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by: Stacy Dickinson
Stacy Dickinson
GPA 3.55

H. Buckingham

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H. Buckingham
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stacy Dickinson on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMD 4150 at Louisiana State University taught by H. Buckingham in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see /class/222920/comd-4150-louisiana-state-university in Communication Disorders & Sciences at Louisiana State University.


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Date Created: 10/13/15
Lecture notes PHONEMES P a I ALLOPHONES ph p p a a a l l l PHONES ph a l p a l p l a Phoneme the structural unit Allophone grouping of closely related sounds Phone individualisolated sounds Allo one of a group of closely related items which together constitute a structural unit Phones o p oral stop 0 nasalized made with the mouth being wide open but the velum is lowered dark I aka velarized Le Paul p unaspirated voiceless bilabial stop a tongue is slightly to the back lips slightly rounded velum raised dental Le health not released ie sip o a longer in duration ie sob Allophones patterns of similar sounds o p p all voiceless bilabial stops 0 Each group is a structural unit Only use for phonemic transcriptions Light alveolar l Dark l velarized l 2 groups of approximants o Liquids o Glides English puts glottal stop in a CVC when coda consonant is a voiceless stop If you have anticipatory you can have carryover too voiceless Le please ph iz OOOOO a a Phonetics Test one Highlights from chapter one Vocal tract air passages above the pharynx Articulators parts of the vocal tract such as tongue and lips used to form sounds Phonation process name given to actions of vocal folds Speech sounds differ from another in 3 waysipitch loudness and quality upper surface or vocal tract lips teeth alveolar ridgebehind upper teeth hard palate soft palatemuscular ap raised to press against the back wall of pharynx to shut off nasal tract velum velic closureseparates nasal tract from oral tract so air can only go through mouth tip and blade of the tongue are most mobile parts lower surface of vocal tract tongueifront back center root epiglottis primary articulators that cause obstructions areilips tongue tip blade and back of tongue Labial articulators speech gestures using lips coronal articulatorsusing tip or blade of tongue Dorsal articulators using back of tongue Bilabialmade up with 2 lipsipie buy my Labiodentalslower lip and upper front teethifle vie Dental tongue tip or blade and alveolar ridgeithy thigh retro ex tongue tip and back of alveolar ridge Palatoalveolar tongue blade and back of alveolar ridgeishy she show Palatal front of tongue and hard palate you Velar back of tongue and soft palateihack hag hang Labial bilabial and labiodentals Coronaldental alveolar retro ex palatoalveolar Dorsalvelar Raising or lowering the velum controls the oronasal process the distinguishing factor between oral and nasal sounds Stopcomplete closure of the articulators involved so the airstream cant escape through the mouth oral stop soft palate is raised so nasal tract is blocked offipie buy dye guy nasal stop soft palate is down so air goes through the noseimy nigh sang Fricative close approximation of two articulators so the air stream is partially obstructed and turbulent air ow is producedifle vie thigh zoo siblantsihigher pitched sounds with obvious hissisigh shy Approximant one articulator is close to another but without the vocal tract being narrowed to such an extent that a turbulent airstream is producediyacht we raw basically in between two articulators Lateral approximantobstruction of the airstream at a point along the center of the oral tract with incomplete closure between one of both sides of the tongue and roof of the mouthilie laugh Trill roll rye raw Tap ap single tap against alveolar ridgeipity Affricatecombination of a stop immediately followed by affricateichurch judge Consonants can be described in terms of 5 factors state of vocal foldsivoicedvoiceless place of articulation central or lateral articulation soft palate raised to form a velic closure oral sounds or lower nasal sounds manner of articulatory actions Vowel soundsithe articulators do not come very close together and the airstream is relatively unobstructed Vowels are described in terms of the position of the highest point of the tongue and the position ofthe lips front vowelsheed hid head hadihighest point of the tongue is the front of the mouth back vowelsfather good fooditongue is close to the upper or back surface of vocal tract roundedlips are roundediwho d unroundedlips are not roundiheed The targets for vowel gestures can be described in 3 factorsi height of the body of the tongue frontback position of the tongues degree of lip rounding Vowels have a compleX structureithey contain different pitches simultaneously Overtone pitches depend on the shape of the resonating cavities of the vocal tract overtone pitches give the vowel distinctive quality Pitch at which the vowel is actually spoken which depends on the pulses being produced by the vibrating vocal folds The only sensation of pitch is the note on which the vowel is said which depends on the rate of vibration of the vocal folds When you whisper the vocal folds are not vibrating and there is no regular pitch of the voice There is some kind of high pitch associated with the high front vowel is heed and a low pitch associated with the back vowels When saying the vowels in orderiheed hid head had you can hear a sound that steadily increases in pitch by approximately equal steps with each vowel When saying the vowels in hod hood and who d in a creaky voice they have overtones with a steady decreasing pitch Vowel sounds may be said on a variety of pitches by they are distinguished from each other by two characteristics pitches associated with their overtones Formatscharacteristic overtones are called formats of the vowels with the lower pitch distinguishable in a creaky voice being the first format and other heard when whispering is the second format Suprasegmentals vowels and consonants can be thought of as the segments of which speech is composed Together they form the syllables that make up utterances Superimposed on the syllables are other features known as suprasegmentals These include variations in stress and pitch Variations in stress are used to distinguish between a noun and a verbian insult to insult In nouns the stress is on the first syllable and in verbs the stress is on the last Variations in stress are caused by an increase in the activity of the respiratory muscles so that a greater amount of air is pushed out of the lungs Pitch changes due to variations in laryngeal activity can occur independently of stress change We can estimate the pitch of a sound by observing the rate of occurrence of the peaks in the waveform Frequencyiis a technical term for an acoustic property of a soundinamely the number of complete repetitions of variations in air pressure occurring in a second Pitch the pitch of a sound is an auditory property that enables a listener to place a scale going from low to high without considering its acoustic properties When speech goes up in frequency it also goes up in pitch Intonation the pitch pattern in a sentence that s a cat that s a cat highlights from chapter 2 When phonetics transcribe an utterance they are concerned with how the sounds convey differences in meaning Phonology is the description of the systems and patterns of sounds that occur in a language It involved studying a language to determine its distinctive sounds that is those sounds that convey a difference in meaning Phonemesiwhen two sounds can be used to differentiate words they are said to belong to different phonemesicat and batidiffer only in one single sounds We cannot rely on the spelling to tell us whether two sounds are members of the different phonemes for example the words phone and foam begin with the same sounds but have different spellings Key and car are part of the same phonetic group but they are slightly different sounding that shows that there are subtle differences between members of a phoneme There are some cases when the members of a phoneme are more different from anotherithe t in pity is very different from the t in pit The one in pity sounds more like a d A phoneme is not a single sound but a name for a group of sounds Phonemes are abstract units that form the basis for writing down a language systematically and unambiguously Phonemic transcriptions recording all and only the variations between sounds that cause a difference in meaning Minimal set a set of words each of which differs from all the others by only one sound The letters ng often represent a single consonant sound that does not occur at the beginning of a words You can hear this sound at the end of rang where it contrasts with other nasals such as ram and ran There is also a contrast between the consonants in the middle of mission and vision ALL OF THE SYMBOLS AND WHAT THEY REPRESENT Transcriptions of vowels is more difficult than consonants Diphthongsmovements from one vowel to another within a single syllable ALL OF THE VOWEL SYMBOLS AND WHAT THEY REPRESENTpg 39 One of the problems in transcribing English phonetically is that there are more vowel sounds than there are vowel letters in the alphabet Consonant and vowel chart page 43 w is shown in two places because it is articulated with both a narrowing of the lip aperture which makes it bilabial and a raising of the back of the tongue toward the soft palate which makes it velar h does not appear on the chart at all because it acts like a consonant but from an articulatory view it is the voiceless counterpart of the surrounding soundsiit does not have a precise place of articulation and its manner of articulation is similar to that of the vowels before and after it English requires about 25 different gesture of the lips and tongue All of these sounds will require gestures of the other three main components of the speech mechanism airstream processinvolves pushing air out of the lungs for all sounds of English phonation processresponsible for the gestures of the vocal folds that distinguish voiced and voiceless sounds oralnasal process active in raising and lowering the velum to distinguish nasal and oral sounds used to mark off symbols when we are explicitly using them to represent phonemes Other symbols represent different sounds in different contexts page 45 Top of page 46 all of these transcriptions are placed in square brackets as they are phonetic transcriptions rather than phonemic transcriptions Diacriticssmall marks that can be added to a symbol to modify its value They provide useful ways of increasing the phonetic precision of a transcription A small circle beneath the symbol can be used to indicate that the symbol represents a voiceless sound The phonology of a language is a set of rules or constraints that describe the relation between the underlying sounds the abstract unites called phonemes described at the beginning of the chapter and the phonetic forms that can be observed Phonetic transcription when we transcribe a word in a way that shows none of the details of the pronunciation that are predicable by phonological rules Allophones the variants of the phonemes that occur in detailed phonetic transcriptionsithey are generated as a result of applying the phonological rules to the underlying phonemes eX t most of the time it has a voiced allophone when it occurs between a stressed vowel and an unstressed vowel There are also rules that make r and l voiceless when they occur after p t ldnplay Broad transcription a transcription that uses the simplest possible set of symbols pleasepliz Narrow transcription shows more phonetic detail by using more specific symbols or by representing some allophonic differences pleaseipliz systematic phonetic transcriptionsshows all of the rulegovemed alternations among the sounds It is difficult to make a transcription so narrow that is shows every detail of sounds involved Impressionistic transcription when writing down an unknown language or transcribing a patient not seen before one does not know what rules will apply In these circumstances the symbols indicate only the phonetic value of the sounds Highlights from chapter 3 consonants of English Pronunciation of consonants can be said to have different places of articulation The stops p t k are illustrated in the nonsense utteranceithe stops are bilabial alveolar and velar It is not just the different places on the roof of the mouth that distinguish these soundsi they are equally characterized by the movements of the lips and different parts of the tongue Different manners of articulationiillustrating consonants d n s in the nonsense words They really have three separate phrases in the utterance page 55 Aspirationa period of voicelessness after the stop articulation and before the start of the voicing for the vowel Ifyou put your hand in front of your lip before you say pie you can feel a burst of air that comes out during the period of voicelessness after the release of the stop This can be shown by hthat s a little raised h Voicing usually occurs throughout the stop closure The major difference between the words tie and die is the increase in time between the release of the stop and the start of the vowel b d gicompletely unaspirated Syllable final voiceless consonants are longer that the corresponding voiced consonants after the same vowelicap and cab it takes longer to say cab p t k are not the only voiceless stopsialso is a glottal stop is the sound orilack or soundi that occus when the vocal folds are held tightly togetheriwhen someone coughs or when someone says uhuhimost popular one Also in words with double tkitten bitten fatten beaten Nasal plosionthe air pressure built up behind the stop closure is released through the nose by the lowering of the soft palate velum for the nasal consonant Both d and n are alveolar consonants so the word hidden is a nasal plosion Also sudden sadden leaden Nasal plosion occurs only if there is no glottal stop or if the glottal stop is released after the alveolar closure has been made and before the velum is lowered homorganic when two sounds have the same place of articulationit and n are homorganic For nasal plosion to occur within a word there must be a stop followed by a homorganic nasal Both bilabial and velar nasal plosion are less common than alveolar nasal in English lateral plosion when an alveolar stop t or d occurs before a homorganic lateral l as in little ladle The air pressure built up during the stop can be released by lowering the sides of the tongue Also found in the word Atlantic General rule that whenever t occurs after a stressed vowel and before an unstressed syllable other than n it is changed into a voiced soundsidilittle sounds like liddle in the words city better writer it is not really a stop but a quick tap in which the tongue tip is thrown against the alveolar ridgeialso make this tap when d occurs after a stressed vowel and before an unstressed vowelilatter ladder Fricativesihas differences in vowel length before voiced and voiceless The vowel is shorter in the rst word of each of the pairsistrife and strive teeth and teethe rice and rise Stops and fricatives are the only consonants that can be either voiced or voiceless All vowels are shorter before all voiceless consonants than before all voiced consonants Voiced fricatives at the end of a word as in prove smooth choose rouge are voiced throught their articulation only when they are followed by another voiced sound In a phrase such as prove it the v is fully forced because it is followed by a vowel But improve two times two is four or try to improve where the v is followed by a voiceless sound t or by a pause at the end of a phrase it is not fully voiced fricatives are like stops in 3 ways stops and fricatives in uence vowel length in similar ways final vowel stops and fricatives are longer than final voiced stops and fricatives final stops and fricatives classified as voiced are not actually voiced throughout the articulation unless the adjacent sounds are also voiced Obstruentswe refer to stops and fricatives together as a natural class of soundsibecause they have an articulation feature in common and because the act together in phonological statements Fricatives differ from stops because they sometimes involve actions of the lips that are not immediately obviousiin the words fin thin shin and sinithere is lip action in fin and sin but not in thin or any other th sound Affricatesa sequence of a stop followed by a homorganic fricative For exampleithe dental affricate th or the alveolar affricate ts as in cats Nasalsvery even less than fricatives Nasals together with r 1 can be syllabic when they occur at the end of words under a letter indicates syllabic The words sadden and table would be syllabic Syllabic consonants can also occur in phrases such as Jack and KateiJack en Kate No English word can start with ng it can only appear at the end of a wordiand can only precede by the vowels IE ae v and it cannot be syllabic except for exceptions like Jack and Kate Approximates w r j l as in whack rack yak lack The rst three whack yak and rack are central approximates and lack is lateral approximate these approximates share the possibility of occurring in consonant clusters with stop consonants The approximates r w l combine with stops in words like pray bray tray gray twin Gwen They are largely voiceless when they follow one ofthese voiceless stops p t IV as in play twice clay velarization the arching upward of the back of the tongue forms a secondary articulation All examples of l are velarized except those that are syllable initial and between high front vowelsifreely Most people don t have a velarized l inikill itibecause the it in kill it acts like a suffix Velarization is noted with a N going through the letter that is velarized Overlapping gesturesisaying one word makes your mouth do two different shapes at once Lip rounding is an essential part to w and stops are slightly rounded when they occur in clusters with was in twice dwindle quick This kind of gesture overlapping in which a second gesture starts during the rst gesture is called anticipatory co articulation t d are slightly rounded in words such as tree and dream as opposed to tee and deem The four sounds used in phrases like 7a key a caw are anticulatory targets page 69 Coa1ticulation between sounds will always result in the position of some pa1ts o the vocal tract being in uenced largely where as others will not be so much affected by neighboring targets The extent to which anticipatory coarticulation occurs depends on the extent to which the position of that part of the vocal tract is speci ed into two targets A phoneme is an abstract unit that may be realized in several different ways Sometimes the differences between the different allophones of a phoneme can be explained in terms of targets and overlapping gestures Gestural targets are units that can be used in descriptions of how a speaker produces utterances Phonemes are more abstract units that can be used in descriptions of languages to show how one word contrasts with another Vi1tually all gestures for neighboring sounds overlap


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