ANAT PHYS SPCH & HEA
ANAT PHYS SPCH & HEA COMD 4250
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COMD 4250 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review ert llll39r 1 Sagitial Plane Cerenal Plane Traneveree Plane Body Planes Anchored by specific body structures the frame ofreference still applies while the body turn in space 0 Standing upright face forward arms to the sides with the palms forward and thus parallel to the face Threedimensional so as the body 0 Sagittal Midsagittal Median I Divides left and right 0 Coronal Horizontal transverse I Divides front and back 0 Horizontal transverse I Divides upper and lower Set of terms directions and relationships of location 0 Anatomy investigates the body s structure 00 000 0 COM D 42 5 0 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review Physiology investigates the processes or functions of living things DORSAL vs VENTRAL SUPERFICIAL vs DEEP ROSTRAL CRANIAL vs CAUDAL I Rostral toward head I Caudal toward tail SUPERIOR vs INFERIOR ANTERIOR vs POSTERIOR DEXTRAL vs SINISTRAL I Dextral right side I Sinistral left side LATERAL vs MEDIAL Related to the hum an body in posterior I dorsal above transverse plane I ventral below transverse plane Related to the human head I dorsal toward scalp I ventral toward chin Sample Questions I Q A term that means quottoward the head is o A rostral I Q The nose is and to the ears 0 A anterior medial I Q A plane divides the body into superior and inferior portions 0 A transverse I Q You are doing a handstand Your head is to your neck 0 A superior CO MD 42 5 0 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review A First Rib B Costal cartilage G Twelfth Rib l l Vertebral Column Sternum L Clavicular Notch OOOOOO Lungs SuperiorAspect bythe first rib and clavicle I InferiorAspect by the twelfth rib O COMD 4250 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review Su rasternal Clavicular p notch notch anu rium Manubrasterna lan xiphoid process corpus sternum o Sternum Flat bladelike bone located at the center ofthe chest Serves as the anterior site ofarticulation for the ribs via cartilaginous connections Manubriumclavicle1St rib o Manubriumprovicles the attachment forthe clavicle and first rib Manubrosternal angle juncture ofthe manubrium and corpus 2nd rib Suprajsternal notch top of sternum Clavical notch where the clavical connects to the sternum Ribs True 1 through 7 0 False 8 through 10 Floating 11 and 12 COMD 4250 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review 7 cervical venabrae Intervenebrat foramina 0 9 lnlewenebml discs quot 12 thoracic vertebrae Hip bone o Vertebral Column I Five divisions o Cervical o Thoracic o Lumbar o Sacral o Coccygeal I Numbered sequentially with the initial of each division C1 C2 SS Lecture 6 COMD 4250 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review Hyoid Bone Epiglottis Thyrohyoid Membrane Thyroid Cartilage Cricothyroid Cricothyroid Muscles Ligament Cricoid Cartlilage Trachea a Anterior View of the Larynx CO MD 42 5 0 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review o SLIle l39iDl ViF39W ol i he Lawns Lecture 7 CO MD 42 5 0 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review vpnglmhs r nuich o Inclrynx hyoid bone Ventricular Folds false VFs THE LARYNX Coronal View njl39lhe Larynx SLDE LECTURE I PHONATDRY SYSTEMA4JJJJJ a Fine Si rm ture ofllle Vocal Folds 5 Layers I EPITHELIUM gtCOVER I SUPERFICIAL I INTERMEDIATE Transition or 2 Vocal Ligament I DEEP I VOCALIS BODY o Cavities ofthe Lulynx I Adinls laryngis ladims entlylo the Ialym l39rmltlle plialym almier Boundaly epiglottis aryepigloliirl39olds CO MD 42 5 0 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review Prominent rnneit m39m C E cm39niculate F Aryepiglottic fold g cuneiform cartilage Aditus laryngis Vestibule spar betw99n the adinls and ventriculal folds false VF 39 V a ventricle laryngeal sinus IIIid4liz3spacnnl LhE between Thf39 malgins ofthe RIF and t e TVF below I Glottis the space between VF varinbl sphinrter that permits vmmng CO MD 42 5 0 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review Anterior Commissure Median glwsovpigloth c fold Epiglottis Tuberclc 0f epiglnuix Vallecula False VF I39amt jam Ventricular fold True VF Aryepiglotlic fuki Cuneiform carll39lage Comiculale cartilag glottis Trachea CO MD 42 5 0 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review Suleustermimlia Fommm cccum erdim glow Valletula c pfylollic old at 116099 eyziglolll39c fold murr ronm of f Tubcrdt hyofd 1 Sup raynu of Awepx39gloltl c fold thyroid owl Gian is Cuneiform camqu Pgn39jarm sfrma Comiculale cartridge ertlll t39 7 CO MD 42 5 0 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Finaljixgm Review Intrinsic Muscles of Laxynx Lateral Dissection Alyepa39glomo muscle transverse i ljfih lilnuseles Oblique Arytenmd Muscle Posterior almal mold muscle Clicolhglold muscle cut away 0 Muscles ofthe Laiynx I Intrinsic M I 0 amp on laryngeal Cartilage Making adiiistln its ol39tlie vocal mechanism itsell39 Lateralcricoalytenoid o adduclor 3 Location Cl39ll39Olll Cl is3 muscular process iit the arytenoid IV The muscular pr 5 will be drawn forward 39 l teno nward and t m 39 nu l39t Tra nsvsrse Arytenoitl M o adductor Transverse intermytenoid M Impaired band ot39l ibers running l39rnmllie lateral margin otthe posterioi surface of on alytenoid to the corresponding surt39at e ml the other arylenoid o Pulling LllP two arytenoids closer TOgPlllEl CO MD 42 5 0 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review a Medial compnessiun refers to the degree of tnrce that may he 3991 by 1119 Vocal l olds at their point ul conlnrt Oblique arytenoid M dllCl Dl Oljliqust intPraIytemid M Immu ltely superficial to the transvrrse al39y lt r v PairmiKimilm Function with 39 AM arrangement Pr 39or base or the musrular x ohhe npposil e alylelmld I arytPnoid muscle abdurtor nl lhe VF Localion Posterio r39 39ildmina posterior aspect ol the mu arprnc H rfl39he aryTenoid t I Pulling 11w muscularproress puslr riorly rot king Ih Ell39yTEHGid I out abriumng the VF gm 0P Mylohyoid Stylohyoid CO MD 42 5 0 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review Genioglossus C and the ol hrr mi a nonlaryn eal I it uh 0 rhelarynx Mylollyo d c 1m Lm timl ti undemdt oil39he mandible U a ol39p31yoiv1ll I Fleeting X Heuiohyoid rleval I39 COMD 4250 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review Superior to the mylohyoid 0 Elevating and drawing the hyoid forward 0 Genioglossus 0 elevator Forming the majority oftongue Attachment to hyoid elevating Frequency Fundamental Frequency QuasiPeriodic I Glottal ow the magnitude ot39air ow I Fundamental Frequency F0 0 Vocal fold vibration expressed in cycles per second 0 Hertz Hz I F01T T1 Pitchchanging Mechanism I Stretchingtensing the VF Cricothyroid thyrovocalis M I Tension length and mass 0 Changeable elements ofthe VF o The natural frequency ofvib ration will increase as the tension the length cn39cothyroid M on the VF is increased 0 The mass ofa vibra ting body is decreased in fact rearranged by lengthening 0 Mass per unit length increases and tension decreases and F0 decreases Intensity and Intensity Change I Frequency Pitch Intensity Loudness I Intensity o The physical measure oi39power or pressure ratios 0 70 dB SPL Sound Pressure Level I Increasing Vocal Intensity 0 Increasing subglottal pressure Force of the air from the lungs exerted on the VF from below 9 larger amplitude of mucosal wave vibration 9 a greater amount of air to escape through the vocal folds during the open phase generating greater acoustic power 0 Increasing medial compression Lecture 10 Articulators CO MD 42 5 0 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review I ML7ilr l39llL39LllalUi39 39l39nngueIIwm39jaw velulnlips The Inrge mul r r ICIJIHFOI391011 l39iaV Hml1dil 9 l nictlu39r 1 l L39L ll39 ll CO MD 42 5 0 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review Frontal bone Parietal Temporal Sphen aid bone Elh mo id bone Occipital bone cranial Bones Lsctur 13 Bucca Er CO MD 42 5 0 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review ul39lhe Vova Trart al nasal aml phalyngeal I aVifiES dviry Mouth lo Funcial Pillars Fharynx most puslerior 39endinglrom the VF to I39hr region IJf hlliL I the s Drophary39nx Velum to Hyo Naso Wharun c I39Ihonmr t v Epiglol39tis l0 3 Inglis n I1 berWren Orophal39ynxamp Nasuphalynx 39rr part ol i he lalynx is 7 yngopharynx LHTUl39r 1 ti M lemporalis anl COMD 4250 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review I Masseter o elevator 0 Most super cial of the muscles of mastication 0 Location Lateral inferior and medial surfaces of the zygomatic arch 01 amusofthe mandible 1 I Temporalis Muscle o Elevator I Elevating the mandible and drawing it back 0 Deep to the masseter 0 Location Temporal fossa temporal and parietal bones coronoid process and ramus I Lecture 17 Development ofArticulatory Ability I Development a The primitive human motor system is actually an extremely complex network ofprotective re exes Re ex the means for an infant to respond to the environment without volition gross to meet the basic needs eg Re exive sucking A process of gaining cortical control of the motor patterns for volitional purposes Cephalocaudally from head to tail proxima M from medial structures to distal structures a Head vs trunk posteior vs anterior tongue I Following stabilization motor control skills 0 Simple CV syllable differentiating the tongue movements from those of mandible further between tongue body and tip movements 0 Motor skill learning is evident when they start producing CV structure syllable Lecture 18 The Auditory System I Only about communication no other function Hearing the process by which the ear transforms sound vibrations in the external environment into nerve impulses that are conveyed to the brain where they are interpreted as sounds airhone conduction Extraordinary in size and complexity Function transferring acoustic signal to electrochemical signal COMD 4250 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review Semicirtfular I135 3 Osslcles ca 39 vesnbuiaz lt nerve Maltous Incus Stages Temporal bone Emma Cochlear Tympanic hem men me Tympani cavity U Eustachian tube Pmna Enema audmorj outer ear mealus Outer Ear I Two elements Pinna auricle the prominence we refer to as the ear collector ofsound to he processed at deeper level single elastic cartilage I External auditorv meatus ear canal Functions 0 aiding localization ofsound in space capturing sound energy External auditory meatus both 05360115 and cartilaginous about 7 mm in diameter 25 cm long from concha 4 cm long from tragus Resonating cavities resonant frequency 0 Outer 13 o Lateral portion is cartilaginous 39 J 39 39 true of overall shape ol39external auditory meaditus not just outer 13 Cartilaginous Skin contains hairs inner 23 Bony osseous Narrower isthmus C OM D 42 5 0 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review Inferior wall about 5 mm longer than superior wall due to obliquity ul39 rympanic membrane Lt fl39lll39t 3919 incus iamvilli A Irtuznzlg short process long processquot 4 49 39 l s u our 1 u I39 199 Encgc39lopaedi a Britannica Inc D 425 Anatomy 52 Physmlogy of Spee Final xam Revie Left Ear ch amp Hearing W mean Membrane VaHnw pnr rm m ands m pars zcdda nemamuer a TM mm m to par lensa Lateral Vlew TvmpanltMusclas mlmpmnrMalmemldd eeanauanlv dmusades h tubs and llasnuhawnx Runs betweenEusmc CO MD 42 5 0 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review I lt L Mallens I 2 Mallens ligamenl I 3 Intus I 5t Ev us 7 lying in U pnstm39ior wall ofthe middle Par E nnn long I M fibers converge into 5 39ouml tendon which passes anteriorlyto emerge I m i he pyramidal eminence inserts into the posterior neck oi39the stapes Cont the stapes is rotated postniorly I 6 tapes footplate I 7 Tympanic Membrane eardrum I FiEustarhiantuhe i 3 Mallens muscle tensor tympani I running intariorly o SampleQuestions I Q39 What is the primary function of the two mugclrs Siapedius 8 Malleusl what will happen when they contract I A stiffen tlnI rympanic umIJrane I Q Why do theytighten up the lyillpallli mmnbrana A m protectthe innermiddle ear when the S too murh inlensityo urnl causes lower frequeni y sounds will be red Dd39 semicircular canal bong labgrinth perilgmph Lacturr ZU membranous l lebgrinth superior semicircular duct horizontal i cochlea semicircular duct postario Semiclrcular duct window oval window cochlear duct 99 M h smmici39 w Usseons Seniii ircular Canals Semicircul cana Osseous spiral lamina COMD 4250 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing ar Is Dsseous 39 Final Exam Review House the sense orga us for movement ot the body in space see the orienlalion ot39eacli canal Three rings attached to a ball with each ring in a plane at right angles to one other ring 3 dimensional spare Anterior superior o detect veITiral movements of the head senses movement in a plane perpendicular to the length otthe temporal bone 0 PosterL detect vertical movements of the head parallel to the length ol39the temporal bone o Horizontal m detects horizontal movements ot39the head 39 39the body rr m G lt n vi Ft 3 n7 3 m a Binaural orientation olihe two semicin39ularcana 39 ant Semicircular canal ofone emuparallel to the posterior canal of the other Cochlea Helicotrema Scala vestibuli Scala tympani chlear Labyrinth ll Coils out from a base near the vestihule 2 32 times before apex Modiolus cure continuous with internal auditory meatus Two portions incomplete chambers osseous spiral lamina Scala vestibuli Scala tympani Helicotrema apex region through which Scala vestihnliSz Suala tympa ni n vmmunicate CO MD 42 5 0 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech 8 Hearing Final Exam Review 7 5313 rm of Al vestibular Builim mecula alfcul a enlargement enlurnamanl nl Crista at mnnuln nupula stursncilla mean Tuna hair cell hnlr call w suppnrllng halr cells nerve Here basement membrane cells my New armmm we a Memln39al inns La bylinth Parallel to Imuy labyrinth CO MD 42 5 0 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review Vestihule tenthway in the inner ear spare sharezl hy the Gense organ ut39hearmg and the oflaance the same lluids Vestibula r System 8 Corhlear Duct Memhranous labyrinth a IluiiflI39illeil sac within the osseuus labyrinth endolymph Membranonslabyiinth houses the vestihuiai organ Contains the organs ofhalance lower left the cristae al39the semicirrular ducts and lnwrr righll the marulae 39he utricle and saccule i r au ule housing for the otolithic organs ol the vestibular system sensory organ In these Marulal I Ampulla1he expanded region ol thr semn irrular canals Ampuln is housed in utrirle and sacru x rrista ampularis rerep mr organ or movement Cells 8 memhrane I Crista he Jens1r that is within each ampula Reissner s Membrane oval C window gt39G stapes ochlear Duct window Basilar Membrane o Cochlear Durt I Resilie I irweeu the scala vestibuli anti rympanl making up the intermedi scala media housing he sensory apparatus for hea ring Reissner39s membrane 39emely thin separation hetween the pel llylllpll withe scale veslilnili and the endolymph ol39the scala media Basila r membrane tlooroi the scala media scala media and scala tympani IOIK lion 0139 movement hemeel oval and round Windows a A Opposlte direction COMD 4250 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review I Q Direction ofmovement between Stapes and tympanic membrane direction a A Same direction Lecture 21 Outer Ear I Primarily a collector of sound pinna sound funnel localization of the sound sources I Resonant frequency particularly responsive to specific frequencies rejecting energy at other frequencies gt selective enhancement I Only a passive effect on the input stimulus immobile I Pinna and EAM shaping that boost the relative strength of the signal through resonance enhanced signal intensity between 1500Hz and 8000 Hz v Middle Ear I TM ossicle entry to the cochlea oval window most important evolutionary dramas of the auditory mechanism I Designed toincrease the pressure arriving overcoming the resistance to flow of energy impedancePressureForceArea I Match the impedance of the two conductive systems outer and inner ears cochlea 0 HOW TO MATCH IMPEDANCE 0 Why match impedance Because the medium ofthe sound energy is different from the outer ear vs the middle ear inner ear travels thru fluid 0 3 ways to increase the sound pressure a 1Through Area function ofTM 55 mml and oval windows 32mm I Sound energy reaching the TM is funneled to the much smaller area of the oval window a gain of1721 increase ofabout 25dB 2By a lever difference length ofthe manubrium 9mm and the long process stapes7mm I Overall gain ofabout 12 which is nearly 3Buckling tightening ofTM I TM buckles such that the arm ofthe malleus moves a shorter distance than the surface ofTM reduction in velocity of the COMD 4250 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review malleus increase of force that prowdes a 4 to 6 dB increase in effective signal Total ofabout dB gain from TM to cochlea I Increasing the pressure ofa signal arriving at the cochlea Auditmy Mechanism Mechanical Events I Cochlea Extremely small structure and amount of uid I Performing spectral and temporal acoustic analyses of the incoming acoustic signal I Spectral Analysis vs temporal analysis a The process of extracting or defining the various frequency components ot39a given signal eg Moment analysis M1 0 Pitchloudness sorting out the frequency components ofan incoming signal determining their amplitude identifying hasic temporal aspects ofthat signal initial auditory processing Sound disturbance in airj TM movement I TM inward stapes footplate moves in the same direction I Stapes compressing the perilymph of SV 0 Reissner s M is distended toward the SM n Basilar M is toward the ST Frequency 100 Hz signal The periodic vibration is translated to the liasilar iiieiiiliraiie where it initiates a wave action TRAVELING WAVE Basilar M support wave action that directly corresponds to the F of vibration of the input sound I High F Vibration oftlie BM closer to the BASAL end of the cochlea 0 Low F long traveling wave that reaches toward the APEX tonotopic arrangement 0 Traveling wave separating out and processing those components malleus J3 endolymph cochlear duct section basilar membrane tympanic membrane COMD 4250 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Higher fre 9 391 o ency Final Exam Review Thu gmunl39 ufmai wimum excuwdun nu flu BM Jvlermnm Mn F m Tmnusu eil d u 39v39vl39hvin39zzu nqnliclaiyx2n11up ifi39nl wounan ilepmm ul nmmmmn lii 39i ncia 2 max CUESIHU Gi39mel mlginrnn39 armlwei A 39xvny Mum Emu in mm Elwfll39itl39th a he inIum uum lum Leila thunk alwnl39 Midi i39vlal irun39th WH39U Inform M Slamming E Irt l ml the Lil Hun H As 1h slilr lnw x 392 may and 3 imrztmln39mnr39m 39 increase r 39 idlh um mwm l39lic wdy 4 M m Discharge Rate CO MD 42 5 0 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review Best frequency of nerve fitjaer is 3000 because it qwas most dramatic to the signal Time CharaI39erisliu Fl eziliJLm y an electrode vn a rib rvingille area ol llie Level dB SPL 3888833 C COMD 4250 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review 25 5 1 m a 2 me o Tuning Curve Sample Questions A measure ofneural specificity Basilar membrane auditory nerve A composite of the responses ofa single fiber at each frequency ofpresentation speci city the sharper the greater Humans can discriminate change in frequency of signals ofabout 2 PST histograms supporting the Place Theory As the intensity of stimulation increases the rate of firing increases Our perception of sound depends on where each component frequence produces point at 2 sensitive Q What does the Tonotopic Arrangement ofBasilar membrane A different parts process different frequency sounds Q Why do different parts process different frequency sounds A From base to apex apex is wider amp apex has greater 0 mean 0 mass 0 O O of sound 0 O processes 0 Q processes are those that cause excitation of the hair cells A mechanical Q is the process ofcxtracting info about frequency components A spectral analysis Q processes occur as a result ofstimulation by mechanical A electrochemical Lecture 22 COMD 4250 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review Q When the tympanic membrane moves inward the stapes footplate in the oval window also moves in o A true Q When the stapes compresses the perilymph of the scala vestibuli Reissner39s membrane is distended away from the scala media cl A false distended toward Q Stimulation of the basilar membrane results in the action known as the i A Traveling way Q High frequency stimulation is processed at the ofthe cochlea o A base Q The basilar membrane has mass at the apex than at the base 4 A more Q The basilar membrane has width at the apex than at the base 4 A more Q The basilar membrane has stiffness at the apex A less Q The shearing relationship between the tectorial membrane and the outer hair cells causes the cilia to bend a A true Q The shearing relationship between the tectorial membrane and the inner hair cells causes the cilia to bend A false CO MD 42 5 0 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review Mldbraln H Pens Medulla Oblongm Spinal Cord 5way Stations This is the Auditory Pathway LCochlear nucleus 25Llperior Ollvai39y Complex 31m eriorColliculus 4Medial Geniculate Body COMD 4250 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review I 55ezebnal Cortex o Cochlear N ucleus I Dorsolateral side ofbrainstem I At the level ofthe cochlear nuclei the input from the two ears for the most part remains separate I Significant signal processing occurs at this level ofbrainstem tonotopic representation I Different neural responses re ect different cell types within the cochlear nucleus and different interactions among neurons 0 Superior Olivary Complex SOC I First site of binaural interaction receiving info from the CN of BOTH ears specialized for localization ofsound in space I 2 basic responses 0 ExcitatoryExcitatory R Contralateral 5 High F ateral superior olive stimulus intensity comparing the intensity ofa signal 0 Excitatoryinhihitory R Contralateral Ipsilatera S Low F ed39a l superior olive signal at the left E Excitation of the R MSO inhibiting the L MSO I Characteristic delay in arrival time some cells in M80 detecting minute changes in arrival time ofa sound between 2 ears detection of differences in arrival time ofsounds to the two ears which is part oflocalization process I Primary means oflocalization ofsound in space 0 Interaural phase time difference LOW o Interaural intensity difference HIGH I Feature detectors neurons responding to specific characteristics or features of the stimulus c Inferior Colliculus IC I Receiving bilateral innervation from the LSO indirect input from the CN via the lateral lemniscus I Awide array of responses is seen including inhibitory responses intensitysensitive units interaural timesensitive and intensitysensitive neurons 0 Media Geniculate Body MGB I A relay ofthe thalamus the lial sensory waystation of the brainstem I A distinct tonotopic arrangement complex interactions of response types interaural intensity COMD 4250 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review posterior anterior i Cerebral cortex I Receiving input primarily from the contralateral ear Via the ipsilateral MGB A full tonntopic map on the cortex may be seen at the primary reception area Organized in columns within which different neurons respond to different stimulus parameters such as frequency 8 intensity lipglides downglides etc 0 Sample Questions I Q How many pairs of cranial nerves do we have 0 A 12 pairs I Q How many pairs emerge from the hrainstem o A 10 pairs emerge from hrainstem I Q Why do we call them cranial nerves 0 A Spinal nerves emerge from segment of spinal chord 8 Cranial nerves emerge from somewhere in the brain Lecture 23 COMD 4250 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Frontal the Motor Strip Final Exam Review Central Sulcu s 39 I Somatoseusor strip LEFT SIDE OF BRAIN Occlpnol lobe F finial temporal o l39hmking pldnning central executive funrtlum mutur executions 39 Somatosensory body perception integration of visual amp somatospatial info 0 Language auditory perception involved in long term memory and emotion Visual perception and OCCiPital processing Parietal o Cranial Nenelz Have 12 pairs oi a l39unia nerve that Ii39lsv rrmn the ln39am COM D 42 5 0 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review Vital to tin 5L ll6l39 l l39tl w by him att utt lJl V Trigeminal VII Facial VIII Vestibulocochlear my IX Glossopharm geal X Vagus XI Spinal Accessory XII ngoglossal in E ai OW 5t N am c maxmm Emu agti ESTlEJHS at Allinx 95 EX M l rge tum tly Hum the EliMN l ptl tel ltt39T r39I itquot that it llLil u will l39l mutut and itt tizu avgtemx ul the llL dtl rant Wautllolngist Not tll aw HWle i will sinrwwli lte1mg chewing face amp mouth touch amp pain te controls most facial expressions secreti taste hearing equillibrium sensation taste somatosense from the tongue fau Eustachian tube senses carotid blood pressure senses aortic blood pressure slows heart rate stimulates digestive organs taste controls trapezius amp sternocleidomastoi controls swallowing movements controls tongue movements nila i to limitquot t39nlm tiuu 39It39u39li mix l39llllrll mm COM D 42 5 0 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review TF 1 Mylohyoid muscle is superior to Geniohyoid muscle Answer False 2 Subglottal Pressure refers to the air pressure measured above the vocal folds Answer False 3 Size and shape ofvertebrae change as they move from Cervical Vertebrae to Lumbar Vertebra Answer True 4 Spinous Process ofvertebrae is lateral to Transverse Process Answer False 5 Sternum is anterior to vertebrae Answer True 6 Infants have greater number of respiratory cycles per minute compared to adults Answer True 7 Muscular process is the point where the vocal cords are attached to the Arytenoids Cartilage Answer False 8 Intrapleural Pressure is always positive Answer False 9 Hyoglossus muscle forms the oor of oral cavity Answer False 10 Cuneiform Cartilage may be found ion Aryepiglottic folds immediately medial to Corniculate Cartilage Answer False The three planes of reference we use in human anatomy include The largest unit of muscle tissue we talked abut in class is the COM D 42 5 0 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review Thyroid Cartilage is located superior to Cricoid Cartilage Answer True Pars Recta is lateral to Pars Oblique muscle Answer False Posterior 25 portion ofvocal fold margin is membranous Answer False F0 ofa speaker with 8mslongperiod is 125 Hz Answer True and The plane that separates the dorsal from the ventral section of the body below the neck is called the plane the plane that separates the body along the medi lateral dimension is called the and the plane that separates the body into upper and lower sections is called the Answer Coronal Sagittal Transverse Coronal Sagittal Transverse What does it mean to say that one structure is superficial to another Answer superficial means quotcloser to the surface and is held together by a nonmusclar casing called epimesium The smaller unit of muscle tissue that holds a group of muscle fibers together is called a fascicle And it is held together by a casing called Answer Belly Myofibrils Answer the following about the figure below A is lateraldextral to B C is inferiorcaudal to D Answer Myofibrils are made up of discontinuous lengths ofprotein filaments called and What is a basic unit of muscle contraction And what is the name of COM D 42 5 0 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review the theory that describes this action Answer Actin Myosin Sarcomores Sliding Filament Theory 20 Muscles typically have two points of attachment and the point that is more fixed is called the and the other point the When two or more muscle cause the same movement those muscles are called and when one muscle produces a movement in the opposite direction of another one the first muscle is called the If a muscle s contraction involves a force change with no change in the muscle length it is called an contraction if there is a change of muscle length when force is created it is called a contraction Answer Origin Insertion Synergist Antagonist iso 21 What is a motor unit Answer 22 Answer the following questions about some of the non muscular tissue that is important in the respiratory system The ribs attach to the sternum by means of the and dorsally the ribs attach to the Answer Cartilaginous Vertebrae 23 Explain about medial compression Answer Force between vocal folds 24 Identify Clavical Scapula Sternum Vertebrae ColumnLumbar Ilium Ischium 25 In 23 sentences state what the Boyle s Law explains Answer Inverse relationship between pressure and volume 26 The layer of the vocal fold that is most stiffis the the vocal ligament includes 2 layers of the vocal fold and The layers of the vocal fold that are said to be part of the cover are and the layer that corresponds to the body is the Answer Deep Intermediate Vocalis B and C The E 27 Three adductors of vocal folds include A l Answer Mylohyoid Stylohyoid Hyoid Bone COM D 42 5 0 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review 28 Identify the view amp Epiglottis Thyroid Cartilage Interarytenoid Transverse Arytenoid Cricoid Cartilage 29 Explain brie y about the anatomical and functional differences between intrinsic and extrinsic muscles oflarynx Answer Intrinsic io housed within the larynxvocal folds mechanism tensing abducting adducting Extrinsic io outside the larynx moves larynx as one structure 30 Identify the names oflaryngeal spaces A space between vocal folds and ventricular folds B space bt vocal folds C space between the tongue root and epiglottis Answer Ventricle 31 Draw a superior view of the larynx and indicate a vocal folds b muscular process c vocal process and d anterior commissure Answer draw circle with triangle inside bottom corners right and left side point of triangle is anterior commissure 32 List amp Explain Volume Inspiration Expiration Answer a reserve volume b tidal volume c inspiratory capacity d residual volume e vital capacity 33 List the 3 forces working for passive expiration Answer Torque Elasticity Gravity 1a Coronoid Process is antpost to Condylar Process COM D 42 5 0 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review Answer anterior 1b Levator Labii Superioris is mediallateral to Levator Labii Superioris Alaque Nasi Answer lateral 1c Zygomatic Minor is mediallateral to Zygomatic Major Answer medial 1d For nasal sound production the Velopharyngeal port is openclose by elevatingdepressing soft palate Answer open depressing 1e Teeth in the upper arch are usually largersmaller than those in the lower arch Answer larger 1f Cribriform Plates run mediallateral to Crista Galli Answer lateral 1g Risorius is found super cialdeep to Buccinators Answer super cial 2 The muscle that comprises Anterior Faucial Pillar is while the one that comprises P Answer Palatalglosses Palatalfreigiious 3 Identify Parietal Frontal Temporal Sphenoid Ethmoid Occipital lobes 4 List the four intrinsic muscles of the tongue Among these four muscles pulls the tip of the tongue downward and also assists in retraction of the tongue muscle depresses of the tongue Answer Superior Longitudinal Inferior Longitudinal Transverse Vertical Inferior Longitudinal 5 Facial muscles and assist in retraction of the lips as well as entrapment 6 7 8 9 1O U39l COM D 42 5 0 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review ofair within the oral cavity Answer Buccinator Risorius Inferior pharyngeal constrictor is composed of muscle upper and muscle lower Between these two muscle forms the ori ce of the esophagus Answer Thyropharyngeous Cricopharyngeus Cricopharyngeus Identify inferior view of Maxilla Intermaxialla Suture Transverse Palatine Premaxillary Suture Incisve Foramen where a Cleft Lip occurs Premaxillary Suture and where a Cleft Palate occurs Intermaxialla Suture is the dividing plate between the two nasal cavities This structure is made up of two osseous elements and Answer Nasal Septum Vomer Perpendicular Plate of Ethmoid bone Hard palate is consisted of plate of bone posteriorly and process of anteriorly Answer Horizontal Palatine Palatine Maxilla Identify Lambdoidal Suture Sagittal Suture Coronal Suture Squamosal Suture Identify Levator Levi Palatine above hamulus Tensor Veli Palatini runs under Hamulus Musculus Uvula Hamulus Nasal Choncae Identify Buccinator Obicularis Oris Mentalis DepressorAnguli Oris Depressor Labii Inferioris Zygomatic Major Zygomatic Minor Levator Anguli Oris Levator Labii Superioris Muscles of velum can be grouped into elevators and depressors depending on their functions two elevator muscles include and and two depressor muscles include and Answer Veli Palatini Musculus Uvulae Palatoglossus Palatopharyngeus Identify Chondyla Process Styloid Process Mastoid Process External Auditory Meaditus The structure of a tooth Neck is the juncture between and The thin layer of bone that is covering the lower part of a tooth below gingival is COM D 42 5 0 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review called Answer Crown Root Cementum 16 Explain about SourceFilter Theory in 23 sentencesbe briefand accurate Answer It s a theory of speech production Vocal folds vibration source for voice sound s is source for voiceless fricative z is source for voiced fricative The product of speech output is a combination of source and filter 17 The oral cavity extends from the in front to the in the back pharyngeal cavity is divided into the following three parts Answer Lips Posterior Faucial Pillar Oropharynx Nasopharynx Laryngopharynx 18 Identify Median Raphe midline of roof Palatine Tonsils between two arches Median Surcus midline on the tongue 19 If a tooth is rotated or twisted on its long axis it is described as if it tilts toward the lip it is referred to as whereas tilting toward the tongue it is called Figure A below shows an example of tooth whereas Figure B demonstrates an example of tooth Answer Torsoverted Labioverted Linguaverted lnfraverted Mesioverted UM itvrlfll i i39 ilil rm lfquot1r l vl l llw i wwllll JEi What you should know Be able to tell about VIEWS of anatomic figures Remember how to describe locationrelation between anatomical structures using various terminologies Anatomical structures bonesmuscles of respirationphonationarticulation auditory system Be ready to explain 5 layers of vocal folds from outside to inside Know the landmarks ofvocal folds where those are anchored and which other structures are surrounding them Be ready to explain briefly about some physiologic terminologies eg Bernoulli effect tonotopic arrangement sourcefilter theory coarticulation COMD 4250 Anatomy amp Physiology of Speech amp Hearing Final Exam Review Be able to 1 identify the location of muscles and 2 group the muscles based on their functions Be ready to specify the function of each lobe of cerebrum Know about the brainstem Know about the several cavities along the vocal tract Understand the way to localize sound in space Know the main function of cranial nerves especially ones that are involved in speech language mastication and hearing mechanisms 0 O O O 0 Know more details about Hearing System including Membranes Cochlear Functions ofeach ear Bones amp muscles Semicircular canals function The format is basically the same with the midterm tests Mostly filling out the blank with 12 words including identification of anatomical structures however there are 4 short essays answers you have to write 13 sentences Also about 27 points for circle one or truefalse type questions Some sample test questions What kind ofview of the sphenoid bone is shown immediately below Identify the anatomical structures AG of following gure In 23 sentences state what the tonotopic arrangement means Be ready to answer questions using some ofthe figuresgraphs we discussed in class