INTR TO LANGUAGE
INTR TO LANGUAGE COMD 2050
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stacy Dickinson on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMD 2050 at Louisiana State University taught by Danielle Alfandre in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/222923/comd-2050-louisiana-state-university in Communication Disorders & Sciences at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Test 3 I Semantics the study of the meaning of words phrases and sentences Semantic Roles 1 Agent I Initiates the action I Intends the action Controls the action I Must be alive 2 Experiencer Role in the situation usually characterized primarily by thoughts feelings or perceptions 3 Patient Affected undergoer of an action Undergoes material change as a result of the action I Must be alive 4 Theme Entity moved or acted upon in an action but without substantial change in itself I Usually the direct object of a sentence 5 Instrument Thing used by an agent to do an action 6 Goal I Endpoint of trajectory through which an entity moves 7 Source Initial point of a trajectory through which an entity moves I Container out of which an entity moves 8 Benefactor The entity that benefits from an action I Action must be good 9 Location I Place at which an action occurs 10 Time I Time at which an action occurs or state of affair holds Ask ltagent person themegt I Wash ltagent themegt I Donate ltagent theme benefactorgt Believe ltexperiencer themegt I Cut ltagent theme instrumentgt I Kick ltagent patientthemegt Throw ltagent theme goagt Put ltagent theme Iocationgt I See ltexperiencer themegt I Think ltexperiencer themegt I Lexical Relations 0 Synonyms I Buypurchase I Couchsofa I Carautomobile O Antonyms I Gradeable I The negative of one does not necessarily mean the negative of the other I Deepshallow Bigsmall I Nongradeable I The negative of one is the other Truefalse Deadalive O Reversives I Are antonyms but are verbs also I Enterexit I Raiselower O Hyponym When the meaning of one word is included in another word I Roseflower I Cocker Spanieldog O Homophones I Sound the same but spelled differently and have different meaning I Theretheirthey39re O Homonyms I Spelled the same sound the same mean different things I Bank I Bat O Metonymy I The substitution of one word for another word for which it is associated I Drank the whole bottlewater I Filled up my cargas tank I The White House saidpresident O Collocation I Words that frequently occur together I Breadbutter I Saltpepper I Hammernails Dampmoist synonyms Deepshallow gradeable antonym Marriedsingle nongradeable antonym Peacepiece homophones Absentpresent nongradeable antonyms Failpass nongradeable antonym Fairunfair gradeable antonym Highlow gradeable antonym Fill itempty it reversives Peanut butter amp jelly collocation Pragmatics what you intend to mean based on your culture Linguistic Context vs Physical Context 0 Linguistic Context surrounding words 0 Physical context Physical environment in which something is placed Deixis When you talk about things that you need to be present to know what is being spoken about I Ex Look at that 0 Person deixis I He she it they those 0 Spatial deixis Refers to location I Here there 0 Temporal deixis I Now then yesterday today I Ex Be back in 5 minutes Reference a way that we use language to enable someone to identify something what we call things Inference additional information used by the listener to create a connection between what is said and what is meant 0 Ex Picasso is in the museum you infer that a painting by Picasso is in the museum 0 Ex I saw Shakespeare in the park Anaphora a subsequent reference to an already introduced item Antecedent the first mention Presupposition what a speaker assumes is true or known by the listener 0 Ex John regrets that he stopped doing linguistics before he left MIT Speech Acts an action performed by a speaker by an utterance 0 You can request something command something suggest something promise O 2 kinds of speech acts I Direct Speech Acts say something and it39s done I now pronounce you man and wife I Indirect Speech Acts I The garbage isn39t out yet ask to take garbage out without explicitly asking I Could you take the garbage out I Would you mind taking the garbage out I I would like for you to take the garbage out Do you know where John is indirect I39d like two pounds of pastrami indirect Where is the gas station direct Face your public selfimage the emotional and social sense of self that everyone has and expects everyone else to recognize o Facethreatening Act if you say something that is a threat to someone s selfimage I Ex Give me that paper 0 Facesaving Act When you say something that lessens the possible threat to someone s face I Would you please give me that paper O 2 kinds of face Negativeface the need to be independent and free from imposition Positiveface the need to be connected to belong to be part of a group O Facesaving acts vary from culture to culture Entailment the relationship between two sentences where the truth of one A requires the truth of the other B 0 Ex Ian drives a Corvette Ian drives a car 0 Ex The president was assassinated The president is dead Implicature the truth of one A suggests the truth of the other B but does not require it 0 Ex I39d like a cup of coffee There s a place called Joe s around the comer 0 Ex I39d like to buy an LSU bumper sticker The bookstore is in the Union Discourse Analysis 39Ilh stud ol hnu m Inth scnxc ol uhul c read in let understand hut speakers Incun despite hut thu u recognic connected as oppmcd In Jumblcd or Incoherent discourse and successfully take pun In L quotII39CI39IIIIHII Cohesion we must have cohesion or ties and connections that exist within texts to make them make sense Cohesive Links We use pronouns lexical connections general connections and verb tense as cohesive links Conversation take turns avoid silence speakers mark the end of their turn by pausing or asking a question participants indicate that they are ready to take a turn by making short sounds or making expressions Cooperative Principle make your conversational contribution such as is required by the accepted purpose of direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged O Noticed by Paul Gr39ice Maxims the rules of conversation that we all follow and nd it very odd when someone doesn t Grice39s Maxims 0 Quantity to make your contribution as informative as is required but not more informative To make a long story short I won t bore you with the details 0 Quality don t say what you believe to be false don t say that for which you lack evidence As far as I know I39m not sure but Correct me if I39m wrong 3 Relation be relevant Are you coming to the party tonight I ve got an exam tomorrow 4 Manner avoid ambiguity be orderly be clear Observe vs Flout O Flout deliberately violate a maxim to trigger an inference 7 often seems like sarcasm What on earth has happened to the roast beef The dog is looking happy observing relation Do you mmd m1 eonne n7 Not at all rum my white carpet autmg qualxty Have you washed the oor and done the dAShes7 lye washedthe oor mnnung quantxty a not as mfmrmtxve 41515 reqmred and observing qualxty 7 don 1 say what you behave m be zlse Reeonnnnendauon Letterto College John is always on tame and has good handwnung aunng quamzty amp observing qualxty I nn going to tell that thug to stop smokmg on due taan Do you have hfe insurance7 Bull fell out of a tree and broke his ann observing Wuan Ixstmg Events In Order Language and the Kain motor cortex Wernicke39s area angular gvrus visual cortex Broca39s area auditory cortex Speech Areas quotPM tn producing speeeh This area s mvolvedm the production ofspeech Vt an u my m v4 u mamad a er a Gennan doetonn the A Wermcke39 mvolved tn the understandmg of speeeh The Mum Cannon 7 eontaols the ameulatony muscles ofthe face Jaw tongue andlarynx x 1 sight for pictoral unages a 1 eonyemng them to aform that ean be interpreted by otherpans ofthe bram Angular Cyrus converts visual stimuli into auditory stimuli so we can match the spoken form with the written form read and write Arcuate fasciculus Broca39s Area Arcuate fasciculus the bundle of nerves that connects broca s area to wemicke s area 39 to produce a spoken word we Choose a word from the mental dictionary This activates Wernicke s area which interprets the lexical entry identifying the meaning and how to pronounce it The phonetic info is sent via the arcuate fasciculus to Broca s area which determines what combination of articulators is necessary to produce each sound and instructs the motor corteX to move thereby producing the sound Aphasia An impairment of language function due to localized brain damage that leads to difficulty in understanding andor producing linguistic forms Most commonly caused by stroke or head trauma 39 Broca s aphasia motor aphasia 7 characterized by a substantially reduced amount of speech distorted articulation and slow effortful speech What is said often consists entirely of lexical morphemes nouns verbs and the omission of functional morphemes articles preps or in ections comprehension is better than production 39 Wernicke s Aphasia sensory aphasia 7 produce very uent speech which is very difficult to make sense of Will this is mother is away here working her work out 0 here to get her better but when she s looking the two boys looking in the other part One their small tile into her time here She s working another time because she s getting too Word meaning processing is disrupted while syntactic processing in intact 39 Conduction Aphasia 7 damage to the arcuate fasciculus word nding difficulty show them an object and they can t tell you what it is TOT Phenomenon studies show that we have an accurate phonological outline of the word we can tell you how many syllables what it starts with evidence that our word storage is based on phonological information Slips of the Tongue 39 Often a sound can be carried over ex Black bloxes 39 A sound used in anticipation of its occurrence in the next word ex Noman numeral tup of tea most highly played player 39 Reversal slips where onsets are reversed ex shu ots beel fetter Malapropisms when a speaker uses a semantically incorrect word in place of a phonetically similar word without being aware of the mistake 39 Ex Archie Bunker We need a few laughs to break up the monogamy monotony Ex I resemble that remark resent Spoonerisms words are switched for a comical effect 39 Ex I m not as think as you drunk I am Ex A 50 pound dog ofbag food 39 Ex You have hissed all of my mistory lecture Slips of the Ear when you mishear someone Ex A child is in church and believes that everyone is singing about a bear named Gladly who was crosseyes when in fact the name of the song is Gladly the cross I d bear Action Slips 39 Ex You put the milk in the cabinet and the sugar in the refrigerator Critical Period sometime around puberty 39 before the critical period the human brain is most ready to learn if language is not acquired during this period it is much more difficult leaming language Most people cannot attain native uency in a second or third language after the critical period First Language Acquisition also known as child language acquisition I 2 Theories I Behaviorism I lnnateness humans are born with an internal grammar this is how children can speak correctly and say things they have never heard before Basic Requirements to learn a language 0 Interaction with other language users 0 Physically capable of sending and receiving sound signals Timeline of acquiring language 0 46 months begin to babble CV sequences always moving the tongue with the jaw 710 months the babbling repeated mamamama helps infant practice the CV sequence practice timing when to lower the velum in relation to when the mouth opens for vowels Babbling at this age is not related to biological needs like food or physical comfort used for practice for later speech social reward When children start to associate sound with meaning the babbling will stop 0 12 18 months One word stage typically name people objects pets Includes verbs and nouns no gimme mine adult phrases become single words allgone whatsat mommy s daddyscar words are used for naming commenting requesting etc 0 15 21 months Learning many more words so the one word thing doesn t work anymore Start breaking words into phonemes and combining them in different ways this is when they learn the phonotactics of the language 0 18 24 months Begin to combine words into 2 word phrases new phrases Use word order to convey meaning Agent action baby sleep Action theme kick ball sit chair Still no prepositions auxiliaries articles or in ectional affixes O 30 months Fastest increase in vocabulary no more babbling frustrated if not understood by adults minimum 2 words generally 35 seems to understand when spoken to 3 word utterances are formed by combining 2 word utterances with a common element Daddy cookie amp cookie eat Daddy eat cookie When they start to combine 3 or more words they possess the hierarchical syntactic structure Still no function words only words with content begin to include morphemes ie she walking present progressive she walks 3p present she walked past tense Around the same time as ing prepositions in and on Parentese the special version of a language that adults use when talking to small children 0 Features include limited vocabulary focus on body parts food names for people animals clothing Repitition repeat up to 23 of their utterances slower rate of speech therefore more precise articulation exagerated intonation sing songy can be comforting help children hear breaks between phrases and clauses lengthened vowels help children figure out prototypical vowel forms higher pitch adults have a lower pitch than kids can make speech highly expressive of emotional content and capture children s attention fewer verbs noun heavy except for do and go focus on the here and now talking about what s happeneing in the child s vicinity makes more referents available and obvious for figuring out meaning names rather than pronouns because pronouns change meaning depending on the situation they are difficult for childrenphonetic simplification of some words phonetically easier by shortening them Grandma or substituting an easier word boo boo Parentese provides simpli ed structures from which children can learn shorter sentences fewer verbs few pronouns and clari cation of structures vowel elongation word and sentence repitition exaggerated intonation Helps provide helpful input at the early stages Problems children have that are normally resolved by the age of 5 O Plurals Man gt mans Foot gt foots O Negatives Put quotnoquot at beginning of sentence 0 Interrogatives Move quotcanquot and quotwillquot correctly to make question Still cannot move wh words correctly Acquisition of Word Meaning 0 Complexive Concepts eX Child calls all furry things doggie because he uses fur to identify a dog 0 Overextensions eX Child learns that the thing in the sky is the moon and starts calling all round things the moon 0 Underextensions eX Only calling a ball a ball only when it s under the couch Other concepts mastered by children 0 Proper nouns O Relational Terms eX Largesmall elephant compared to largesmall dog eX Thisthat Second Language Acquisition 0 Acquisition the gradual development of ability of a language by using it naturally in communicative situations EX 10 years old and move to Spain you will learn Spanish 0 Learning a constant process of accumulating knowledge EX Sit in classroom to learn Spanish Factors that affect learning 0 Attitude most teenagers have affective barrier Approaches O Grammar translation method learn long lists of words and rules to memorize emphasis on writing rather than speaking O Audiolingual method attempting to emphasize the spoken language try to make you repeat oral drills Problem is that you don t repeat in the real world 0 Communicative approach the reaction against the other two put in small groups where you have to interact with others and act out scenarios emphasize the function of the language rather than the forms When learning a second language we are affected by transfer Transfer what you get from your first language 0 EX Trying to learn Spanish adjectives come after word described Input O Foreigner talk simplify sentences use very simple vocabulary O Negotiated input foreign speaker will start asking what something means or what things are Communicative Competence the ability to use the second language accurately appropriately and exibly O 3 kinds Grammatical competence accurate use of words and structures Sociolinguistic competence using correct pragmatics the ability to interpret or produce language appropriately Strategic competence the ability to organize a message effectively and to compensate for any difficulty View of the left hemisphere
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