PHONETICS COMD 4150
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COMD 4150 Final Exam SG Pt 1 1232011 92500 PM Terms o Vowel Reduction 0 Sounds are changed 0 Full form of a vowel produced in citation from of word may be reduced toward mid central vowels Examples n Telephone 39tslsf0zsne39tslaf0zsn OR 39tslifOUn n Tomorrow tu 39 maroU eta 39 marOU n Decide di 39SaId eda 39SQId OR di39Scud n Domestic do 39 mEStIk9C3 39mss tIk OR di39mss bk 0 Similar process when base morpheme of a word changes stress pattern with addition of morphemes Examples n Impose 1m 39 3062 n Imposition 1m pa 3921fan Transform traens39 form n transformation traensfa 39 me1fan n 1 Demon 39 dimen demonic d3 39mamk di39mamk Geometry d3i 39amstri geometric dgia 39 mstnk Metabolism me Ito39Eb BI 12 am Metabolic mate 39 ballk Lecture 94 o Unstressed Syllable Deletion 0 Sounds are eliminated o Omission of an unstressed syllable when preceding or following a stressed syllable o Syllables are either stressed or unstressed In quottelephonequot and quottidyingquot the second syllable is quotweakquot or unstressed In this phonological process weak syllables are omitted when the child says the word Examples 1 Telephone 0 It 839 f 06 n Camera 39k ampmamp3 some say39k aemere a 39kaemra Laboratory 39I ab 3 at ori a 39ampbratori Jeffery 39 dgsf ari a I d3 fri1 n Lecture 92 o Elision o Elimination of speech sounds o Often in Consonant Cluster Reduction 0 Opp Of epinthesis adding syllables to a word 0 Examples Aptly n 39aeptli 39aepli Fifths n 39fIfGS 39fIfS Glands u glaendZJ glaenZ Cup of coffee a kep ev 39 kofi kepe 39 kofi Lecture 93 o Epinthesis 0 Addition of sounds to intended phonemes o Coarticulation Movement from one sound to another goes through the space for a third sound Creates glides between vowels n Examples o Leo o 39 lice9f IijOzs 0 Ohio o 06 39 hQIOUeOU 39 ha106 o Going o 39 gOUIU 939 g06WIr Creates stops between nasals and fricatives n Examples 0 Tense tEnS 9 1381135 Lengths er9 a IEUkGS 0 Amsterdam 39aemstadaem 9 39aempsta daem 0 Lecture 95 Retroflex curl tongue tip up and back start with l Bunching tongue tip to bottom front teeth and blade up toward hard palate Sonorants o VowelLike 0 Wide opening allows full vocal tract resonance 0 Differences with vowels Quicker movement of articulators Can produce noise with greater air pressure Obstruents o Airflow is obstructed somewhere in vocal tract 0 Resonating cavity is primarily in front of the constriction most of the time o Turbulent air flow causes high frequency noise m Bilabial Stops p and b Alveolar Stops t and d Velar Stops k and g Stop Gap Silent period Vocal tract closed Stop Release Narrow spike of energy time 0 O O O O but it is spread over wide frequency 0 Aspiration Period of noise as air rushes through opening constriction 0 Voice Bar Low frequency noise from phonation during voiced stops away 5300 4000 l e l i h 3000 i a i i EH 2000 r l39 Im n 1000 um w 0 405 msec 0 Each stripe on spectrogram represents one cycle of phonation with greatest intensity at opening and trailing off in between Dicuycleuf onemn Elosmll Vibration of air H above vocal folds Suprasegmentals Aspects of speech production that span across speech sound segments phonemes Supra larger than Span words phrases sentences Stress o Stressed syllable is louder longer higher in pitch better articulated 0 Effects span the segments in the syllable o Intonation Pattern 0 Falling v rising vocal pitch contour o Modification of vocal pitch fundamental frequency of vocal fold openingclosing Falling from higher to lower a Neutral emotion Statement of fact The dog ran away a Lecture 1 13 Frequency of phonation falls from higher to lower across the statement 0f Phonatlon Frequency ofPhonation u Syllable stress added to the Intonation contour u Lecture 114 Frequency of phonalion increased for slresse syllable quotdogquot Intensity ol pllonation increased for stresse syllable quotdogquot a Wh Question forms When will you leave a Lectuer 115 s q i 41 Frequency of phonation falls from higher to w nquot39 lower across quot 39 the WH l ctV question l x When will yr u leave l r 7 MENSle 0f Phona ol Frequency of Phonation a Typical syllable stress on last syllable of utterance u Lecture 116 Rising from lower to higher a Yesno questions Is it time yet a Lecture 117 lPhnnlgtC l i2 5 EU g s E E i e u 0 r5 3 BED USUU 0600 MEI 1m l mm o 400 D Eon ml 0 Eur mm u39sm a Tag questions That39s bill isnt it Lecture 118 mm 39 i a 2m s E 50 I f g n g f 39 s quot i 39e r wquot E 50 ma w i a39 1 ilsucl 50quot i 0 mi 05110 1 mm all gl l an 200 EU a i f U 3 i E m M W sell a son i um um new I rm I a Listing the flag is red white and blue g E E E E g anm Mngnllulln m u u u 0 Lecture 119 W i Change in fundamental frequency that spans a meaningful utterance Simple Sentence The boys ate the candy Embedded sentences The boys who ate the candy got sick Intonational Phrases 0 Duration as Part of Voicing Voice Onset Time Duration between release of a stop and following vowel in CV syllable Short duration is categorized as Voiced Long duration is categorized as Voiceless o In stressed CV syllable will be aspirated phi thi khi u u u Syllable Stress Longer neutralized by word final 39I a a louder Higher pitch 3 0 Lecture 103 4 0 Lecture 107 13 Stressed vs Unstressed Phonological Processes o Syllable Structure Processes Simplify more complex words toward a word with small number of CV syllables Until age 4 0 Weak Syllable Deletion Deletion of an unstressed syllable Lecture 1313 Examples a tomato 9 metou a telephone 9tEfOUl a banana 9 I naena Final Consonant Deletion n Until 36 years n Deletion of an unstressed syllable n Lecture 1315 a Examples o cat 9 kamp c Knife 9 Hal Duck 9 do Reduplication n Until 26 years a Production of a word as a repetition of one CV syllable o used as a step toward using final consonants dad 0 Example Dahdah 9 dd full Dahdee 9 partial o used as a step toward using unstressed syllables 0 Example banana9 naenae o Some are used as forms of words that adults use to teach idea of using words mama papa o Lecture 1316 Consonant Cluster Reduction n Sounds are eliminated a Production of CCV VCC CCCV VCCC syllable shapes with fewer consonants Usually the earlier developed phoneme remains Until 4years u when 2 or 3 consonants occur in a sequence in a word a Lecture 1317 a Examples o brush 9 hot o plane 9 pe1 blue 9 be lu Substitution Processes Substitute one class of sounds for another based on a feature change 0 Stopping Fricative or affricate 9 stop a Substitution of stop for a fricative or affricate n Usually the same place and voicing Until 45 years Lecture 1319 Examples a shovel 9 It AWOU a thumb 9 dAm o Fronting Velar or palatal 9 alveolar a Production of a velar or palatal as an alveolar n k9t ng9d n n9n nf9s U392 Utf9ts U d39dz until 3 years 0 Deaffrication Affricate 9 fricative n produce an affricate as a fricative Examples n Chicken939SIkI or 39fIkI nJudge93A3 or ZAZ o Gliding Prevocalic liquid 9 glide a production of liquid l or r as glide w j until 5 or 6 Lecture 1322 Examples n Rabbit9 wamp 39b 1t 0 Vocalization postvocalic liquid 9 vowel a production of liquid l or r as vowel at end of syllable until 5 or 6 Lecture 1323 Examples n Rabbit9 Wamp 39b It o Assimilation Proccesses 0 Change the production of a phoneme to be more like its environment Alters at least one feature place manner voicing Sometimes changes the phoneme Sometimes creates an allophone Described by Direction of Effect Progressive or Anticipatory Assimilation change is made a phoneme that anticipates a later phoneme O O O O n Vowel Nasaliza rion o Vowels before a nasal are nasalized o A progressive or anticipatory effect speaker is anticipating that the next sound is nasal while producing the vowel o Speaker lowers the slow velum during production of the vowel to be sure that it is down for the nasal consonant o Lecture 122 o Examples 0 On 1n vs om of Regressive or Carryover Assimilation change is made in a phoneme that continues the influence of a prior phoneme o Pala39lal Assimilation A nonpalatal sound is produced as a palatal because there is a palatal sound in the word Lecture 123 Examples n misyou 39mI SjU vs mishyou 39m1 fU o Labial Assimilation A nonlabial sound is produced with a labial place because there is a labial sound in the word Lecture 1245 Examples n fumf71m n battub39bamp6tab o Alveolar Assimilation A nonalveolar sound is produced with an alveolar place because there is an alveolar sound in the word Lecture 126 Examples n tehyehhhht 39teIJ st n karrh 39khar39 3921 o Velar Assimilation A nonvelar sound is produced with an velar place because there is a velar sound in the word Lecture 127 Examples n gwihing gWiIU n rahit HUN 0 Voicing Assimilation Prevocaic Voicing n A voiceless consonant is produced as voiced at the beginning of a syllable n Explained as assimilation of the vowel s voicing n OR Lack of control of long VOT n Lecture 128 n Examples Dumb dAm buhbone 39 bAbOUn Postvocaic Devoicing n A voiced consonant is produced as voiceless at the end of a syllable n Explained as assimilation of the silence of the pause a OR opening of vocal folds to inhale n Lecture 129 n Examples Edge sdtf Phonological Process View of Development o All phonological processes result in syllables similar to babbling o baba mama dada o CVCV shapes Delete Final Consonants Reduce Consonant Clusters Reduplication o b d m Labialization Fronting Stopping o Suppression of Phonological Processes o Allows for development 0 Of more complex syllables Deletion of Final Consonants creates VC and CVC syllables Cluster Reduction creates CCV VCC CCVCC etc blue ax brand CCVC brush clean stop 0 Of more consonants Stopping b d add v z Prevocalic voicing b d adds p t f s 2 25 years 9 300 500 words Grammatical Morpheme Development Affects Morphemes Syllables and Fhonemes Z Allophones Features o Morphemes 18 months 24 months 36 months 48 months 60 months About 175 0 00000 Phonological Development Grammatical 2 3 years 335 years 4 Morphemes v ing In on plurals possessive s copula quotthequot regular past Ving increases number ofsyllables demands final consonant Plural possessive 3 d person verb 5 demand nal consonants clusters like cats dogs Regular past demands nal consonant clusters Plural s possessive 5 3m person demand development of s and Copula quotarequot demands Vr quotthequot demands development of develop fricative class develop af 39icate class 20 words 200 300 words 900 1000 words 1500 1600 2100 2200 words per day Phoneme Development Ages at which 75 of the children girls correctly produce a sound in CV and CVC syllable shapes p b t d kg 3 12 yr m n W i f s h p b t d kg 4 12 yr m n w l j 6 f v h tldz p b t d k g m n I w l j e f fv 5 Z I h tl dS 6 Standard American English Formal Standard English 0 Does not contain regional characteristics 0 Written form of American English 0 Taught in English classes as a written standard 0 Also used as network news standard Informal Standard English 0 Standard is your own dialect 0 You judge others by how far they deviate from your language form 0 HoweverUS does have a form of standard English used by Lawyers to write and interpret legal issues stops nasals approx fricatives affricates stops nasals approx fricatives affricates stops nasals approx fricatives affricates Dialect 0 Variations in o Syntax o Vocabulary o Phonology o Influenced by 0 Region 0 Culture 0 Ethnicity 0 Social Class 0 Becomes problematic when there is overlap between the disordered evelopment and the forms used in a dialect o Phonological Processes represent developmental tendencies 0 Different languages suppressed more or fewer processes eg Japanese maintained Final Consonant Deletion That tendency will appear in spoken English influenced by Japanese One Dialectical llLllap D quot39 quot l i UPPER mnwssrznu wzsvrnu South gt COASYAL souman lt souxcss Kunllv ms hqu iasv mm a mum um mm was Cuch 1w hbov 1w General American NEW ENGLAND 39 NEWVORK 5 West quotmum Upper Midwest Great Lakes Midland COASTAL soum nu u mn in un Nam Southern new uvPER HIDWESTERN Emuno NEW YORK warran South COASYAI SOUTHERN SOURCE wa 9l9v1llnnu 1955 Kumha mama ml mdy lesionquot 19sz m7 Southern V General Diphtlmng Monophthung faIr gt fazr b31 bDXl faul gt fail Derhotization of vowels delete postrvocalic r faIr faa had gt bAd fl uzsr 9 flauwa Tensing ofx amp to i e1 fIJ39 dIf gt fiJ39 diJ before D 39tresa 39treIga before gJ39 3 Relaxing i to I before I 39rili 9 39rIIi Production of unstressed aas iin word nal syllable 39p1d3sn 9 39pId3in Raising of e to I before n pen gt pm Incomplete quotMerry Mary marriesquot merger 2r eIr aer er 39 mzri 39 meIri mariz 9 39mEri 39mEri 39 mariz 0 Lecture 1918 19 o AAE African American English Consonant Characteristics of AAE Syllable Structure Processes Weak Syllable Deletion quotbecausequot 9 kAZ Word Final Stop and Nasal Deletion Especially in clusters 135189 dfs Delete or Vocalize r quotthroughquot 0 quotmorequot moe SubstitutionAssimilation Stop voiced fricatives before nasal isnt quott39l lO quotevenquot 9 ibm Stopping of e 6 this 9 115 Labialization of e bin middle or end ofword ruth 9 ruf l 9 n in quotingquot hanging 9 l12e111n Metathesis of sstop in some words quotaskquot 9 2eks Devoicing of final stops bad 9 baet Lecture 1923 28 Picture Articulation Approach to Child Phonoloav Testina o Organize responses by sounds in initial mediaI final word positions or by phonological processes 0 40 cutoff Minimal Competence Core 0 all typically developing speakers in a given age range within a linguistic community share a basic set of observable communicative skills despite their individual variability 39 MCC Phonology 39 Set ofwordinitial consonants and consonant clusters Avoids the final consonant and final consonant cluster deletions Avoids the particular phoneme substitutions Previous Study Stockman 1996 obServed that all 7 AA childrenwho were typically developing at 3 years ofage accurately produced 15 bt dkg f shWjl r in their conversational speech These children were distinguished from an 8th child with known speech and language delay Passing Rate for a new Core 0 13 initial consonants mn pbtdkg wj fshexcudeandr o Consonant cluster use 2 1232011 92500 PM 1232011 92500 PM