all knowledge includes a mental grasp ofideas and concepts I AXiology values are rooted in reality 0 Leading proponents of Idealism I Plato 0 Greek philosopher o Considered father ofidealism o quotAllegory of the Cave from The Republic 0 According to Plato quotA just society always tries to give the best education to all ofits members in accordance with their ability 0 First to propose equal education for men and women based on their ability to learn not their gender I Augustine o Theologian of 4thamp 5th centuries 0 Applied Plato s assumptions to Christian thought 0 Augustine quothuman beings can be the teacher but only in an analogical sense I Descartes Kant amp Hegel o Descartes quotI think therefore I am 0 Founded analytic geometry that bridge between algebra and geometry crucial to the invention 0 Kant certain universal moral laws categorical imperatives o Hegel approached reality as quotcontest of oppositesquot 0 Major Traditional Philosophy Realism o The antithesis of Idealism o Universe eXists whether mind perceives it or not I Metaphysics reality composed of matter body and form mind I Epistemology sense realism knowledge comes through senses I AXiology values derived from nature 0 Leading proponents of Realism I Aristotle Father of realism Student of Plato Argued that knowledge can be acquired through senses According to Aristotle quotWe are the sum of our actions and quottherefore our habits make all the difference 0 Knowledge is acquired through the senses but first one had to understand the physical world I Francis Bacon 0 Advanced a rigorous form of inductive reason I John Locke 0 Theory of tabula rasa no such thing as innate ideas 0 Tabula rasa blank slate which proposed there are no such things as innate ideas I Comenius Rousseau and Pestalozzi o Rousseau quotI will say little ofimportance ofa good education nor will I stop to prove the current one is bad I will only note that for the longest time there has been nothing but a cry against the established practice without anyone taking it upon himself to propose a better way 0 Childcenter approach to education 0 Major Traditional Philosophy NeoThomism 0 Thomas Aquinas I Theistic realism I quotGod exists and can be known through faith and reason 0 Metaphysics God gives meaning to universe 0 Epistemology hierarchy of knowing God 0 Axiology unchanging moral laws 0 Contemporary Philosophy Pragmatism 0 Experience or things that work 0 Philosophy of 20th century developed by John Dewey I Metaphysics regard reality as an event or process Meaning is derived from experience in environment Epistemology truth is not absolute but determined by consequences Arrived at by inquiry testing questioning retesting etc Axiology primary focused on values Determined by own experiences 0 Leading proponents I Auguste Comte 0 Suggested science could solve social problems 0 The goal ofknowledge is simply to describe the phenomena experienced not the question whether it exists or not I Charles Darwin 0 Theory of natural selection implied that reality was open ended not fixed and subject to change I John Dewey 0 quotThere are no eternal unchanging truths the truth is always changing 0 Contemporary Philosophy Existentialism O O Appeared as a revolt against the mathematical scientific philosophies that preceded it I Metaphysics no purpose or meaning to universe No world order or natural scheme of things I Epistemology we come to know truth by choice The authority is found in self I Axiology choice to determine value Leading Proponents I Soren Kierkegaard I Martin Buber I IeanPaul Sarte 0 quotBecause there is no God to give existence meaning humanity exist without any meaning until we construct our own 0 Free choice implies total responsibility for our own actions I NelNoddings 0 Modeling dialogue practice and confirmation 0 Analytic Philosophy 0 O 0 South out to clarify and define philosophies Began in postWWI era I Studied the alienation between philosophy and science I Established the concept oflogical positivism there are logical and empirical types of scientific expression I Recently focused on political philosophy ethics and philosophy of human sciences Leading proponents I Ludwig Wittgenstein 0 quotTo a certain extent may by thinking logically could either through induction or deduction discover and describe the truth in the sense ofa metaphysical or ontological concept I Israel Schef er o Focused attention on philosophic analysis 0 Review Questions for Chapter 3 0 000000 0 What is a philosophy and why is it important for teachers Define the three branches ofphilosophy What is idealism and name a proponent ofit What is realism and someone who supports it What is neoThomism and who is it named after What are two contemporary philosophies What are some key differences between the two contemporary philosophies Explain philosophic logic Chapter 8 The Social and Cultural Contexts of Schooling Their In uence and Consequence Vocabulary 0 Ethnic groups Language minority Mass media National Assessment of Educational Progress NAEP Social Class Social Mobility Socialization Society 0 Socioeconomic Status Relationship Between School and Society 0 Society group of people who share a culture government institutions land or set of social relationships 0 Socialization process by which persons are conditioned to customs or norms ofa culture 0 PAGE 188 Schools often re ect the society in which they service Schools reinforce and transmit common values and work to im lement social change 0000000 00 Purposes and Expectations of Schools 0 Three different perspectives ofpurpose of schools I Functionalist benefits to social and economic order I Con ict theory perpetuation ofinequality I Integrationist examines interactions in social setting of school Diverse Student Populations 0 Social class I Upper class 3 of society I Upper middle class 22 of society I Lower middle class 34 of society I Upper working class 28 of society I Lower working class 13 of society 0 Referred to as socioeconomic status SES I Determined by many variables 0 Effects of Poverty on Learning 0 In 2006 nearly 13 million children lived in poverty I Since then number has jumped up even more 0 Impact on health effects cognitive functioning and academic achievement 0 Less exposure to enrichment activities 0 Limited parent involvement in academics 0 Parental income related to school readiness 0 Social Class Achievement and Attainment Gaps 0 Goal of equal educational opportunity has never been achieved 0 NAEP and SAT testing reports consistently show achievement related to household income levels 0 Social class is one of the most significant predictors of educational attainment re ardless of race or ethnicity 0 Students with Exceptionalities 0 Includes both giftedtalented as well as students with mental and physical disabilities Education for disabilities has grown steadily since 1970s Individuals with Disabilities Education Act IDEA American IndiansAlaska Natives and Blacks more likely than any other group to receive services or special education Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD is most commonly diagnosed childhood psychiatric disorder 000 O Chapter SiX o TIGERS TALK 0 Identify two common practices from Education in Ancient Societies to the Colonial Experience 0 Education in the Early National Period 0 Northwest Land Ordinances I Land Ordinance of 1785 0 Required the 16th section of land in each township to be set aside for the support of education 0 Nationalism and Education I Thomas Jefferson 0 Believed men were entitled certain rights 0 Provided legislation in Virginia for system of free universal public education I Benjamin Rush 0 Advocate of education for blacks and women 0 Most blacks were slaves 0 Most women were working in the house I Noah Webster 0 Schools should have distinctive language and curriculum to prove political independence from England 0 Best known for his dictionary 0 Education in the Early National Period 0 Educational innovations I Monitorial Schools Started by an American Quaker 0 One paid teacher instructed hundreds through use of student helpers or quotmonitorsquot I Free School SocietiesCharity Schools For poor children in urban environment I Sunday Schools Taught children who worked during the week I Infant Schools Designed for children age 47 0 At age 8 you went to work 0 The Growth of the Academy Provided more practical education Varied greatly Forerunner of the high school Academies for women 0 Mount Holyoke Female Seminary 1837 0 Troy Female Seminary 1821 I Franklin s Academy 1751 0 Alternative to traditional Latin grammar school provided a quotpractical education I United States Military Academy at West Point 1802 I Naval Academy at Annapolis 1848 0 The Common School Movement 0 Educational system as we now know it began in 1830 0 State systems of education established I Moving forces 0 Changing demographics larger more urban o Demands of the working class 0 Social control 0 The richest people did not want the lower classes going to school 0 The Frontier Movement 0 Moving towards the West 0 Extended suffrage o The people did not want the lower classes voting at this point in time 0 Educational journals and organizations 0 Protestant Religious Accommodation 0 Leading Proponents of the Common School Movement 0 Horace Mann I In uenced educational legislation I Established normal schools first teacher training institutions 0 Henry Barnard I Democratic philosophy 0 Catherine Beecher I Stron su porter of common school and female teachers 0 Growth of State and Local Support and Supervision 0 Increased state support providing aid to schools 0 Prior to having taxes support education parents of children in school paid a rate bill I Tuition I Based on the number of kids you send to school 0 LARGE families at this time 0 Not a lot ofmoney I Could only send the number ofkids they could afford to send to school 0 Creation of State Boards and State Superintendents of Education 0 Creation of Local School Districts and Superintendents 0 Common Schools developed more organized curriculum and practices 0 Secondary School Movement 0 000 0 Fully established in later part of 19th century First comprehensive high school was established in 1831 Grew slowly prior to Civil War primarily in urban areas Factors contributing to growth of secondary education I Increased population growth and demand for skilled workers I Tax support and compulsory attendance laws furthered secondary education and literacy The Committee ofTen 1892 I Representatives from higher education I Established by National Education Association I Proposed a standardized curriculum I Basic subjects with little room for electives I Curriculum dominated by collegeprep courses 0 Want children to go to college after High School I Carnegie Unit 0 Credits earned in High School Seven Cardinal Principles 1918 challenged Committee of Ten I A group responding critically to original decision I Identified objectives important for education I Not solely focused on collegeprep goals 0 Developments in Higher Education 0 O O 0 Increase in common schools led to increase in higher education First state institutions established in the South Lection recitation and strict discipline common I No free open debates I No open discussions Dartmouth College Case I Private colleges secure from government control Morrill ActsLandGrant Institutions I LSU has benefited from the Morrill ActsLandGrant I Granted 30000 acres ofland to each state for each senator and representatives in 1860 I Second Morrill Act provided for grants to each state to develop landgrant colleges Higher Education for Women I Few opportunities for women before the Civil War Emergence of the Modern University I 200 colleges were established in United States Founding of Junior Colleges I First established in 1901 established by 1920 0 Education ofMinorities 0 Opportunities for education not even across classes or races ofpeople 0 Native Americans I Initiated by missionaries trying to convent I Treaties and mission schools trying to assimilate Native Americans to American society I Boarding schools established to help remove children from tribal settings 0 Alot of children got European diseases and died I Native language and culture excluded from classroom I In later 19th century the Bureau of Indian Affairs operated day schools on the reservation I Meriam Report granted United States citizenship to all Native Americans 0 Documented all of the bad conditions of the Native Americans 0 Education of Hispanic Americans I Life for Mexicans who remained in southwestern states forced to assimilate I Segregated in schools 0 Asian Americans I Discriminated against like other minorities I Marked by segregation I Special language needs ignored 0 Black Americans I Prior to Civil War education virtually nonexistent 0 Social Control 0 Slaves would possibly rise up against their white owners I After Civil War Peabody Fund for the Advancement of Negro Education in the South I Freedmen s Bureau established 3000 schools 1869 I Booker T Washington 0 Emphasized the dignity of labor rather than academic education 0 Advocated practical education to help make blacks self sufficient I WEB Dubois o Believed in education for political and civil equality of blacks o Encouraged political activism and founded the NAACP 0 First African American graduate of Harvard I Segregation of Public Schools 0 Remained in effect under desegregation movement of 1950s and 1960s o TIGERS TALK 0 To what extent do the poor and minorities continue to compete for limited educational resources I Resources I Quality of teachers I Just as bad in innercity schools as in rural schools I Cultural issues 0 Teacher Education 0 O 0 Formal training of teachers in US began in 19th century Originally chosen for religious beliefs rather than educational abilities Many times teachers were those who were unsuccessful at other occupations Teacher Institutes I Before normal schools teachers had little training would attend institute Normal Schools I Included specific training for teachers I Mainly included women I Included a model schools where students could practice teaching I By 1920 programs were 4 years and became teachers colleges and later quotstate colleges Universities offer Teacher Training I At end of19th century I Originally more focused on advanced knowledge of subject matter Ch Standards 0 Standa apter 15 Standards and Assessment rds are benchmarks used to compare curriculum instruction and student learning 0 Three kinds of standards commonly referred to 0 Assessment Curriculum content standards What students should know and be able to do Established by national associations of teachers Performance standards 0 Things students can perform or do once content standards are learned Opportunity to learn standards 0 Defines conditions and resources necessary for students to have opportunity to learn material 0 Any process or activity used to collect information about students knowledge skills or attitudes o Statew 0 Six maj I ide testing referred to as highstakes have been controversial or purposes ofassessment To improve student learning formative assessment To diagnose individual student learning strengths and weaknesses diagnostic assessment To assess students knowledge level or proficiency summative assessment To compare performance of students normreferenced To assist students in making decisions about courses of study or career planning To evaluate schools Standardized Assessment 0 Assessments are either formal standardized or informal classroom 0 O O O O Standardized are data driven Includes achievement and aptitude tests Use specific guidelines for scoring and interpreting Most common are achievement tests containing several subject areas Most often they are normreferenced compares students across age and grade Can als o be criterionreferenced compared to performance standard or criterion Classroom Assessment 0 More connected to standards curriculum and instruction 0 Used to assess student progress and inform practice 0 Commonly used assessment strategies Observation assessment 0 Most common form of classroom assessment I Performance assessment authentic assessment 0 Often includes the use ofa rubric I Portfolio assessment 0 Can include best work or growth I Teacher made tests and quizzes 0 Essay short answer fill in the blank Criteria for Quality Assessment 0 Assessments must be fair and accurate to have value 0 Must include absence of bias reliability and validity 0 Absence of bias I Language and content can create bias against student subgroups I Must be fair for English language learners and students with disabilities I Teachers must provide accommodations or alternative modes of accessresponse Criteria for Quality Assessment Reliability 0 Reliability consistency I For standardized tests one can verify reliability through 0 Testretest 0 Alternative forms 0 Internal consistency o Interrater reliability I For classroom assessments reliability can be verified through 0 Generalizability o Sufficiency of evidence 0 Clarity of directions and expectations Criteria for Quality Assessment Validity o Validity does it measure what it is supposed to I For standardized assessment validity is established through 0 Content validity o Concurrent validity o Predictive validity I For classroom assessments validity can be verified through 0 Representation and fidelity Cognitive demands Consistency of assessments Alignment with instruction Enhancing fairness and minimizing bias 0 Consequences ofinterpretation and use of results 0 StandardsBased Education and Assessment 0 Standardsbased reform agenda started with A Nation at Risk publication 0 Different from traditional way of teaching I Curriculum is determined by state or district not by teacher or school I Standards serve as basis for planning instruction I Focus on student outputs or achievement and accountability Assessment is embedded in teachinglearning process not only used when instruction ends Chapter 14 0 National Curriculum Standards 0 Page 353 0 Pa e 363 0 Hidden and Null Curricula 0 Hidden curriculum is sometimes known as informal and may be unintended and not re ected in the school s set curriculum but a powerful message is communicated to students about what is valued and important Includes the norms and values that underlie the formal curriculum 0 Null curriculum includes things that are consciously not taught because they are controversial because ofinsufficient funds because educators are uninformed or because relevant materials are nonexistent Chapter 12 Teachers Students and the Law 0 Vocabulary 0 Academic freedom 0 Disparate impact 0 Disparate treatment 0 Educational malpractice o Immorality o Incompetence o Insubordination o Negligence o Tort 0 Terms and Conditions of Employment 0 Certification I Most positions in teaching require a certificate or license I Certificate or license only makes person eligible I All states have established certification requirements 0 Citizenship and Residency Requirements I Courts have upheld citizenship and residency requirements as a condition of employment 0 Health and Physical Requirements I Most states and school boards have adopted health and physical requirements for teachers I Schools however cannot discriminate against teachers with disabilities as long as it does not interfere with ability to teach 0 Employment Contract I Must contain basic elements of Offer and acceptance Legally competent parties Consideration compensation Legal subject matter Agreement in the form required by law 0 Tenure I Designed to maintain permanent and qualified teachers 0 Teacher Dismissal 0 Grounds for dismissal I The provisions for dismissing a teacher quotfor cause varies among states I Most frequently cited are immorality incompetency and insubordination I School board must provide evidence and give teacher due process I Factors for determining immoral conduct as cause for dismissal Age and maturity of the students Likelihood that conduct of teacher will have an adverse effect on other students or teachers Degree of anticipated adversity Proximity of the conduct Extenuating circumstances of event Likelihood that conduct would be repeated Underlying motives Chilling effect on rights of teachers I Six categories for determining incompetencv as cause for dismissal o Inadequate teaching 0 Lack of knowledge of subject 0 Unreasonable discipline 0 Failure to work effectively with colleagues supervisors or parents 0 Physical or mental incapacity o Neglect of duty I Insubordination 0 Persistent willful deliberate violation of rule or direct order 0 Must be careful not to infringe on teachers constitutional rights 0 Constitutional Rights ofTeachers o The rights of teachers have recently expanded to include I Procedural due process I Freedom of expression I Right to associate I Academic freedom Rights of Privacy Employee searches Freedom from employment discrimination and sexual harassment Equal opportunity and affirmative action 0 Legal Responsibilities ofTeachers 0 Reporting child abuse and neglect I All states have enacted statutes requiring teachers to report actual or suspected child abuse and neglect immediately 0 Observing copyrights I Fair use doctrine allows for nonprofit reproduction and use of materials for classroom use without permission under certain conditions 0 Tort liability of school district employees I Tort civil wrong that leads to injury to another and for which a court will provide a remedy in the form of an action for damages I Liability insurance is purchased in many school districts to protect employees against negligence defined by 0 Standard of care and duty 0 Proximate cause 0 Educational and professional malpractices 0 Student Rights and Responsibilities 0 Student discipline 0 Search and seizure I Probable cause 0 Freedom of expression I Students publications I Student appearance 0 Sexual harassment of students 0 Student records and privacy 0 Student Discipline 0 School officials have the authority and duty to establish reasonable rules of conduct including the ability to discipline students for violations 0 Due rocess is rovided to students Chapter Seven Modern American Education 0 Economic Political and Social Forces of the 20th Century Education 0 Staggering population growth 0 Move to more urban populations 0 Profound economic growth I More funding for education Progressives lead reform in business practices Changes in education I Larger schoolsdistricts o Bigger populations I Increased state control of education 0 The Constitution does not guarantee education 0 Progressive Education 0 Aligned with progressive movement in culture 0 Reforms included I More sanitary conditions 0 The ungle I More conducive to creativity I Improved learning environment I Lower pupilteacher ratios 0 151 ratio was ideal I Basic heath carefood services 0 John Dewey I Studentcentered curriculum I Experience Ella Flagg Young In uence on Higher Education I Movement to expand higher education 0 The Child Study Movement I Studying children 0 Measurement Movement I Intelligence quotient IQ Lewis Terman 0 Not the test 0 Because ofWorld War I 0 Mental development 0 Mental ability to be soldiers OO 00 I Most did not have the mental ability to be soldiers and most could not read 0 Scale that was set 0 Gifted 0 Regular 0 Impact of Great Depression WWII and Cold War 0 Great Depression I Indian New Deal 0 Reservation schools I Couldn t pay teachers 0 Social Reconstructionism I Change education 0 Essentialists back to basics I Reading I Writing I Arithmetic 0 In uence of Second World War I Intelligence quotient from World War I o Postwar Years I Life Adjustment Education vocation amp health focus I Had to regroup after World War II Federal Education Legislation I National Defense Education Act 195 8 o Sputnik 9 Russian Satellite beginning of the Cold War first ones into space 0 Science amp math were the focus 0 Civil Rights and War on Poverty 0 Civil Rights Movement I Brown vs Board of Education 0 Separate but not equal I Civil Rights Act 1964 I Other Advances Bilingual Education Act etc o Ifyou spoke English as a second language you were not allowed to speakyour native language in schools I Social Unrest O O 0 1970s 0 197039s 0 198039s 0 199039s Education from 19701990s Conservative approach and increased accountability Financial uncertainty as costs went up and teachers fought for greater salaries Education Declining public confidence in schools Lower academic achievement called for a quotback to basics curriculum Education Resurged conservatism in education under President Reagan Reductions in federal funds for education High standards and greater accountability National Commission on Excellence in Education Investigated the quality of the public school systems A Nation at Risk Report quotCall to Action 0 First what was wrong with schools topdown corrections 0 Second local level structure and processes of schools bottomup corrections Education Goals 2000 Formalized national educational goals Academic Content Standards 2010 the United States adopted the Common Core standards High Stakes Testing Standardized tests School Choice and vouchers Public School Choice for parents If schools are nor performing well parents have a choice Charter Schools Private charters take over a public school that has been deemed a failure No Child Left Behind Act 0 Widesweeping educational legislation 0 Under 0 Requir George W Bush 2001 es Statewide standards in reading and math Minimum criteria that you have to have to pass Annual testing in grades 38 and once in grades 1012 Documentation ofprogress in meeting standards for whole population and separate groups I Meeting Adequate Yearly Progress AYP guidelines or is considered underperforming