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by: Javonte Nolan


Javonte Nolan
GPA 3.83

A. Cohen

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A. Cohen
Class Notes
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Javonte Nolan on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2000 at Louisiana State University taught by A. Cohen in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/222933/psyc-2000-louisiana-state-university in Psychlogy at Louisiana State University.


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Date Created: 10/13/15
Ch 5 Outline Learning experience or practice Classical Conditioning 0 quot 1 l m salivation u a r cmm w mug Learning to make a re ex response to a stimulus other than he original natural stimulus that normally produces the re ex Involuntary o What are the four components of classical conditioning o M p 5 an involuntary response to a natural occurring or unconditioned stimulus Example saw food your stomach would growl or you heard a screech and you would jump 0 1mm 39lm 39 quot J 2 A naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary response Means unlearned or naturally occurring Example the food or the loud screech o Julr39w irenquot v Leamed re ex response to a conditioned stimulus Example inching o mm 39 mllum that with repetition produces a learned re ex response by being paired with the original unconditioned stimulus Means learned Example whatever word I use with squirting face with water o rm 1 amp in m The repeated pairing ofthe CS and the UCS the organism is in the process of acquiring learning process of learning o M 1 71w n f m Lllwvl mum l r 39 d l tn nw LH39im urinal CS must come before the UCS The CS and UCS must come very close together in time 7 ideally only several seconds apart The neutral stimulus must be paired with the UCS several times often many times before conditioning can take place 0 7 STU conditioned you eat something and associate it with getting sick e and nausea with only one of few pairings due to the survival value of the learning such as tast h or absence ofthe unconditioned stimulus M ad I r u learned response after extinction has occurred Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior ma emotional response that has become classically cur to lea1ned stimuli May lead to phobias u 1 351 jquot o What are some of the theories of classical conditioning o lll lllwll t ul i 39 quot original theory occurs because the conditioned stimulus becomes a substitute for the unconditioned stimulus by being paired closely together iquot gym r v w w a occurs because the conditioned stimulus provides information or expectancy about the coming of the unconditioned stimulus Operant Conditioning O o A m w r L m vr lw The learning of voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences to responses f h rm39w ldm 39z ml allquot ML if a response is followed by a pleasurable consequence it WILL tend to be repeated If aresponse is followed by an unpleasant consequence it generally NOT is repeated is naturally reinforcing by meeting a basic biological need rst or touch o o encing of a o v 2 v mm H the reinforcement ofa response by a removal escape from or voidance of an unpleasant stimulus Headache and taking aspirin 0 munWhirlquot139 A y event or object that when following a response makes that response less likely to happen again quot e V t i w Severe punishment may cause avoidance of the punisher instead of the behavior being punished Severe punishment may encourage lying to avoid punishment May also create fear and anxiety mi the punishment of a response by the addition or f an unpleasant stimulus Spanking follow the behavior it is meant to punish Sh behavior should be paired whenever possible with reinforcement of the right behavior Maw 37 The reinforcement of simple steps that leads to a desired complex behavior Behavior modi cation 0 w is l w r m The use of operant condition techniques to bring about red changes in behavior 0 Tunequot a 1 15le 239 types of behavior modi cation in which desired behavior is rewarde with tokens Like in school 0 39 a form of mild punishment by removal in which a misbehaving animal child or adult is placed in a special area away from the attention of others Cognitive Learning Theory 0 Who were the key gures in cognitive learning theory and what did they contribute o m trained three groups of rats to run the same maze Behavior psychologist I Rat experiment group 1 reinforced with food every time it made its way out Group 2 received no reinforcement for completing the maze for the rst 9 days but did on the 10m Group 3 did not receive any reinforcement at any point during the experiment You don t have to be rewarded for something even if there is no reward ex Rat group2 I Latent leaming learning can occur without reinforcement and then later effect behavior 7 worked at a primate research lab in the Canaries during WW1 I Chimp studies set up problems for his champanzees Reaching a banana outside of the enclosure beyond arms reach Bananas that were too high they put up a box to reach it I Insight the sudden perception of relationships among various parts of a problem allowing the solution to the problem to come quickly r started a classical conditioning experiment on dogs Trying study escape and avoidance learning I Dog experiment I Learned helplessness the tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a history of repeated failures in the past i v Learning new behavior by watching a model perform that behavior Animals and humans both use this to learn Model could be mom or dad 3x V V Neurons in the frontal lobe that re both when we perform an action and when we observe others doing the action They neurons may enable imitation W and empathy 0 Who was Albert Bandura A pioneer in the research of observational learning O O Bobo Doll EXperiments indicated that individuals learn through observing others Leamingperformance distinction Learning can take place without actual performance of the learned behavior Learning occurred just by watching the models actions Children learned whether model was rewarded or punished Observational Learning What are the four elements of observational learning 0 O 0 Attention to learn anything through observation the learner must first pay attention to the model Memory the learner must also be able to retain the memory of what was done Imitation the learner must be capable of reproducing or imitating the actions of the model Motivation nally the learner must have the desire to perform the action What is social learning theory Bandura s Theory for which observational learning is the central feature People mainly learn social behaviors through observation and cognitive processing of information rather than through direct experience Ch 3 Lecture Outline Sensation and Perception o What is sensation The activation of receptors in the various sense organs ears eyes nose skin taste buds O specialized forms of neurons the cells that make up the system 39 conversion of outside stimuli into a neural signal in the brain D the smallest difference between 2 stimuli that is detectable 50 percent of the time gr the smallest amount of energy needed for a person to consciously detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time it is percent 0 i hill till Lil d m al 1quotL rj gw lL aim v 1 MD the level of conscious awareness Just strong enough to activate the sensory receptors but not strong enough for people to be consciously aware of them Does not work in advertisin nervous L l lt 39zl mu 1 33 1 l m LLJ attention is directed elsewhere you are not Above absolute threshold Example engrossed in a book yet someone is calling your name and after 6 times you saywhhaaaa ml mi 3 A nding to cons the wave actually is The high the wave the brighter the light will be 0 it is determined by the length of the wave Long wavelengths are found at the red end of the wavelength the portion that is humanly visible 5 U WI 1 refers to the purity of the color people see mixing in black or gray would lessen the saturation What are the structures of the eye 7 A final stop for light in the eye Three layers ganglion bipolar photoreceptors cells that respond to various light waves Photoreceptors l adapted for vision in dim light adapted for color vision daytime vision and detailed vision require a lot of light J u 7 vast majority of cones are in here Very precise very clear vision What are some visual disorders 0 Lens de cits 39m it develops as we age Decreased exibility of the lens and therefore inability to focus on nearby objects 0 Eye shape de cits a can focus well on nearby objects but difficulty with distant objects Eyeballs are elongated I can focus well on distant objects but not so well on close objects Eyeballs are attened Glaucoma increased pressure in the eyeball which can lead to optic nerve damage and the loss of peripheral vision tunnel vision 0 What is the blind spot in the eye 0 How does the information from our eyes become images we understand and process 0 What are the theories of color vision 0 Trichromatic theory theory of color vision that proposes three types of cones yellow red blue Afterimages when a visual sensation persists for a brief time even after the original stimulus is removed 0 Opponent process theory we perceive color not in terms of independent colors but in terms of a system of paired opposites Red vs Green Yellow vs blue White vs black u x 0 What is color blindness and what are the different types Hi cm 4 1inquotlI h will is a person s eyes either have no cones or have cones that are Ears w 4 quot Vibrations of molecules in the air or another medium 0 Amplitude interpreted as volume how soft or loud a sound is o Wavelength interpreted as frequency of pitch high medium low 0 PurityTimbre a richness in the tone of the sound 0 How do we measure sound waves 0 Hertz cycles of waves per second a measurement of frequency Humans have limited range between 20 Hz 7 20000 Hz Greatest sensitivy 7 20004000 Hz 0 Decibels a unit of measure for loudness o What are the various different structures inthe ear 0 Outer Ear pinna auditory canal 0 Middle Ear stapes 0 Inner Ear cochlea basilar membrane organ of corti Cochlea o What are the different theories of pitch Pitch corresponds to the frequency of the sound waves the higher the frequency the higher the pitch 0 Place theory the stimulation of hair cells in different locations in the organ of corti 0 Frequency theory related to the speed of vibrations in the basilar membrane 0 The basilar membrane vibrates unevelnly when the frequency is above 1000 H27 place theory 0 Neurons associated with the hair cells fire as fast as the basilar membrane vibrates up to 1000 Hz What are the two ways in which a person can be hearing impaired and how can we help people who are hearing impaired Conduction hearing impairment can result from damaged eardrum damaged stapes Nerve hearing impairment can result from damage in the inner ear damage in the auditory pathways Taste 0 What is gustation Taste buds Taste receptor cells in mouth 0 What are taste buds Where are they located What are their properties and structures 0 Papillae tastes buds like the walls of these come in two different sizes Smaller and more numerous ones are touch sensitive and rough They help chew and move food Larger one contains the taste buds o What are the basic tastes humans can experience Sweet sour salty bitter brothy or umami Smell o What is olfaction Sense of smell There are at least 1000 olfactory receptors 0 What are olfactory bulbs Somesthetic o What are the somesthetic senses The body senses consisting of the skin senses the kinesthetic sense and the vestibular sense 0 Cutaneous senses skin senses pressure warmth cold pain vibration movement and stretch Some places receptors are densely packed ngertips and lips I Sensory receptors I Phantom limbs o Kinesthetic sense sense of the location of body parts in relation to the ground and each other 0 Vestibular sense the direction of tilt and amount of acceleration of the head and the position of the head with respect to gravity Plays a key role in posture and balance imotion sickness Perception What is perception The method by which the sensations experienced at any given moment are interpreted by what you see What are some of the constancies in perception 0 Size shape brightness What are some of the gestalt principles 0 Figureforeground the tendency to perceive objects or figures as existing on a background 0 Reversible figuresvisual illusion in which the figure and ground can be reversed o Similarity proximity closure continuity common region contiguity the tendency to perceive two things that happen close together in time as being related o What is depth perception and how are we able to perceive it The ability to see the world in three dimensions 0 O Monocular cuespictorial depth cues cues for perceiving depth based on one eye only Linear perspective the tendency for parallel lines to appear to converge on each other Relative size when objects that a person expects to be of a certain size appear to be small they are assumed to be farther away interposition an object that appears to be blocking part of another object is in front of the second object and closer to the viewer Aerial perspective a haziness that surrounds objects that are farther away from the viewer causing the distance to be perceived as greater Texture gradient textured surfaces to appear to become smaller and finer as distance increases Motion parallax close objects appear to move more quickly than objects farther away Convergence the rotation of the two eyes in their sockets to focus on a single object resulting in greater convergence for closer objects and lesser convergence if objects are distant I Accommodation Binocular cues Binocular Disparity the difference in images between the two eyes which is greater for objects that are close and smaller for distant objects 0 What are some of the perceptual illusions we experience 0 Herman Grid MullerLyer Illusion Moon Illusionthe moon on the horizon appears to be larger than the moon in the sky Illusion of Motion rotating snakes due in part to eye movement Phi phenomenon lights turned on in a sequence appear to move etc o What factors can in uence perception O O O Perceptual set tendency to perceive things a certain way because previous experiences or expectations in uence their perception Topdown processing the use of preexisting knowledge to organize individual features into a unified whole Bottomup processing the analysis of the smaller features to build up to a complete perception Ch 4 Lecture 1 and 2 Consciousness Sleep Dreams and Hypnosis What is consciousness and what creatures experience it The awareness of complex private processes such as perception thinking and remembering o Waking consciousnessyour thoughts feelings and sensations are clear and organized You feel alert 0 Altered state of consciousnessthoughts may be fuzzy and disorganized taking bizarre turns You may feel less alert of more alert What are some examples of altered state of consciousness Divided consciousness daydreaming sleep hypnosis meditation drugs Divided talking on a cell phone while driving but don t remember drive Attending to one thing while other part is focused on something else Daydreaming in your own little world Sleep What is sleep 0 Biological rhythms o Infradian occur over a period of time greater than 24 hours Menstrual cycle28 days 0 Ultradian occur more than once within a 24 hour cycle Most are confined to either day or night like eating during the day 3 times a day 0 Circadian variation occurs in roughly a 24hour period sleepwake cycle What happens when we go without sleep 0 Microsleeps brief periods of sleep lasting for a matter of seconds 0 Sleep Deprivation symptoms trembling hands inattention staring off into space droopy eyelids general discomfort depression and irritability How does sleep change as we age Why do we sleep 0 Restorative Theory of Sleep we sleep for health reasons 0 The Adaptive Theory of Sleep sleep is a product of evolution What processesmechanisms play a role in sleep 0 SCN measures light and at what time of the day to go to sleep 0 Hypothalamus I Melatoninreleased when your body has a lot of light when on a phone or laptop or TV you don t receive a lot of light because it is blue light so it suppresses melatonin and makes you not sleep I Serotonin 39 Body temperaturewhen low you are least aware and probably sleeping During day it is at its highest when you are most aware What are the stages of sleep How can we determine what stage of sleep a person is in 0 Types of sleep REMrapid eye movement NonREM O 4 stages of NonREM and one stage of REM Electroencephalograph to nd out stage of sleep Betahigh fast frequency alpha theta delta The stages of sleep 0 O 0 Stage 1 Light sleep hypnogogic images or hallucinations hypnic jerk 0 Delta waves stage 3 and 4 o What occurs during REM sleep Final stage after stage 4 a person experiences stage 3 and 2 again and then REM sleep What happens dreams REM paralysis REM rebound o What are some sleep disorders Nightmares REM behavior disorder sleep walking night terrors insomnia sleep apnea narcolepsy hypersomnia sleeprelated eating disorder 0 What is jet lag A period of discomfort and inefficiency while your internal clock is out of phase with your new surroundings Generally easier to adjust if going west 0 Why do we dream 0 Freudian Theory two layers to a dream Manifestwhat occurs in a dream and latentwhat the dream means Activationsynthesis hypothesis 0 O Lucid dreaming able to control your dream Hypnosis o What is hypnosis and what isn t it l The hypnotist tells the person to focus on what is being said 2 The person is told to relax and feel tired 3 The hypnotist tells the person to let go and accept suggestions easily 4 The person is told to use vivid imagination n H degree to which a person is a good hypnotic subject o What are some of the theories of hypnosis H n It only works on the immediate conscious mind A part of the mind is still aware of what is going on 7 People who are hypnotized are merely playing their expected role eve if they do not know it Meditation o What is meditationAmethod of inducing a calm relaxed state through the use of special techniques One of several ways to relax Drugs 0 What are psychoactive drugs and some types of them Drugs that alter thinking perception and memory Stimulants depressants opiates o What is dependence 0 Physical I Tolerance more and more of the drug is needed to achieve the same effect I Withdrawal physical symptoms that can include nausea pain tremors crankiness and high blood pressure resulting from a lack of an addictive drug in the body system Psychological dependence the feeling that a drug is needed to continue a feeling of emotional or psychological wellbeing Example cocaine Addiction is the continued use of a mood altering substance or behavior despite adverse consequences What are stimulants and some examples Drugs that increase the functioning of the nervous system 0 O O O Amphetamines drugs that are synthesized made in labs rather than found in nature Cocaine natural drug produces euphoria energy power and pleasure Nicotine active ingredient in tobacco Caffeine the stimulant found in coffee tea most sodas chocolate and even many overthecounter drugs What are depressants and some examples Drugs that decrease the functioning of the nervous system 0 OOO Barbiturates depressant drugs that have a sedative effect Benzodiazepines drugs that lower anxiety and reduce stress Rohypnol the date rape drug Alcohol the chemical resulting from fermentation or distillation of various kinds of vegetable matter Often taken for a stimulant alcohol is actually a depressant on the CNS What are opiates and some examples 0 O O Narcotics suppress the sensation of pain by binding to and stimulating the nervous system s natural receptor sites for endorphins A class of opiumrelated drugs Opium substance derived from the opium poppy from which all narcotic drugs are derived Morphine narcotic drug derived from opium used to treat severe pain Heroin derived from opium that is extremely addictive What are hallucinogens and some examples Hallucinogens drugs that cause false sensory messages altering the perception of reality Psychogenic drugs produce hallucinations or increased feelings of relaxing and intoxication O O LSD synthetic acid PCP angle dust synthesized drug used as an animal tranquilizer Can cause stimulant depressant narcotic or hallucinogenic effects Stimulatory hallucinogenics mixture of psychomotor stimulant and hallucinogenic effects 0000 O MDMA Ecstasy or X can have both stimulant and hallucinatory effects Mescaline natural hallucinogen derived from peyote and cactus buttons Psilocybin natural hallucinogen found in certain mushrooms Marijuana mild hallucinogen derived from the leaves and owers of a particular type of hemp plant Cannabis is reported to relieve pain in cases of multiple sclerosis and chronic pain from nerve damage


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