DVLPMNT SPKN LANG
DVLPMNT SPKN LANG COMD 4380
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STUDY GUIDE COMD 4380 Exam 2 Sem am cg Marphg mgy 8g Svmtax Understand the emergence of first words and how the semantic system develops from infancy Primary Task in Semantic Development Acquire Categorical Concepts How do you acquire Categorical Concepts 3 Theories 1 Semantic Feature View children learn a set of distinguishing features for each categorical concept The child s task is to sort out or determine which features are most important for membership in a particular category 2 Prototype Theorv children first learn prototypical examples of a category Example the prototype word quotapplesquot refers to ALL fruits 3 Probabilistic Strategy children assign category membership by a variable set of criteria Example A penguin is probably a bird because it has many birdlike features Theoretical Perspectives on Semantic Development 1 Learning Theory Associative Learning predicts that repeated exposure to a stimulus paired with a particular experience will result in word association Slow ef fortful amp idiosyncratic 2 Developmental Theories Children develop a set of ontological categories concepts about how the world is organized These are the basic categories that all speakers refer to when using language Objects Actions Events Relations States Properties Joint Attention Understanding of others intentions amp goal directed actions 3 FastMapping Assumptions of fast Mapping Lexical Principles 1 Words refer to Objects 2 Words refer to Whole Objects Shape Bias 3 New words can be extended to other members of the same category Taxonomic Principle children form mental taxonomies of classification of objects 4 Each object can only have One Name Principle of Mutual Exclusivity Children are predisposed to avoid 2 labels per object Makes synonym learning difficult 5 New words refer to categories that do not alreadyhave a name novel namenameless category principle No 2 words have exactly the same meaning Principle of Contrasts Early Words Children begin with words that are intellectually and socially meaningful in their immediate lives examples mommy daddy doggie blanket Worduse Signals that a child has a new tool what will enable them to learn about and better participate in their society Is a tangible indication of the makeup and workings of a child s mind Phonological Composition the words that are easiest to say will more than likely be in their early vocabulary Nouns account for 40 of a child s first 50words Children use only 810favorite words core group when at the 50wordlevel Mappings Both overextensions and underextensions are common in 12yo children s speech accounting for 13 of their production vocabulary Overextension word use in a context or manner that is inconsistent with but in some way related to the adult meaning of the word quotdaddy for all men Underextension word use for only a limited subset of the contexts allowed by the adult concept quotduck for birds that swim lnvented Words Derived words complexword made from a basemorpheme and various affixes Compound words word composed of 2 freemorphemes Clark found that Chidlren s lexical innovations invented words follow 3 fairly regular principles 1 Simplicity use of a conventional word in an unconventional way with an obvious role 2 Semantic transparency the meaning of the invented word is more easily remembered than the conventional one quotplant man for gardener 3 Productivity use adult forms as the basis of new words cooker bicycler Children s First Wordlike Productions amp First Words Babbling inconsistent productions NOT symbolic nor iconic bada bada Iala Protowords consistent productions that seem to have some sort of symbolic reference Production has phonological structure like a word but does not necessarily relate to an adult word da for all animals da for lots of objects dada to comment Real words consistent production symbolic reference understood by child and adult baby nuk blankie whoofwhoof bobbie Real words with child phonology rules have all of the characteristics of a real word but because of one or more child phonology rule the word sounds different than the adult word nana for banana First Words Usually appear in the context of labeling objects participating in routine game formats and imitations Tend to fulfill a social purpose Unconventional words used to refer to the outside world unconventional mappings Second year of life appx one wordweek Vocabulary Spurt a rapid increase in the number of words learned that occurs around 18mos First Words share Phoneticfeatures Occur frequently in speech Shorter in length Common Nouns First Words are Contextualized Early word use is contextbound Words refer to our immediate context Example Jacqui no only when refusing something from mom Later word productions become contextflexible Word use becomes decontextuaized Examples Jenny no pushing drink away crawling to step where she was not allowed refusing a request from her mother Janna no when telling a past event to a friend Rescorla 5 data Words Acquired of Words Overextended 125 45 2650 35 5175 20 Why don t we have data on percent of underextensions We see that overextension is used A LOT during the early stages of development Why is that Limited vocabulary They see the connection between all those items Why is it that we see overextension used A LOT during the early stages of development see pp 11819 Limited vocabulary Children s differential treatment of objects indicates on a fundamental level how they are categorizing the objects By labeling the objects for children according to the children s own categories parents are probably showing how words are used That is objects differ in minor ways but are of the same category share names Mothers and Naming Practices Basiclevel categories most general level at which objects are similar because of their forms functions component parts or motions the similarities within categories are emphasized Example Because leopards are more similar to cats rather than other objects they are labeled cats Ostension Parents provide particular help with rare words by explaining them explicitly or embedding them in a context that calls on the child s prior knowledge or realworld experience Inclusion mentioning both basiclevel terms and the superordinate term Example A car and a bus and a train All of them are kinds of vehicles Inner States Mothers used more labels describing quality of consciousness with daughters By age 2 girls refer to feeling states significantly more frequently than boys Sentences are often uttered in an isolated fashion Words that are being taught or focused on tend to be placed in sentencefinal position with especially marked pitch and stress First Words Present a Noun Bias Although children learn words from all grammatical classes words that refer to obiects make up many of children s first words Because mommas label label label label This bias in first words is often referred to as a noun bias in word learning core group 810 words that are frequently used by children in the 50 word stage Nelson 5 1979 data Most 16mo s comprehend between 100200 different words but produce fewer than 50 First 50 words Produced Nominals Comp m specific 17 11 general 39 50 Actions 36 19 as you can see more easily understood by children but adding ing ed etc Will not be produced Modifiers 3 10 PersonalSocial 5 10 Percentage of total vocabularm Central nominnls Spchi c nominnls Action words Modifiers Others pcrsonal social and function words 10 11 12 13 Common Semantic Relations Attribution Big boat Agent object Agent action Mommy book Daddy work Daddy is working Action object Read book Action indirect object Kiss mommy Action locative Go outside Cessation All done Denial Not Tired Nomination This book Nonexistence No shoe Notice Hi mommy Recurrence More juice Rejection No juice Later Semantic Development Vocabulam breadth refers to the number of words known Word families includes a base word its inflections and some regular derived forms drive drives driving driver Vocabulam depth encompasses the degree of various kinds of word knowledge The sound and spelling of a word lts morphological structure The types of sentences in which it can occur lts multiple meanings and word associations The situations in which its use is appropriate The origin of its form and meanings Understand the structure of sentences according to current theories of syntax The Nature of Syntactic Rules comes from the Theory of Universal Grammar UGI as proposed by Chomsky which provides a set of principles that vary across languages as Parameters The Hypothesis is that within each child there is a complete set of parameters or principles and when a child begins learning his native language there is a switch or toggle that tells how each parameter should act Principles are W Le involve binary choice switches or toggles Null subiect parameter prodrop Does the language allow subjects to be optional English no Italian Spanish and Korean yes sta pioendo is raining Italian e piove is raining Italian esta lloviendo is raining Spanish It is raining expletive pronoun required English Accusative arameter How does the language assign case within a sentence English accusatlve Fltiche nonaccusative English case is assigned to subject of sentence regardless ofthemes in sentence she kicked him she is the agent volitional performer that causes a change in the patient she sang she is the experiencerperformer no true cause on benefactive he was killed he is the patient recipient of the causative action Kiche case is assigned based on themes in sentence theme must be an agent she kicked him she is the agent her sang him was killed One prominent revision of U6 is the Government and Binding Theorv GB which provides a set of restrictions grammar that govern ALL possible forms of human language Government abstract syntactic relation Concerns to the assignment function action of the word in the sentence Ex actionverb descriptorsadjectives Binding referential expression Pronoun will bind with its referent The set of restrictions grammar must be compatible with the grammars of all the world s languages the goal of universality the fact that children worldwide acquire the grammar of their language within a few short years usually with little or no explicit training or correction the goal of learnability 2 Levels dstructure amp sstructure are combined by transformgtiongl rules rules that specify how one sentence can be transformed to create a closely related sentence move alpha move anything anywhere 1 Dstructure deep structure captures the underlying relationships between subject and object In a sentence the basic unit of grammar Phrase structure rules dictate how to construct phrases and sentences out of words Ex How to combine a noun and a noun phrase How to combine a verb and a verb phrase Lexical categories NPs amp VPs Functional categories INFL inflectional Holds the auxiliary verb do will may could etc Carries information about tense COMP complementizer Introduces each statement Used to embed a clause inflP inside another clause Such as when a clause is the direct object of a verb as in the two VPs hope that the Red Sox are winning the game and doubt whether the train will be on time That what if whether Lexicon specifies a number of important features morphophonological syntactic for each lexical item in a sentenceEx John agent gave the book patient to mary rec at school location Lexical Structures Argument structure of verbs verb argument structure properties eg eat dine devour Thematic roles ofnouns agent action patient instrument 2 Sstructure surface structure captures the surface linear arrangements of words In a sentence Phonetic form actual sound structure of the sentence Logical form captures the meaning of sentences If the surface structure or words changes in location then the dstructure or meaning will also change Sentence Structure Grammar Syntactic Theories In syntactic theory all phrases have a central component or head whose syntactic category defines the syntactic category of the phrase All XPs phrases have a head of categoryX The head of a clause is a lexical category whose members are content words V VP 9 V VP 9 V NP VP 9 V CompP Headed by verbs like hope and doubt which take a whole clause as a direct object NP 9 N NP 9 Determiner N or syntactic category Infl inflection IanP or S 9 NP Infl VP Comp complementizer CompP 9 Comp lnflP Interpret a tree diagram that specifies syntactic or semantic relationships in language Phrase structure rules can also be represented as tree diagrams which correspond to different phrase structure rules by representing all of the hierarchical structural relationships in a given sentence Tree Diagrams Corresponding to Different Phrases NP Det N VP V NP In P NP In VP CompP Comp In P VP V CompP amp an Example of How They Combine to Form One Complex Sentence The Lexicon Provides Lexical Items specific words inserted at the end of the phrase structure trees Contains information for each item about its syntactic category noun verb adjective etc Argument structure critical in organizing appropriate phrase structures Consider the following set of verbs run see put The lexicon would include different information for each verb because they all appear in different sentence structures or argument structure Thus the verb run requires only a subject Example John runs see requires both a subject and an object As an object see can take either a simple noun phrase or a complete sentence Example John sees Mary writing her book put requires a subject object and a specific location Example John put the book on the shelf adiunct phrases an optional phrase Example John put the book on the shelf last night The d structure is connected to the sstructure by transformational rules Transformational rules involve the movement of heads lexical items and whole phrases from one position in a tree structure to another which typically results in a rearrangement of the linear order of words in a sentence Example The Syntactic Movement Thought to Underlie the Formation of What will the team win VP Understand the difference between word order strategies for communicating meaning syntax vs word structure strategies morphology and how they work together within sentences Syntax vs Morphology Morphology change the meaning of words by adding or modifying morphemes Syntax combining words to create sentences Linguistic Complexity Semantic number of meanings encoded in the morpheme Plural morpheme encodes only number Pasttense regular or irregular9 earlierness Auxiliary9number earlierness and temporary duration Syntactic number of rules required for the morpheme Morphemes acquired early involve only lexical categories Morphemes acquired later involve functional categories Two Types of Morphemes 0 Free Morphemes are those morphemes that can stand alone and carry meaning ex shoe Bound Morphemes must be combined with free morphemes to be meaningful Bound Morphemes are often referred to as grammatical markers that cannot function independently ex shoes final sis bound morpheme Bound Morphemes Derivational Morphemes are added to words as prefixes un inpre trans or suffixes yesterness Change one word into another word resulting in the emergence of a different part of speech ex ness added to adjective happy the adverb happiness is created Inflectional Morphemes don t change the overall meaning or the word class of words but rather are used to modify or add meaning to the free morphemes with which they are combined The plural s marker is an inflectional morpheme as is the s for possession and the ing and ed endings added to change tense Examples Shoes John s coat Jump q Jump Linguistic Complexity Semantic number of meanings encoded in the morpheme Plural morpheme encodes only number Pasttense regular or irregular9 earlierness Auxiliary9number earlierness and temporary duration Syntactic number of rules required for the morpheme Morphemes acquired early involve only lexical categories Morphemes acquired later involve functional categories Brown s 14 Grammatical Morphemes Brown 1973 isolated 14 obligatory morphemes that appeared early in the sample of the children he studied Termed these as OBLIGATORY meaning that they are required to mark inflection in English language Phonetically minimal Light vocal emphasis Small class few in number Phonological form can vary They develop gradually and there is much individual vada on Brown s 14 Morphemes Prepositions Present Progressive Articles Plural 5 Third Person Regular Possessives Past Tense Regular Third Person Irregular Past Tense Irregular Contractible Copula Uncontractible Copula Contractible Auxiliary In On ng aanthe s 35 2 ed 3irr ptirr concop unconcop conaux In the house On the table I am walking to the store An apple the office Two cats He walks Ivan s truck Ijumped He does like it He drank hisjuice She s happyshe is happy Is she happythey were happy She39s walkingshe is walking Developmental Chart of Morphemes Brown Stage I 1020 1926 mos Brown Stage II 2025 2730 mos ing s In on 2 Brown Stage III 2530 3134 mos ing s In On Z Appx Age Morpheme Use Brown Stage IV 3035 3538 ing s 39 In On Z ed 39 ptirr 35 39 articles concop Brown Stage V 3540 3942 ing 0 s In On 0 2 ed ptirr 35 concop Articles unconcop conaux unconaux Appx Age Morpheme Use Brown Stage V 40 4350 mas After Stage V all morphemes are thought to be mastered Means that the morpheme is emerging Understand developmental sequences of syntactic development F F N Children s Order of Acquisition of Syntactic Structure Negation Questions Passives Conjoined amp Embedded Anaphoric reference related to pronoun use 1Nega on Expressions of negation including Denial Prohibition Refusal Absence Examples I do not like green eggs and ham No lam a girl 3 Stages of Neqation 1 expressed alone or outside of sentence 2 expressed inside of sentence but auxiliary is missing 3 expressed inside of sentence with auxiliary 1 Negation is expressed alone or outside of sentence Sometimes referred to as contrastive neqation Contrastive Negation is not true syntactic negation ActualP debate in field earl on B Ilugi Etlated that thIS ea e was syptac c In nadure oom crItICIze e I s wor and argt that this ta e IEnIg aictlc ne a I notes re ec was not true s an current opInIo oom w n t e arg ment TvIoes of verv earlv neqatIon de VIIIIers amp de VIIIIers 1 nonexistence no cake 2 rejection no wash hair no sentence 3 denial not daddy or no daddy Brown s stage II Examples NO No go car No mommy do it I 1 39 I I m V II g I IW I V I I quotl5 L i r 7 quot in gtJ7397I397IJIII7IV 5 II IIg 3II I7VIIIIV gum I quotquotl II l I 2 Nege1tion is expressed inside of sentence but auxiliary IS missing Brown s stage III Examples I no like it I no want book 3 Negation is expressed inside of sentence with auxiliary Zlo5t0fully mastered until Brown s stage V or an MLU of Examples I don t want to go I can t do it I m not mad Brown Stage V Negation with lots of different auxiliaries can t don t won t wouldn t Grammatical structure of negation matches adult forms quotLucy s not mad 2 Questions Definition An act of asking Also referred to as an interrogative expression 2 kinds of Questions 1 YesNo questions THESE ARE THE EARLEST TYPES OF QUESTIONS OBSERVED 2 Stages of YesNo Questions 1 Rising intonation 2 inversion 2 Wh Questions 3 Staqes of Wh Questions 1 Missing auxiliary 2 Auxiliary included 3 Auxiliary inverted Later Developing Questions Negation within questions Long Distance Questions 2 Staqes In YesNo Questions 1 Early questions involve rising intonation on YN questions Brown s stage and l milk mommy tired mommy is tired Car go Brown Stage I Simple syntactic structure with 2 words objectaction amp object location what this or quotwhat thatquot ll II no Brown Stage II 20 25 27 30 mos Simple syntactic structure 2 words quotwhere xquot or quotwhat x or quotwho x quotno x or quotLucy not madquot or quotnot nounquot 2 Inversion of auxiliary with YN questions Brown s stage I Is mommy tired Brown Stage Iquot 3134 mos Whquestions why how when BUT with inconsistent question inversion quotyou are happyquot or quotyou happy Negative is moved inside sentence and placed next to verb BUT no productive use quotx not verbquot or quotx not noun Early infinitives gotta verb wanna verb hafta verb 3 Stages of Wh Questions 1 Missing auxiliary Brown s Stage II amp III what where who where that what that Brown Stage II 2730 mos Simple syntactic structure 2 words quotwhere x or quotwhat x or quotwho x quotno x or Lucy not mad or not noun Brown Stage III 2530 3134 mos Whquestio ns why how when BUT with inconsistent question inversion quotyou are happy or quotyou ha lopvquot NegatiVe is moved inside sentence and placed next to verb BUT no productive use quotX not V39er or quotx not nounquot Early infinitives gotta verb wanna verb hafta verb 2 Auxiliary included but not inverted Brown s stage IIIIV what where who what she is playing where she is playing Brown Stage quotI 3134 mos Whquestions why how when BUT with inconsistent question inversion quotyou are happyquot or quotyou happy Negative is moved inside sentence and placed next to verb BUT no productive use x not verquot or quotx not nounquot Early infinitives gotta verb wanna verb hafta verb Brown Stage IV Conjoined sentences Diverse set of Whquestions and Wh embedding inversion of questions common If so but because when and object modifying clauses Full infinitives quotI want to goquot 3 Auxiliary inversion Brown s Stage I V what where who what is she playing where is she playing Brown Stage V Negation with lots of different auxiliaries can39t don t won t wouldn t Grammatical structure of negation matches adult forms quotLucy s not madquot Brown Stage V 40 42 mos Sentences with both conjoined and embedded clauses 39 Both subject and object modifying clauses Later Developing Questions There is a close relationship between how why and when and the use of embedded and conjomed sentence structure Which Whose Later wh questions involve decontextualized language skills Tthhey involve the ability to think about causality and the understanding of internal states of o ers Negation within Questions these remain more difficult for children even after they show the ability to produceunderstand questions Immature productions are of two types noninversion What you do not like double marking What do you don t like Long Distance Questions these also remain difficult for an extended time When did Jane say she ripped her dress she said it When she was in the bath When she was climbing out of the tree When did Jane say how she ripped her dress she said it When she was in the bath LONG DISTANCE QUESTIONS con t Children aged 3 6 years provide both answers to Question 1 but only the second type of answer to Q 2 This is exactly what an adult state grammar would do Q1 is ambiguous but Q2 is not In Q2 WHEN cannot undergo longdistance and be about the ripping because HOW blocks this pairing of WHEN and Ripped Whyhow do young children do this Are they taught this Probably not because you don t see teaching of this type of question formation in caregiverchild interaction or in the lesson plans of preschool teachers Instead linguists believe that the child s comprehension of these types of questions are facilitated by abstract linguistic rules that all humans possess This abstract rule is related to long distance movement of constituents clauses 3 Passives Definition A constructioP Hsed to highlight the object of the sentence or reCIpIent o t e ac Ion Example The gifts were stolen by the Grinch 2 types ofPassives full passwes John was kissed by the girl truncated The Window was broken Trunca ed are 1le called adiec ivalep ssives because they describe a state or con Itlon o e su ject nt e s n ence An agent is not specified in truncated passives Truncated passives occur much more frequently in English than full passives Example The arm was broken The broken arm Horqan s Study Children produce assives before they are able to accurately complete compre ension tasks Production 34 years Comprehension 45 years Horqan 1987 studied children aqed 213 years Truncated passives emerge earlier than full passives Hrglrgan argued that they developed as separate structures and are unrelated in young c ren Truncated passives Brown Stage IV Full passives Brown Stage V l Brown Stage V 40 42 mos Sentences with both conjoined and embedded clauses Both subject and object modifying clauses Bever 1970 documented that irreversible passives are easier for English speaking children to understand than reversible passives Why Because in English children use word order so their errors involve interpreting the sentences as active Real world knowledge though helps children avoid the incorrect interpretation because this interpretation doesn t make sense in the real world Reversible passives Irreversible passives The boy was kissed by the girl The dog was patted by the girl The girl was kissed by the boy The girl was patted by the dog 4 Conjoined amp Embedded Best context for studying complex syntax is narratives Ask children to tell you a story Coordination amp Embedding are hard to analyze in spontaneous conversation because they are infrequent We know when these structures start to come in but we do not have good normative data so it is hard to use complex syntax to make a diagnosis The use of and is the most common conjunction children produce Clauses with that who and which are late developing 3 Stages of Conioined 1 additive meaning You carry this and I ll carry that 2 temporal meaning Jerry 5 going home and going to bed 3 causal meaning Beth is smiling because she passed the test 5 Anaphoric Reference Principal A Reflexive pronouns refer to referent that is within the same clause Mastered around 6 years Principal B Anaphoric pronouns cannot refer to a referent in the same clause Mastery explanations related to grammar limitations or pragmatics not understanding the speech acttask Principal C Backward coreference is only allowed if the pronoun IS In a subordinate clause Mastery around middle school 10 years explanations related to grammar development or processingbased limitations Development of Synctactic Structures Brown Stage I 1020 1926 mos Simple syntactic structure with 2 words objectaction amp object location quotwhat thisquot or quotwhat thatquot quotnoquot Brown Stage II 2025 2730 mos Simple syntactic structure 2 words quotwhere xquot or quotwhat xquot or quotwho xquot quotno xquot or quotLucy not madquot or quotnot nounquot Brown Stage III 2530 3134 mos Whquestions why how when BUT with inconsistent question inversion quotyou are happyquot or quotyou happv Negative is moved inside sentence and placed next to verb BUT no productive use quotx not verquot or quotx not nounquot Early infinitives gotta verb wanna verb hafta verb Stage Appx Age Use of Syntactic Structure Brown Stage IV 3035 3538 mos Conjoined sentences Diverse set of Whquestions and Wh embedding inversion of questions common If so but because when and object modifying clauses Full infinitives I want to goquot Brown Stage V 3540 3942 mos Negation with lots of different auxiliaries can t don t won t wouldn t Grammatical structure of negation matches adult forms quotLucy s not madquot Brown Stage V 40 42 mos Sentences with both conjoined and embedded clauses Both subject and object modifying clauses Understand how grammatical markers function cohesiver across sentence boundaries Be able to analyze the semantic roles of children39s first words and word combinations Building Semantics Semantic Networks connections among words and concepts For Example cat and cats same category different compete win and lose share some semantic components but differ in the outcome each conveys Word Associations Nelson gave children the name of a category such as animals or furniture and asked children to supply names of as many category members as possible FreeWord Association amp Svntaqmatic Paradiqmatic Shift Given a particular word and instructed to give the next word that comes to mind young children tend to respond with words that are related in syntax to the stimulus word a syntagmatic response Examples In response to the stimulus word eat a child might say lunch Around age 7 children begin to respond instead with words that are of the same grammatical category as the stiumulus word eg eat drink Changes involved are General cognitive strategy shifts Developmental changes in children s interpretation of the task Changes in knowledge of the features that define words Acquisition of Specific Word Types Locatives months m 24 Won 36 under 40 next to 48 behind in front abovebelow at the bottom 60 beforeafter 60 in a week leftright RelationalTerms Biglittle Largesmall Tallshortongshort Highlow Thickthin Widenarrow Deepshallow Wh Question Forms Whatwhere Who Howwhy Kinship Terms mother father sister brother son daughter grandfather grandmother parent uncle aunt cousin nephew niece 4 Staqes in Children s Kinship Definitions 1 Concrete no attributes iconic 35 years l have a brother matthew is my brother Concrete with some attributes 56 years A dad goes to work makes money Relational but not reciprocal 6 12 years l have a mommy but not mommy has a son Relational and reciprocal 710 years A niece is like when my mom has a sister and then I d be her niece Deictic Terms deixis Contrasting relational terms to indicate which one of many is being referred from the perspective and proximity of the speaker Meaning involves shifting reference perspective thisthat lyou meyou wethey herethere Development of Deictic Comprehension 3 years comprehend speaker perspective 4 years comprehend speaker and listener perspective Metalinguistics Children begin to notice words as objects and later become able to manipulate them to learn to read and write and to accomplish a host of nonliteral ends such as using metaphors creating puns and using irony Metalinguistics is the ability to reflect on language Language is treated as an object Words are something different than the concepts they representsymbolize Metalinguistic ability allows children to play with language play with words Metalinguistic Awareness knowledge of the nature of language as an object Develops gradually through the middle school years Phonological Awareness Metalinguistics Word De nitions Defining a word involves metalinguistic skills in that it requires using language to explain language Wordconcept awareness Wordsound awareness Wordmeaning awareness Synctactic awareness Aristotelian format An X is a Y that Z X is the concept Y is a superordinate the categroy to which a word belongs Z is the specific information that allows the concept to be iden ed 1 Early school year definitions are concrete descriptions of the referent s appearance or function Personal Incidental Example asked to define the word cat a 5yo might offer My cat had kittens under my bed 2 Elementary year definitions functional and personal definitions are replaced by abstract types of responses Synonyms Explanations Specifications of categorical relationships Metalinguistics WordConcept Awareness sta 6 lg Young children often consider the name of an object another of its intrinsic attributes stage 2 Words are separable from their referents Later children learn that words themselves stage are not inherent attributes of objects 3 Engage in flexible uses of words Moving beyond literal word use and adopting a metaphoric stance 3 Engage in exible uses of words Once children understand that a word and its referent are separable they can begin to reflect on the properties of words and objects separately Example Children between the ages of 4510 were asked to tell the investigator their favorite words AND favorite things Youngest failed to differentiate between the two questions naming favorite things in response to both questions For example one child s favorite word was toys because it s fun to play with Elementam articulated the reason why a particular word was their favorite For example the word ear because it sounds neat m differentiated between the two questions and articulated metalinguistic aspects of words For example children reporting favorite objects or activities eg swimming for favorite things and giving words with interesting sound or spelling patterns eg petrified or Mississippi for favorite words Children realize 1 Size of words can differ from the size of the concept pig vs dragonfly 2 Different words rhyme sam sam bobam fe fi fo fam 3 Words can be segmented into parts Some have more than one word cowboy Some have more than one syllable baby Metalinguistics WordSound Awareness Metaphonology PhonologicalAwareness Develops in late preschool and school years Related to reading acquisition Phonological Awareness is both important for AND influenced by learning to read Example Some substitutions made in repeating the Pledge of Allegiance were the night of states for the United States for witches stand for for which it stands and liver T for liberty As their vocabularies grow and children learn to read they become consciously aware of segments of speech smaller than words Words can be segmented into Syllables eg surprise 9 sur prise easiest segmental units to recognize Phonemes smallest units of sound that change the meaning of a word Onset the initial consonant or group of consonants in a syllable Rime remainder of the syllable PS Metalinguistics WordMeaning Awareness Metasemantics of Words Many humorous uses of language such as puns and riddles depend on the speaker s ability to separate different facets of language such as phonetic form and meaning Metaphor generally serves to clarify meaning Initially it offers children an additional strategy for clarifying communication both in production AND in comprehension Later it s used to grasp new concepts in relatively unfamiliar areas of knowledge Example frog in my throat Irony used to evaluatecriticize that s really great big deal Irony is most commonly used to express Sarcasm the intent to criticize or insult nice catch after a clumsy spill Simile hair is like spaghetti Homophones Multiple meanings of words that sound the same Meatmeet rightrightwrite Csee Stage I MLU 1020 primarily single word utterances Child beginning to combine two words that are meaningfully related to each other Mommy eat Two word utterances children typically express 8 semantic relations with two word utterances Agent action Mommy come Action object Drive car Agent object Mommy sock Action location Sit chair Entity location Cup table Posessor possession My teddy Entity attribute Box shiny Demonstrative entity Dat moneythat money Possession who owns them Possessor possession my teddy mommy dress Agentobject who is doing things to them Agent object mommy sock baby book Agent location actions performed by people Actionobject performed on objects Action object Drive car eat grape Actionlocation oriented toward certain locations action location go park sit chair Objects people and actions and their interrelationships thus preoccupy the toddler universally Telegraphic Speech content words Sentences composed mostly of nouns verbs and adjectives Nouns are the most frequent open class words Stage II MLU 2025 early word combinations continued appearance of grammatical morphemes that add SYNTATCTIC SPECIFICITY to the child s language Grammatical inflections also emerge at this stage Know and be able to identify Brown39s 14 grammatical morphemes and their stages of acquisition Brown s 14 Morphemes Prepositions Present Progressive Articles Plural 5 Third Person Regular Possessives Past Tense Regular Third Person Irregular Past Tense Irregular Contractible Copula Uncontractible Copula Contractible Auxiliary In On ng aanthe s 35 2 ed 3irr ptirr concop unconcop conaux In the house On the table I am walking to the store An apple the office Two cats He walks Ivan s truck Ijumped He does like it He drank hisjuice She s happyshe is happy Is she happythey were happy She39s walkingshe is walking Developmental Chart of Morphemes Brown Stage I 1020 1926 mos Brown Stage II 2025 2730 mos ing s In on 2 Brown Stage III 2530 3134 mos ing s In On Z Appx Age Morpheme Use Brown Stage IV 3035 3538 ing s 39 In On Z ed 39 ptirr 35 39 articles concop Brown Stage V 3540 3942 ing 0 s In On 0 2 ed ptirr 35 concop Articles unconcop conaux unconaux Appx Age Morpheme Use Brown Stage V 40 4350 mas After Stage V all morphemes are thought to be mastered Means that the morpheme is emerging Be able to identify the components of a simple sentence Examples of Simple Syntax Simple svntactic Structure m Contrastive Negation 39 quotNo I like ice cream no complete utterance Not Conjoined Nor Embedded N l39Dan and Jeff are boysquot 2 Nouns Within a Noun Phrase 0 Dan and Jeff9 They and is not 2 Verbs Within a Verb Phrase eenfe qeel V l I wantto walk and runquot Subject Verb Object quotI like dogsquot I am happyquot 39 quotThe doll is bigquot Try it yourself No she mad Stage 2 Simple contrastive negation 0 I like juice Stage 2 simple Be able to identify different types complex sentences Examples of Complex Syntax Complex Svntactic Structure Questions Whquestions YesNo questions Negatives Negation Conjoined Coordinating Conjunctions and 0 but and then or sometimes so quotAre you ha ppyquot quotWhere are youquot quotWhat this quotno dogquot quotI m not happyquot quotI would n t like thatquot quotHe ran and she fellquot I like ice cream but Steve likes cakequot Embedded Subordinating Conjunctions because if when until as soon as while whether although since quotShe can t come today because she has a coldquot because she has a cold cannot stand alone thus this is the embedded portion Wh embedded O O quotI know what that isquot quotHe wants to go to school where his friend goesquot Verb Clauses O O 000 0 0 O O quotI want to seequot or quotI wanna seequot quotI have to get dressed quotI want you to seequot quotMake it goquot quotHe started laughingquot ject Clauses quotI think the dog is coldquot quotI wish this class were overquot Subject Clauses O O quotThe lady who wore red is from Memphisquot quotWhy she married him is not clearquot Conjoined and Embedded I think that I know the answer but I might be wrong 0 quotI think can stand alone 0 that was input into the sentence as a test for embeddedment 0 Because quotthatquot fits in there then we know that quotI know the answer is the embedded clause 0 quotbutquot is a coordinating conjunction so we know that quotI might be wrong is the conjoined portion Try it yourself Where johny Stage 2 question l was a princess for halloween but Austin was winniethepooh Stage 4 conjoined ldon t like crawfish but my mawmaw does and johny don t either Stage 4 amp 5 Negative conjoined My aunt wreck her car that s black and now it is all messed up Stage 4 amp 5 Conjoined and embedded quotthat s blackquot is the embedded portion My aunt she like cars because she drives far far far to work Stage 4 Embedded Lucy s not mad Stage 5 or 3 negation Where do you want to go for Thanksgiving Stage 4 Question embedded Where you want to go for Thanksgiving Stage 3 Question embedded How d it get broke Stage 4 question
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