INTR TO LANGUAGE
INTR TO LANGUAGE COMD 2050
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The Origins of Human Language Ci mamgi 1 Yule G 2010 The Study of Language 4th 9d New York Cambridge Origins gt We don t know exactly how and when human language began gt All vertebrates have the ability to produce sound and vocal patterning gt Language is at least 50000 years old some experts even say it may be closer to 100000 Where did language come from gt Divine source Language given by a higher power In the biblical tradition God created Adam and quotwhatsoever Adam called every living creature that was the name thereof In Hindu tradition language came from the wife of Brahma creator of the universe Ancient hypothesis that human infants reared without language input would naturally speak the original God given language Children reared without language contact in early years tend to Divine Source In order to rediscover the divine language few experiments have been carried out an dleft researches with conflicting results Herodotus account of Egyptian pharoah Psammetichus experiment nearly 2500 years ago 2 newborns isolated with goats and mute shepherd for two years Children were reported to have spontaneously uttered the Phrygian word bekos meaning quotbreadquot not Egyptian How likely is this Beeeehh like the goat In 1500 AD King James carried out a similar experiment children reported to speak Hebrew gt Natural sound source quotbow wow theory words developed from imitation of sounds in environment I Primitive words may have been imitations of the natural sounds heard by the men and women in the village I Animal says quotcawcaw it is now called a caw caw I All modern languages have some words with pronunciations that seem to echo sounds heard in nature onomatopoeia bang splash boom I This source suggests that language is only a set of words used as Social interaction source quotyo he ho group of people having to coordinate a joint effort during physical task Appealing proposal because of social aspect of humans in groups Early humans may have developed a set of grunts groans and curses used when lifting carrying etc Apes also produce groans and grunts but have never developed the capacity for language gtPhysical adaptation source physical features particularly adapted for speech in humans Teeth are even in height upright and not slanted outward like apes Speech sounds Lips are more flexible and more muscles than primates Speech sounds Mouth is small and pressure can be built up by closing off passage to nasal cavity Tongue is muscular allowing a variety of precise movements larynx containing vocal folds is in lower position than monkeys so humans have a longer cavity pharynx Disadvantage gtTool making source two million years ago humans began making tools Making tools requires manipulation and combination of objects similar to manipulation and combination of sounds Ex In toolmaking one could grasp 1 rock make 1 sound 9 grasp 2 rocks create other sounds the contact between the two rocks changes In language humans may have developed a naming ability for specific objects but the next step would be to bring another specific noise into combination with the first Our Brains The human brain is lateralized Each hemisphere has its own responsibilities Motor movements in charge of speaking and object manipulation are typically controlled by the left hemisphere An evolutionary connection between language and toolmaking Discussion A connection has been proposed between language tool using and right handedness in the majority of humans Is it possible that freedom to use the hands after assuming an upright bipedal posture resulted in certain skills that lead to the development of language People utalized their hands by pointing and grunting which could lead to language Why did we assume an upright posture What kinds of changes must have taken place in our hands gtGenetic source humans have an innate capacity for language Barring any disability babies will almost inevitably learn language given fluent language models and communicative opportunities Deaf babies may become fluent in sign language provided visual language sign language models and interaction 4 Innateness hypothesis quotlanguage gene Ch 13 First Language Acquisition Yule G 2010 The Studyo 1 quot ed rNew York Cambridge Today You Will Learn Physical and anatomical changes that occur from infancy and beyond Characteristics of TD children versus delayed or disordered Theoretical frameworks used to describe cognitive and language development A typical acquisition schedule Research within the field of language Specific examples of language disorders Human Capacity for Language 39 Speed at which it takes place Think about the first 3 years of development Now think about the developmental continuum Babiestoddlersschool agecollegeworking adultelderly Self expression communication 0 Innate predisposition Overt instruction Think about the theories covered in Ch 1 Capacity is not enough MKnow Forebrain Midbraln and Hindbrain Embryonic brain regions Brain structures in child and adult Midbrain Hindbrain oblongata Forebrain 39 Cerebellum Spinal cord Embryo at 1 month Embryo at 5 weeks Child 620quot Pearson Educunum inc 1 week 3 months 1 year 2 years 1 years MRI scans of human brain development Vocabulary Embryo a human or animal in the early stages of development before it is born Neural tube a hollow structure form which the brain and spinal cord form Why is the Mother s Lifestyle Vital for Normal Embryologic Development Nutrition Rest Stress Sickness Substance useabuse Socioeconomic status and education So Baby is Born and Then When a baby is born heshe has already formed almost twice the amount of neurons heshe will need for adulthood These neurons decrease in number during the last month of pregnancy and in the months just after birth Essentially neural development is largely genetic Parentscaregivers nurture baby and visit the Pediatrician to assure appropriate development So when does baby finally try to talk The Acquisition Schedule httpchilddevelopmentinfocomchilddevelopmentzlanguage developmentshtml I All quotnorma children develop language roughly at the same time TD vs non TD or U If we can say that for standing crawling and walkingwhy not language VSame basis as the biologically determined development of motor skills Language Acquisition Basic requirements Interaction with other languageusers during the first 23 years cultural transmission V What happens if one does not V Genie Physical capability V Speaking a language requires V What about deaf individuals Congenitally deaf typically stop hearing after 6 months V Hearing language sounds is not enough have to hear it to use it Opportunity for interaction genie didn t have that opportunity Languagelnput With the help of older children and adults at home language samples are provided via input Think about a conversation one has with Caregiver speech is a simplified speech style adopted by someone who spends time interacting with a young child may also be referred to as quotmotheresequot or quotchild directed speech Exaggerated intonation loud Choochoo peepee A Typical Convers tion Simple sentence structures Repetition Becomes more elaborate as the child begins using more and more language Piaget Theory of cognitive development How humans acquire construct and use language in a gradual way Take into account biology environment Language is solely dependent on cognitive development So if our brains are not developing appropriately language may be disordered or delayed First we must know what is NORMAL to be able to distinguish ABNORMAL These stages are not independent or absolute but integrated and account for enormous variability Piaget Stated there are 4 stages of development 1Sensorimotor Stage birth2yrs use senses to explore the world extremely egocentric simple reflexes 2Preoperationa Stage 27yrs motor skills are acquired egocentrism is strong but begins to decline no logical thinking yet most rapid period of development 3Concrete Operational Stage 711yrs beginning to think logically but still concrete able to place stimuli into categories based on order and levels 4Forma Operational Stage 1116yrs developing abstract reasoning easily reasons and thinks logically Vygotsky The Social Interactionist theory to explain language development Emphasizes the role of social interaction and social relationships that quotconstructquot language Parents are typically the model but could also mean other family members caregivers siblings etc Lev Vygotsky 1896 1934 a Russian psychologist proposed this idea which was later substantiated byJerome Bruner 1915 present Vygotsky Vygotsky s approach was different because it didn t only rely on the language use Feedback and reinforcement produced linguistic growth Zone of Proximal Development ZPD Theoretical construct essentially stating that the child could only carry out linguistic tasks proper syntax appropriate vocabulary use when assisted by an adult language user Crying During the first 3 months the child develops a range of crying styles Different patterns for different needs Distinct vocalizations Dunstan Babv Cries Cooing Cooing is the earliest use of speechlike sounds used during the first few months of life Sequences of vowellike sounds particularly high vowels from central back l I high Studies show that by the time babies are 5 mos they magi can already distinguish i m and a and syllables like midi ba and ga U 0 5 3 5 a a e a l l l l l l I l l l l I Cooing baby example Babbhng Occurs between 68 mos and the child is producing a number of CV combinations Vbababa gagaga dadada In the later babbling stage around 9 10 mos there are recognizable intonation patterns Also some variation begins to occur babadada 7 mo old baby babbling examgle Age years Spabch Sound Spuqh Snun d Spaach Sound Ag yam As children begin to learn how to walk and sit upright vocalizations express more emotion and emphasis More complex syllable combinations madagaba Incoherent to adults but first signs of socialization for baby Ages of acquisition are merely approximations Some children develop faster some slower VWhen to talk to your Pediatrician Concepts and Behaviors Central to Early Cognitive Development Object permanence knowing that objects exist in time and space even if you can t see or act on them When an object is removed an infant typically will not look for it this changes with maturation Causality understanding that events can cause other events Produce behaviors that have predictable effects Means end extension of causality the understand that there are ways means to attain a goal end Relation to language is to get things done Concepts and Behaviors Central to Early Cognitive Development Imitation duplication of models you hear and see Internalize models of behavior 0 Play child directed activities that provide children with opportunities for learning Not just a frivolous activity Symbolic play Communication conceptual development contributes to the everincreasing development of a child s language ability The OneWord Stage Occurs between 1218 months Is baby walking Vocabulary consists of approximately 50 words Speech is limited to single terms uttered for everyday objects Milk cup kitty cookie Articulation of the word may be When an individual uses a single form to function as a phrase or whole sentence we call it a holophrastic uttera n CE Asae or AHOU The TwoWord Stage Begins around 1820 months Vocabulary is gt 50 words Characterized by combinations of words Mommy eat dog bad daddy kiss Contextualized request statement Often characterized by contextualinterpersonal cues such as intonation gestures and facial expressions support comprehension of text Talk about the here and now Meaning is primarily conveyed via linguistic cues such as cohesion devices that are independent of the immediate communicative context Use of distant time referents Executive Functions A set of control processes in the brain that allow us to maintain attention inhibit irrelevant associations and use working memory Develop slowly during maturation Cutting amp Denckla 2003 Correspond to functions involved in motor control cognitive control and socialemotional control Keep us on task and allow us to monitor our behavior Coregulated Learning Adult behaves as if communication is taking place Child produces speech 9 receives feedback 9 produces more Reinforces turn taking skills socialization Does the feedback need to be verbal Co regulation of emotions turns into advanced co regulation Problemsolving interactions VJoint attention Theory of Mind Sense of self Coregulation example More Complex Utterances Occurring around 22 V2 years quotmultiple word speech appears Telegraphic speech is characterized by strings of words lexical morphemes in phrases or sentences child is developing sentencebuilding capacity daddy go y cat drink milk 0 play nice Word order importance Grammatical inflections The Acquisition Process By 3 a child s vocabulary has grown to hundreds of words and pronunciations mirror those of adult language As the linguistic repertoire of the child increases it is assumed that the child is being quottaughtquot language Actually the child is being quottaughtquot language xAcquisition is based on trial and error early on No one is providing quotdirectquot instruction on how to speak Test whether constructions work or not Not solely based on imitation What about vocabulary Recap Describe to me what child is doing at 6 months 12 months 18 months 24 months 36 months 48 months I 1226 II 2730 I 3134 IV 3540 V 41 46 V 47 Brown s Stages 1019 2025 2530 3035 35 40 40 months No all gone dog sit Me no like What doing in on and Gotta tell mommy she can play Don t like those that isn t how This is our house I m leaving now ok Adultlike conversation mastery Roger Brown described 5 stages of language development 14 total morpheme types MLU Mean Length of Utterance 1973 A First Language A First Language Roger Brown 739 5quotquot 3 39 Roger Brown 19251997 Focused on the first 2 of the 5 stages Says language is universal acquisition not based only on age MLU Present Progressive ng Mommy driving 1928 In Ball in cup 27 30 On Doggie on sofa 27 33 Regular plural s Kitties eat my ice cream 2733 Forms s Z and i2 Cats dogs classes wishes Irregular Past Came fell broke sat went 25 46 Possessive s Mommy s balloon broke Forms s z and i2 as in regular plural 2640 Uncontractible copula Verb to be as main verb He is Response to quotWho is sick 28 46 Articles lsee a kitty 2846 Regular past ed Mommy pulled the wagon Forms d t d Pulled walked glided 2648 Regular third person 5 Kathy hits Forms s Z and i2 2850 Irregular third person Does has 2850 Uncontractible auxiliary He is Response to quotWho is wearingyour hatquot 2948 Contractible copula Man s big 9 Man is big 29 49 Contractible auxiliary Daddy s eating 3050 Word Play The acquisition process is dominated by sound and word combinations VEither in interaction with others or in word play Weir 1966 taperecorded a 2 yr old laying in bed alone playing with words and phrases I go dis wayway baybaby do dis biball bibbibdere Goes beyond telegraphic speech Morphology We covered this in Ch 6 ABA Lexical Functional Derivational inflectional By 2 12 child is going beyond telegraphic speech Using inflectional morphemes to indicate the grammatical function of words We know that the first morpheme to appear is ing from chart Playing blocks jumping cat sitting The next to develop is the marking of regular plurals with the s from chart Boys girls Often plural markers are accompanied by the process of overgeneralization which result in words such asfoots and mans The Verb to be At around the same time children begin using plurals they also start to use Are Was Went Irregular past tense VCame Past tense ed begins appearing in children s speech resulting in disappearance of the irregular forms For a while children seem to add ed to everything GQed he hitted me wented Syntax 0 There have been numerous studies on the development of syntax The formation of questions and the use of negatives are two structures that are acquired in a regular way by English speaking children gtgt Stage 1 1826 mo gtgt Stage 2 2230 gtgt Stage 3 Where kitty Forming Questions 3 stages Stage 1 Add a Wh form to the beginning of the expression or utter the expression with a rise in intonation towards the end Doggie Stage 2 More complex expressions can be formed but the rising intonation strategy continues to be used more wh forms What book name Stage 3 Movement of the auxiliary in English questions becomes evident but may not spread to all wh types You want eat Why kitty cant stand up Will you help me Forming Negatives 3 stages Stage 1 Adding no or not to the beginning of an utterance No fall No sit there Stage 2 Negative forms don t and can t appear along with no and not He no bite you That not touch Stage 3 Incorporation of other auxiliary forms such as didn t and won t Later in this stage isn t appears Ididn t caught it she wont let go Semantics During the holophrastic stage many children use their limited vocabulary to refer to a large number of unrelated objects The process of overextension is a common pattern in which children overextend the meaning of a word on the basis of its similarities of shape sound and size and perhaps movement and texture Studies show that over extension is mostly found in a child s speech production as opposed to their comprehension It is assumed that by the age of 5 a child has completed the greater part of the basic language acquisition process 0 Learning a 2nd language at a young age Hart amp Risley 1995 Longitudinal study researchers recorded one full hour of every word spoken at home between parent and child in 42 families in three SES levels VProfessional VWorking class Poor Age range of children 7 36 months They found that First Language Acquisition 9 Adult Language Use What are the most significant changes from baby to adult 0 Switch gears Think about Genie Missed the critical period Abuse neglect No social interaction Could she still recover language with professional help 0 Who are these quotprofessionalsquot Examples of Disordered Language in Children Apraxia of Speech Autism Cleft lippalate Dysa rthria Speech Sound Disorder SSD Stuttering Traumatic Brain Injury TBI You will learn about these and many more in COMD 2081 Intro to Communication Disorders Before we begin Emails Power Points Note ta ker Hatcher Assignment The book Today You Will Learn What language is and what it is NOT Terminology used in language and communication studies How several non human species communicate Important and significant chimpanzeeape studies throughout history that have examined language use What are the ultimate differences between human and animal language Ch 2 Animals and Human Language We 6 2010 The Study Q mgwge Mm ed New Yark Cambrhdga Is Language verbal shared gestural spoken written nonverbal human animal Language is 0 A means of communication Communicative signals vs informative signals Composed of symbols symbols are organized according to rules Shared among users conventional agreed upon Languages aren t limited to situations of survival mating or territory Language isn t restricted to the present language has displacement Bee dance refers to present location of nectar 0 Displacement also allows us to discuss things that don t exist or that we ve never seen before 0 Language is productive Infinite number of messages meaning from basic elements sounds Embedded clauses Animal communication has fixed reference Danger signals of vervet monkeys Language is used to think and talk about the language itself reflexitivitv Humans are thus able to reflect Symbols are arbitrary arbitrariness Some iconicity exists onomatogoeia No quotnatural connection between words and their meaning Language shows relationships between symbols such as S V agreement 0 New symbols can be introduced into languages ie google texting SUV Symbols can be broken down into smaller meaningless parts duaity e t 0 alone are sounds or can be combined into meaningful words ate eat tea 0 More than one meaning can be conveyed by a symbol or group of symbols quotAre you going to put that there quotAre you mad sweetie quotNo I m just tired Users of a language can send and receive messages only bee workers dance many male bird species do all the singing Language users monitor their use Users learn language from other users cultural transmission Users can learn other variants ofthe same language Language changes across time due to its use Terminology Communication transferexchange of information conveying a message Language conventional rule governed communication system uniquely human Speech human vocal communication Linguistics scientific study of language Linguists people who study linguistics Linguists discover and describe the rules of language Human Language and Animals Animals may demonstrate consistent responses to specific language models or commands with training and reinforcement Whoa sit speak Polly want a cracker Cognition and intelligence vs language Chimpanzees and Language Why focus on chimpanzees 1930 s Gua could understand 100 words but couldn t 1940 s Unsuccessful attempt to train Viki the chimp to say words More about Viki Raised in a domestic setting by Keith and Catherine Hayes Cared for quotlike an infant Given speech therapy 39 Why would this be so controversial 39 What do you know about speech therapy Chimps do not have physical apparatus for speech Sarah the Chimpanzee 1967 Taught by the Premack couple 1 of 9 chimps in the David Premack s lab Sarah and 3 others were only ones exposed to language Used plastic shapes to represent words and sequence to form quotsentencesquot Treated like a chimp kept in a cage Ultimately the Premack s decided they no longer wanted to study chimps in 1987 Sarah shipped off to OSU eventually Chimp Haven in LA httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvHiWDKXRszUampfeaturerelated Lana the Chimpanzee 1971 LANA LANguage Analogue project Dr Duane Rumbaugh used a similar technique but used a keyboard linked to a computer to teach artificial language Yerkish lexigrams Lana could discriminate between Lexigrams word sequencing spontaneous utterances Criticisms of Sara and Lana Using the symbol for please for example doesn39t necessarily mean that the chimp understands the meaning of please EEgmm l l I my HugeI39m lgmggmwi mgmgmimll I I IIII 1 I L 5amp5 MEI El I Washoe the Chimpanzee Gardner couple taught her to use nearly 350 manual signs of American Sign Language ASL Raised like a child in a signing environment Used more than 100 signs and some two word combinations productivityl more fruit open food drink water bird Koko the Gorilla 1972 Female Gorilla born in 1971 at San Francisco Zoo and studied by Penny Patterson grad student Taught signs modeled after Gardner s work with Washoe Able to understand 1000 signs 2000 spoken English words Patterson believes Koko is a master in ASL Still alive today httpwwwkokoorgindexphp Nim Chimsky w Documentary 1973 Born in captivity lived in Manhattan apt lllike a human Project Nim led by Psychologist Herbert Terrace and aimed to show that chimps could learn human language specifically syntax Opposed Noam Chomsky s theory Humans are wired39 to learn language Extension of Project Washoe Nim taught ASL signs 1980 Terrace Changes His Mind Terrace said Project Nim was a failure Nim wasn t demonstrating real language use simply being reinforced to repeat words with rewards Word order inconsistent expansions of utterances were no more meaningful full or partial repetitions of adult utterances Undermined validity of all ape language studies Tried to discredit Project Washoe Opposition to Terrace Gardners argued that Washoe would produce signs without being cued and in the absence of humans Washoe had opportunities for natural communicative interaction unlike Nim Nim s caretakers were not fluent in ASL and didn t have consistent teachers 39If you use the same criteria as Terrace used on Nim to judge human children Allen Gardner told the press 39you39d have to conclude that they don39t have language either39 Patterson also argued with Terrace saying Koko s skills were founded What became of Nim 0 After Project Nim ended Nim was sent to the Institute for Primate Studies in Oklahoma He was later sold to a pharmaceutical testing company At the age of 26 Nim died of a heart attack Sue SavageRumbaugh unintentionally exposed baby Kanzi to symbols of Yerkish while attempting to teach them to the mother Matata a bonobo pygmy chimpanzee Matata didn t do well but Kanzi learned and used 250 symbols through observation and exposure rather than direct teaching Kanzi Links 0 httpwwwtimecomtimevideoplaverO32 068424741717001 200907200htm httpac360bogscnncom20101117ac36 OC2BOpreviewanderson cooper meets bonobo chimpsirefasearch So then do chimps use language Capable of interaction with humans using a symbol system They do not achieve linguistic competence beyond isolated words or 2 or 3 word combinations Should we change our definition or criteria of quotusing language Or is language a skill specific to humans only