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by: Javonte Nolan


Javonte Nolan
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M. Erwin

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M. Erwin
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This 172 page Class Notes was uploaded by Javonte Nolan on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2070 at Louisiana State University taught by M. Erwin in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/222936/psyc-2070-louisiana-state-university in Psychlogy at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
Life Span Davelopment Twelfth Editim l 0 CHAPTER 3 PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT AND BIRTH 2009 1 hr lvl PramHill nmpunicm Inc H rights reserved Prenatal Development 0 Conception occurs when a single sperm cell from the male unites with an ovum egg Prenatal development is divided into 3 periods and lasts approximately 266280 days cm Germinal period rst 2 weeks after conception zygote created to Embryonic period occurs from 2 to 8 weeks after conception cm Fetal period begins 2 months after conception and lasts until birth 0200quot T he lcllraWllill Companies Inc 11 rights reserved Prenatal Development 0 Germinal Period period of development that takes place the rst two weeks after conception o Rapid cell division by the zygote o Blastocyst group of cells after about 1 week to Trophoblast outer layer of cells that later provides nutrition and support for the embryo to Implantation attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall occurs 10 to 14 days after conception 0200quot T he lvllraWllill Companies Inc 11 rights reserved female egg chromosome material unite Fertilization usually occurs in upperthird of tube within 24 hours after ovulation li Single egg cell from ovary is drawn into fallopian tube at 9716 days of new menstrual cycle Prenatal Development a bilowli llicf 64128icells a blastoeystl 9 4 5 days inner cell mass formed blastocyst Fallopian tube still free in uterus leading to uterus 10 6 7 days blastocyst attaching to wall of uterus Outer wall of uterus muscular 1111 15 days blastocvst invading into uterine wall and becoming Inner wall of uterus implanted in it glands and blood vessels Prenatal Development 0 Embryonic Period development from 2 to 8 weeks after conception to Begins when blastocyst attaches to uterine wall cm Mass of cells is now called an embryo 619 Three layers of cells endoderm mesoderm and ectoderm o Amnion a bag that contains a clear uid amniotic uid in which the embryo oats Umbilical Cord connects the baby to the placenta Placenta group of tissues containing mother and baby s intertwined blood vessels Organogenesis process of organ formation during the rst two months of prenatal development 02009 The N lvl yraWl lill umpanicsl Inc ll rights reserved Prenatal Development Cho on yUterus H r 7 Urnblllcal Umbilical Ve39quot l cord U4 I 39 l i A X X villus Umbilical arteries Fetal portion Maternal portion of lacenta of lacenta Prenatal Development 0 Fetal Period development from two months after conception to birth o Rapid growth and change to Viability the age at which a fetus has a chance of surviving outside the womb Currently 24 weeks changes with advances in medical technology 0200quot T he lvllraWllill Companies Inc 11 rights reserved Prenatal Development 0 The Brain 19 Babies have approximately 100 billion neurons nerve cells at birth Architecture of the brain takes shape during the rst two trimesters Increases in connectivity and functioning occur from the third trimester to 2 years of age do Neural tube develops 18 to 24 days after conception Anencephaly Spinabi da 0200quot T he lcllraWllill Companies Inc 11 rights reserved Prenatal Development 0 The Brain o Neurogenesis the generation of new neurons Begins at fth prenatal week and continues throughout prenatal period ID Neuronal migration cells move outward from their point of origin to their appropriate locations Occurs approximately 6 to 24 weeks after conception 0200quot T he lcllraWllill Companies Inc 11 rights reserved Hazards to Prenatal Development 0 Teratogen any agent that can cause a birth defect or negatively alter cognitive and behavioral outcomes Drugs prescription nonprescription Incompatible blood types Environmental pollutants Nutritional de ciencies Maternal stress o o o o Infectious diseases 19 an to Advanced age of parent 0200quot T he lcllraWllill Companies Inc 11 rights reserved Hazards to Prenatal Development 0 Severity of damage to the unborn depends on o Dose 5 Genetic susceptibility o Time of exposure Critical period a xed time period during which certain experiences or events can have a longlasting effect on development 0200quot T he lcllraWllill Companies Inc 11 rights reserved Hazards t0 Prenatal Development Orgnnugunuis gt Period oi dividing Embryonic period weeks Fetal period weaks Full lsrm lygoke Implanla an and embtvo weeks 39 V 5 7 8 9 1D Common slle of ac on of etalogen Brain ens nervous sysxam Ear ngole mplanled Exlamal genilalia I b 5 ocvst Caml nmus sym39am 39 HEquot J Gmales sansi vixy lo teratugens Lass sensilivily lo aralogens although sxill potentially signi cant mummy Hazards to Prenatal Development 0 Prescription and Non prescription Drugs to Many women are given drugs While pregnant Some are safe some can cause devastating birth defects 19 Known prescription teratogens include antibiotics some antidepressants some hormones and Accutane o Nonprescription teratogens include aspirin and diet pills 020039 T he lcllraWllill Companies Inc 11 rights reserved Hazards to Prenatal Development 0 Psychoactive Drugs drugs that act on the nervous system to alter states of consciousness modify perceptions and change moods 9 Includes caffeine alcohol nicotine Caffeine o small risk of miscarriage and low birth weight for those consuming more than 150 mg daily to Increased risk of fetal death for those consuming more than 300 mg daily to FDA recommends not consuming caffeine or consuming it sparingly 020039 T he lcllraWllill Companies Inc 11 rights reserved Hazards to Prenatal Development 0 Alcohol o Fetal alcohol syndrome abnormalities in newborn due to mother s heavy use of alcohol in pregnancy Facial deformities Defective limbs face heart 39 Most have belowaverage intelligence some are mentally retarded 2009 The McGrawl lill Companies Inc ll rights reserved Hazards to Prenatal Development 19 Even light to moderate drinking during pregnancy has been associated with negative effects on the fetus GD FDA recommends no alcohol consumption during pregnancy 62008 The Mchw l ill Tompamies Inc All rights reserved Hazards to Prenatal Development Nicotine Maternal smoking can negatively in uence prenatal development birth and postnatal development 22009 The Mchwl ill Companies Inc 11 n ghts reserved Hazards to Prenatal Development 0 Nicotine o Associated with Preterm births and low birth weight Fetal and neonatal death Respiratory problems SIDS sudden infant death syndrome ADHD attention de cit hyperactivity disorder 12008 The McCraWHill 41mp4mics Inc Ml rights reserved Hazards to Prenatal Development 0 Illegal drugs that harm during pregnancy at Cocaine o Methamphetamine o Marijuana o Heroin Incompatible blood types Rh factor o Can cause mother s immune system to produce antibodies that will attack the fetus 0200quot T he lcllraWllill Companies Inc 11 rights reserved Hazards to Prenatal Development 0 Environmental hazards o Radiation B Environmental pollutants and toxic wastes Maternal Diseases 9 Sexually transmitted diseases syphilis genital herpes AIDS o Rubella o Diabetes 0200quot T he lvllraWllill Companies Inc 11 rights reserved Hazards to Prenatal Development 0 Maternal factors in Maternal diet and nutrition to Maternal age to Emotional states and stress Paternal factors do Exposure to teratogens o Paternal age 0200quot T he lvllraWllill Companies Inc 11 rights reserved Prenatal Care 0 Prenatal care typically includes 19 Screening for manageable conditions and treatable diseases o Medical care 19 Educational social and nutritional services Centering Pregnancy relationshipcentered program Importance of prenatal care 0200quot T he lcllraWllill Companies Inc 11 rights reserved Percentage of US Women Using Timely Prenatal Care 1990 to 2004 Percentage 39 Af I Non39Ltln0 Ame ga Launo Wh1te n women The Birth Process Three stages of birth do Stage 1 uterine contractions begin at 15 to 20 minutes apart and last up to 1 minute becoming closer and more intense with time Causes the cervix to stretch and open to about 10 cm This stage lasts an average of 12 to 14 hours a Stage 2 baby s head begins to move through dilated cervix opening and eventually emerges from the mother s body This stage lasts approximately 45 minutes in Stage 3 umbilical cord placenta and other membranes are detached and expelled a erbirth 0200quot T he lcllraWllill Companies Inc M rights reserved The Birth Process 0 Childbirth Setting and Attendants o 99 of deliveries take place in hospitals 19 Home delivery or freestanding birth center 9 Compared to doctors midwives Typically spend more time than doctors counseling and educating patients Provide more emotional support Are typically present during the entire labor and delivery process 9 Doulas provide continuous physical emotional and educational support for mother before during and after childbirth 020039 T he lcllraWHill Companies Inc M rights reserved Methods of Childbirth Key choices involve use of medication and when to have a cesarean delivery Typical pain medication on Analgesia pain relief to Anesthesia blocks sensation in an area of the body can also block consciousness Epidural block 19 Oxytocics synthetic hormones used to stimulate contractions 020091119 lcllraWllill Companies Inc 11 rights reserved Methods of Childbirth 0 Natural childbirth aims to reduce pain by decreasing fear and using breathingrelaxation techniques Prepared childbirth Lamaze special breathing techniques education about anatomy and physiology 9 Basic belief is that when information and support are provided women know how to give birth 020091119 lcllraWllill Companies Inc 11 rights reserved Methods of Childbirth O Other natural techniques used to reduce pain to Waterbirth giving birth in a tub of warm water a Massage o Acupuncture insertion of very ne needles into speci c locations in the body to Hypnosis the induction of a psychological state of altered attention and awareness to Music therapy utilizes music to reduce stress and manage pain 020091119 lcllraWllill Companies Inc 11 rights reserved Methods of Childbirth O Cesarean Delivery the baby is removed from the mother s uterus through an incision made in the abdomen 9 Often used if baby is in breech position or other complications arise E Cesareans involve a higher infection rate longer hospital stays and a longer recovery time db Rate of cesarean births has increased dramatically in recent years Better identification of complications Increase in overweight and obese mothers Extra caution by doctors to avoid lawsuits 020091119 lcllraWllill Companies Inc 11 rights reserved Transition from Fetus to Newborn 0 Birth process is stressful for baby m Anoxia a condition in which the fetus has an insuf cient supply of oxygen cm Baby secretes adrenaline and noradrenalin hormones that are secreted in stressful circumstances Measuring neonatal health and responsiveness m Apgar Scale assessed at 1 minute and 5 minutes after birth evaluates heart rate body color muscle tone respiratory effort and re ex irritability 10 is highest 3 or below indicates an emergency 0200quot T he lcllraWHill Companies Inc M rights reserved Transitien from Fetus t0 Newborn s than p39gr minute Respiratory No breathing for Irregular and slow Good breathing effort more than one minute with normal crying Muscle tone Limp and flaccid Weak inactive but Strong active some fiexion of mot on extremities Blue and pale Body ink but Entire body pink extremlties blue anm 12009 The MC yrawl lil Cumpanics Inc 11 n39ghis reserved Transition from Fetus to Newborn 0 Measuring neonatal health and responsiveness co Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale gNBASg Typically performed within 24 36 hours after birth Assesses newborn s neurological development re exes and reactions to people and objects Low scores can indicate brain damage or other difficulties to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale gNNNS 2 Provides a more comprehensive analysis of newborn s behavior neurological and stress responses and regulatory capacities Assesses the atrisk infant 0200quot T he lvllraWllill Companies Inc 11 rights reserved Preterm and Low Birth Weight Infants 0 Preterm and SmallforDate Infants ID Low birth weight infants weigh less than 5 12 lbs at birth 9 Average is 6575 pounds 69 Preterm infants are those born three weeks or more before full term37 weeks o Smallfordate infants are those whose birth weight is below normal when the length of the pregnancy is considered Rate of preterm births has increased to Number of births to mothers 35 years and older CD Rates of multiple births 619 Management of maternal and fetal conditions or Substance abuse D Stress 0200quot T he lcl yraWHil Companies Inc M rights reserved Preterm and Low Birth Weight Infants 0 Causes of low birth weight to Poor health and nutrition o Cigarette smoking o Adolescent births o Use of drugs 10 Multiple birthsreproductive technology to Improved technology and prenatal care 0200quot T he lcllraWllill Companies Inc 11 rights reserved Preterm and Low Birth Weight Infants 0 Possible consequences 19 CID CID GD Language development delays Lower IQ scores Brain injury Lung or liver diseases More behavioral problems Learning disabilities ADHD Breathing problems asthma Approximately 50 are enrolled in special education programs 0200quot T he lcllraWHil Companies Inc M rights reserved Preterm and Low Birth Weight Infants 0 Some effects can be improved with 19 Early speech therapy o Intensive enrichment programs o Kangaroo care massage therapy and breast feeding Kangaroo Care treatment for preterm infants that involves skin to skin contact Massage research conducted by Tiffany Field 0200quot T he lcllraWllil Companies Inc 11 rights reserved Preterm and LOW Birth Weight Infants FIGURE 223 Small miracles Shown here is a the smallest newborn ever to survive and h the same child at 14 years at age Born in l589 after just 27 weeks at gestation Madeline weighed a mere 99 ounces approximately the equivalent at three bars at soap Extremely low hinhweight inlants tend to su er serious disabilities but Madeline is remarkath healthy other than being a hit small for her age and having asthma she recently entered high school as an honor student and enjoys playing her violin amt rollerblading wrwnn lrnumm Preterm and LOW Birth Weight Infants Males quot Females 30 O T O C O U q 030 0340 93 5020 0G x 3 00 a C O C E 22 27 33 36 3742 weeks weeks weeks Pre term Full term 39139vale le yrawl lil urnpaniml Inc 11 rights reserved The Postpartum Period 0 Postpartum period lasts about 39siX weeks or until the mother s body has completed its adjustment and has returned to a nearly prepregnant state Physical Adjustments 9 Fatigue 19 Hormone changes to Return to menstruation ID Involution process by which the uterus returns to its pre pregnant size 5 6 weeks after birth to Weight lossreturn to exercise 0200quot T he lcl yraWHil Companies Inc 11 rights reserved The Postpartum Period 0 Emotional and Psychological Adjustments o Emotional uctuations are common 919 Baby Blues experienced by 70 of new mothers in the US Typically resolves in 1 2 weeks without treatment an Postpartum Depression Excessive sadness anxiety and despair that lasts for two weeks or longer Experienced by 10 of new mothers Hormonal changes after birth may play a role May affect mother child interactions 0200quot T he lcllraWllill Companies Inc ll rights reserved Percentage of US Women Who Experience Postpartum Blues and Postpartum Depression Postpartum blues symptoms appear 2 to 3 days after dellvery and subs1de w1th1n 1 to 2 weeks 39 Postpartu depression symptoms lin er fOr weeks or months an interfere with daily functioning The Postpartum Period 0 A Father s Adjustment to Many fathers feel that the baby gets all of the mother s attention o Parents should set aside time to be together 19 Father s reaction is improved if he has taken childbirth classes and is an active participant in the baby s care 0200quot T he lcllraWllill Companies Inc 11 rights reserved Bonding the formation of a connection especially a physical bond between parents and the newborn in the period shortly after birth cm Isolation of premature babies and use of drugs in birth process may harm bonding process in Bonding may be a critical component in the child s development However close contact in the first few days may not be necessary 19 Most hospitals offer a roomingin arrangement while mother and child are in the hospital 0200quot T he lcllraWllill Companies Inc M rights reserved ESSEPIHALS 3F UFESDAR DEVEUDDMENT Chapter 1 SANTPOCK Introduction to Lifespan Development PowerPoints developed bx Jenni Fauchier Metropolitan Community ollege Omaha 02008 The MoGraw Hill Companies Inc The Lifespan Perspective Development the pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the human life span each of us develops partly like all other individuals partly like some other individuals partly like no other individuals 02008 The MoGraw Hill Companies Inc Characteristics of the LifeSpan Perspective Learning about ourselves and others development involves growth but it also includes decline Traditional approach emphasizes extensive change from birth to adolescence little or no change in adulthood and decline in old age Lifespan approach emphasizes developmental change throughout adulthood as well as cthhood 02008 The MoGraw Hill Companies Inc Life Span versus Life Expectancy Human Life Span Based on the oldest age documented 122 years 619 Maximum life span of humans has not changed since the beginning of recorded history to Life Expectancy the average number of years that a person born in a particular year can expect to live Life expectancy increased by 30 years in the 20th century c 2008 The MoGraw Hill Companies Inc Specks Maximum L a Spill Average Lila common name lyers Time Period Expectancy years Human 2006 USA I 19544 USA Gal pegos turtle 1 91 5 USA Indlan elephant 1900 USA 19m century England Chinese alligator 2 any a 1620 Massachusetts y Colony Geld n Gurilla enmmnn toad Middle Ages Domes c cat England Damestlc dog Vampire bat Ancient Greece House mouse Prehismric limes c 2008 The McGrawHill Companies Inc More Characteristics of the LifeSpan Perspective Lifespan perspective views development as Lifelong Multidimensional Multidirectional Plastic Multidisciplinary Contextual Baltes 1987 2003 Baltes Lindenberger amp Staudinger 2006 02008 The McGraw Hill Companies Inc Contexts Three Types of Influences Normative Agegraded Influences Normative Historygraded Influences Nonnormative or Highly Individualized Life Events Baltes 2003 02008 The McGraw Hill Companies Inc Contemporary Concerns Health and WellBeing Parenting and Education Sociocultural Contexts and Diversity ethnicity socioeconomic status SES gender 02008 The McGraw Hill Companies Inc Social Policy A government s course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens values economicspoverty politics children the elderly 02008 The McGraw Hill Companies Inc The Nature Of Development Bioloqical processes produce changes in an individual s physical nature Coqnitive processes refer to changes in the individual s thought intelligence and language Socioemotional processes involve changes in the individual s relationships with other people changes in emotions and changes in personality c 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies Inc Biological Cognitive and Socioemotional Processes lnextricably intertwined Bidirectional lnfluence developmental periods variations in the capabilities of individuals of the same age agerelated changes 02008 The MoGraw Hill Companies Inc Periods of Development Developmental period refers to a time frame in a person s life that is characterized by certain features prenatal period conception to birth infancy birth to 18 or 24 months early childhood end of infancy to age 5 or 6 middle and late childhood 6 to 11 years of age c 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies Inc Periods of development continued adolescence transition from childhood to early adulthood approximately 10 to 12 to 18 to 22 years of age early adulthood late teens or early twenties through the thirties middle adulthood approximately 40 to about 60 years of age late adulthood sixties or seventies and lasts until death c 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies Inc Focus on Adult Development Life span developmentalists who focus on adult development and aging increasingly describe lifespan development in terms of four ages first age childhood and adolescence second age prime adulthood 20 50s third age approximately 60 to 79 years fourth age approximately 80 years and older Baltes 2006 Willis amp Schaie 2006 c 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies Inc Conceptualizing Age Chronological age number of years since birth Biological age age in terms of biological hea h Psychological age individual s adaptive capacities Social age society s age expectations c 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies Inc NatureNurture Issue Nature refers to an organism s biological inheritance Nurture to its environmental experiences Which has the greatest influence and how do the two interact identicalfraternal twins identical has something that controls genetics if there is a difference it cant be genetic without proper stimulation you will never reach your potential but if you have already reached your full potential stimulation wont do anything 135 is gifted 50 is mental retardation if both children had the same stimulation then they should have both increased their iq score but that didnt happen nature gives us a range of possibility and nurture decides where we will fall among that range 02008 The McGraw Hill Companies Inc StabilityChange Issue Stability is the result of heredity and possibly early experiences in life Plasticity the potential for change exists throughout the life span To what degree do early traits and characteristics persist through life or how much do they change child with marshmallow example c 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies Inc Continuity and Discontinuity Continuity gradual cumulative change quantitative Discontinuity distinct stages qualitative ls change in development gradual or abrupt cognitive development information processing model we think about things in qualitatively different ways conservationnthe ability to understand that if something changes shape it is still the same amount qualitative change piagets centrationfocus on only one thing at a time heightshape in the juice video piaget believes that at a higher stage people have reversibility 02008 The MoGraw Hill Companies Inc Most lifespan developmentalists acknowledge that development is not all nature or all nurture not all stability or all change and not all continuity or all discontinuity Nature and nurture stability and change continuity and discontinuity characterize development throughout the human life span Gottlieb 2007 Rutter 2007 c 2008 The MoGraw Hill Companies Inc Scientific Method Tool to understand or answer questions about development Four step process Conceptualize a process or problem to be studied literature reviewsee if it has already been done Collect research information data Analyze data Draw conclusions 02008 The McGraw Hill Companies Inc Conceptualizing the Problem Draw on theories A theory is an interrelated coherent set of ideas that helps to explain phenomena and make predictions Develop hypotheses Hypotheses are specific assertions and predictions that can be tested measure aggression by blood pressure violent behavior c 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies Inc Theories of Development Psychoanalytic Theory CID unconscious forces behavior is motivated by emotion and by unresolved conflicts from the past Cognitive Theory Behavioral and Social Theory Ethological Theory Ecological Theory Eclectic Theoretical Orientation c 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies Inc Psychoanalytic Theory Primarily unconscious beyond awareness and heavily colored by emotion Understanding of development requires analyzing the symbolic meanings of behavior and the deep inner workings of the mind 02008 The MoGraw Hill Companies no Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud s theory behavior and problems are the result of experiences early in life mainly first 5 years adult personality resolution of conflicts between sources of pleasure at each stage and the demands of reality Erik Erikson s Psychosocial Theory primary motivation for human behavior is social and reflects a desire to affiliate with other people developmental change occurs throughout the life span 02008 The MoGraw Hill Companies Inc Freud s Psychosexual Stages rpnsm se39xual ju mm nd a xv L mm m w my c2008The McGraWerH Compames nc Erikson s Psychosocial Stages mulupmml r ad H mm m mm IEny ch d nod tpgncnum yumg 3 ms mm unim u o mm c 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies Inc Cognitive Theory Emphasis on conscious thoughts Three important cognitive theories Piaget s cognitive developmental theory Vygotsky s sociocultural cognitive theory lnformationprocessing theory KNOW DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PIAGET AND WGOTSKY39S THEORIES c 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies Inc Piaget s Cognitive Developmental Theory Children go through four stages of cognitive development Processes underlie this cognitive construction of the world organization adaptation Each stage is agerelated and consists of a distinct way of thinking a qualitatively different way of understanding c 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies Inc Piaget s Cognitive Stages n my all 1 Eum ea 1 mm M Aw V5 w u 1w 7 re 1mm nIAgn Throuandquund c 2008 The McGrawHill Companies Inc Vygotsky s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory Emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development Cognitive development involves learning to use the inventions of society such as language mathematical systems and memory strategies c 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies Inc The InformationProcessing Theory Emphasis on ways that individuals manipulate information monitor it and strategize about it lndividuals develop a gradually increasing capacity for processing information which allows them to acquire increasingly complex knowledge and skills Munakata 2006 Reed 2007 c 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies Inc Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories Behaviorism we can study scientifically only what can be directly observed and measured Two versions of behaviorism BF Skinner s operant conditioning Albert Bandura s social cognitive theory c 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies Inc Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theo es Skinner s Operant Conditioning consequences of a behavior produce changes in the probability of the behavior s occurrence rewards and punishments shape development Bandura s Social Cognitive Theory holds that behavior environment and cognition are the key factors in development observational learning also called imitation or modeling people cognitively represent the behavior of others and then sometimes adopt this behavior themselves c 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies Inc Behaviur Fersnm Envimnment nitiyg 02008 The McGraw Hill Companies Inc Ethological Theory Ethology stresses Behavior is strongly influenced by biology lt is tied to evolution Characterized by critical or sensitive periods Noted ethologists Konrad Lorenz John Bowlby similar to eriksons but looks at attachment to caregiver more c 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies Inc Ecological Theory Emphasis on environmental factors Noted ecological theories Bronfenbrenner s ecological theory Iooks at how development is embedded in our culture theory identifies five environmental systems microsystemdirect interaction with these people mesosysteminteration between all elements in the microsystemparent teacher conference exosystemincudes family friends or neighbors macrosystem nationality or the money that you have should girls go to school culture and chronosystembased on the element of time in historical contextteen pregnancy today vs then and on how long it has been since the event happened parents dying affects you differently if it happened yesterday vs 5 years ago 02008 The MoGraw Hill Companies Inc Madcrnlsysgem d an Ogles nf es an the White Exalystsrn Neighbnrlmn gmup play area Chronosvstem Pa erning of environmental events and transmons over the curse sociohistorical condition since life Evan s c 2008 The McGrawHill Companies Inc Eclectic Theoretical Orientation No single theory described in this chapter can explain entirely the rich complexity of lifespan development but each has contributed to our understanding of development 02008 The McGraw Hill Companies Inc Research in LifeSpan Development Application of scientific method Methods for collecting data observationwatch children play or adults interact laboratory observationset up a time in a lab to observe people naturalistic observationgo to a school or mall and observe people asking questions survey and interviewnot always reliable because people lie standardized testing case studystudying a person along their entire life physiological measures c 2008 The MoGraw Hill Companies Inc Research Designs Descriptive research observe and record behavior tells us what but doesnt tell us why or allow us to predict Correlational research describe the strength of the relationship between two or more events or characteristics lets us make a prediction Experiment regulated procedure in which one or more factors are manipulated while all other factors are held constant 2 groupscontroltreatment and study how they react bobo do experiment o 2008 The MoGraw Hill Companies Inc Variables Experiments include two types of changeable factors independent variable manipulated influential experimental factor a potential cause dependent variable can change in response to changes in the independent variable resulting effect c 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies Inc Experimental and Control Groups Experimental group is a group whose experience is manipulated A control group is a comparison group As much like the experimental group as possible which is treated in every way like the experimental group except for the manipulated factor independent variable Control group serves as a baseline against which the effects of the manipulated condition can be compared c 2008 The McGraw Hill Companies Inc Time Span of Research Crosssectional approach is a research strategy that simultaneously compares individuals of different ages advantage is collecting all of the data right now 20 years olds and 40 year olds Longitudinal approach is a research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time usually several years or more problem is people may move away or drop out of the study could be very experiment cohort effects sequential approach look at differences over a short period of time 02008 The McGraw Hill Companies Inc Research Ethics Rights of participant Responsibilities of researchers APA s guidelines address four important issues Informed consent Confidentiality Debriefing Deception 02008 The McGraw Hill Companies Inc LifeSpan Development Twelfth Edition Chapter 4 Physical Development in Infancy 2009The McGravvHillCompanies ncA rights reserved Patterns of Growth Patterns of Growth 39 Cephalocaudal Pattern sequence in which the earliest growth always occurs from the top downward iAlso applies to gains in motor development Proximodistal Pattern sequence in which growth starts in the center of the body and moves toward the extremities 2009The lVchravvllillCompanies Inc All rights reserved Patterns of Growth Height and Weight 39 Average North American newborn is 20 inches long and 7 12 pounds 95 of fullterm newborns are 1822 inches long and weigh between 5 12 and 10 lbs Newborns lose 57 of their body weight in the first few days of life They typically gain 5 6 ounces per week during the first month Weight usually triples by their 1St birthday i Newborns gain approximately 1 inch per month during the first year anGrowth slows considerably during the 2nOI year 2009The IVchrawllillCompanies Inc All rights reserved NI39 Wi H III39I r googThe MCGraWHill Companies Inc All rights reServed Patterns of Growth The Brain I Brain continues developing past infancy rShaken Baby Syndrome brain swelling and hemorrhaging from child abuse trauma Brain imaging technologies cannot typically be used with babies w EEGs show regular spurts in the brain s electrical activity an Spurts may coincide with important changes in cognitive development At birth the brain is 25 of its adult weight at 2 years of age it is 75 of its adult weight w The brain does not mature uniformly 2009The lVchrawllillCompanies Inc All rights reserved Patterns of Growth Forebrain portion of the brain farthest from the spinal cord includes cerebral cortex Cerebral Cortex folded surface covering the forebrain l Cerebral cortex is divided into 2 hemispheres each with 4 lobes in Frontal lobe voluntary movement thinking personality and intentionality m Occipital lobe vision functions m Temporal lobe hearing language processing and memory m Parietal lobe spatial location attention and motor control 2009The lVchravvllillCompanies Inc All rights reserved Patterns of Growth Lateralization specialization of function in one hemisphere of the cerebral cortex or the other Some functions are lateralized some are not i Complex functions involve communication between both hemispheres 2009The lVchravvllillCompanies Inc All rights reserved Ero39hta l 7 quotP a39r i 39t ai 7 Temporal 2009The McGravvHillCompanies ncA rights reserved Patterns of Growth Neurons brain nerve cells that communicate through electrical and chemical signals v Axons carry signals away from the cell body Dendrites carry signals toward the cell body Myein sheath is a layer of fat cells that insulate axons w Helps electrical signals travel faster Terminal buttons release chemicals neurotransmitters into synapses Synapses tiny gaps between neurons 2009The lVchrawllillCompanies Inc All rights reserved zn WKI39U Ri g mfm manna Nndmm u lquot 39 Amn 2 V J I Jw39mrnm C ilOulgomg quotmarmaan I L31 Myelin Smear To ranrat neumn 2009The McGrawHillCompanies Inc All rights reserved Patterns of Growth Changes in Neurons W Myelination the process of encasing axons with fat cells Begins prenatally and continues into adolescence 39 Connectivity among neurons increases as New dendrites grow Connections among dendrites increase a Synaptic connections increase More synaptic connections are created than will ever be used quot Leads to a pruning of unused connections 2009The lVchravvllillCompanies Inc All rights reserved 24 months 15 months 3 months r googThe MCGraWHiill Companies Inc All rights resarved 1 month 2 quot amp 1quot At birth 0 Changes in regions 0f the brain Biooming and pruning of synapses varies by brain region CE Pace of myelination varies as well 2009The McGraWHillCompanies ncAl rights reserved Patterns of Growth Depressed brain activity has been found in children who grow up in a deprived environment Enriched environments promote faster brain development than deprived ones After birth sights sounds smells touches language and eye contact help shape the brain s neural connections Repeated experience wires and rewires the brain Brain is both flexible and resilient 2009The lVchravvllillCompanies Inc All rights reserved Pa tems 0f Gmwm 2009The IVchrawHillCompanies lncA rights reserved Typical newborns sleep 1617 hours per day Infants vary in their preferred times for sleeping Most have moved closer to adult like sleep patterns by 4 months of age Factors involved in night waking LIDaytime crying and fussing Distress when separated from mother 1 Breast feeding Cosleeping 2009The lVchravvllillCompanies Inc All rights reserved Cultural variations influence infant sleeping patterns Babies average much more REM sleep than do older children or adults 39 REM sleep may provide infants with added self stimulation REM sleep may also promote brain development We do not know whether infants dream or not 2009The lVchrawllillCompanies Inc All rights reserved lHIll TH I 7 7 w 71 7 7 7 i 4 h H 3L 1 3 4 ru A n l A 39 11 7 Liqudv up 97quot 2009The McGraWHillCompanieS ncAl rights reserved Sleep The practice of shared sleeping in which a newborn shares a bed with mother varies among cultures Potential benefits Promotes breast feeding and a quicker response to crying Allows mother to detect potentially dangerous breathing pauses in baby American Academy of Pediatrics discourages shared sleeping 39 Increases risk of injury rolling over baby and SIDS 2009The lVchrawllillCompanies Inc All rights reserved SIDS Sudden Infant Death Syndrome infants stop breathing and die without apparent cause Highest cause of infant death in US annually Highest risk is 24 months of age Risk decreases when infant sleeps on its back and when a pacifier is used 2009The lVchrawllillCompanies Inc All rights reserved Other risk factors associated with SIDS wSiinngs who died from SIDS Sleep apnea or low birth weight I Infants passively exposed to cigarette smoke Being from lower SES or being African American or Eskimo infants placed in soft bedding Ilnfants with abnormal brain stem functioning involving serotonin 2009The lVchrawllillCompanies Inc All rights reserved Nutrition Experts recommend that infants consume 50 calories per day for each pound they weigh US parents typically do not feed infants enough fruits and vegetables By 15 months French fries are the most common vegetable eaten Increasing rates of ovenveight and obese infants 7 Other factors m Mother s weight gain during pregnancy and prepregnancy weight w Breast feeding vs bottle feeding 2009The lVchravvllillCompanies Inc All rights reserved Percentage overweight 39 198081981 2000 2001 0 59 61 19 ASEwhimjfzx WeJ 2009The McGraWHill Companies Inc All rights reServed Nutrition American Academy of Pediatrics strongly endorses breast feeding throughout the first year Benefits for baby can include Fewer gastrointestinal and lower respiratory tract infections 39 Potentially decreased risk of asthma Less likely to become ovenNeight or obese Less incidence of diabetes Less likely to experience SIDS 2009The lVchrawllillCompanies Inc All rights reserved Nutrition Benefits for mother can include wLower incidence of breast and ovarian cancer Lower incidence of Type 2 diabetes Breast feeding does not WHHelp mother return to prepregnancy weight Guard against osteoporosis Decrease likelihood of experiencing postpartum depression 2009The lVchrawllillCompanies Inc All rights reserved Nutrition Women less likely to breast feed vMothers who work full time outside of the home Mothers under age 25 I Mothers without a high school education rAfricanAmerican mothers Mothers in lowincome circumstances 2009The lVchrawliillCompanies Inc All rights reserved Nutrition Mother should not breast feed if 2 She has AIDS or other infectious diseases that can be transmitted through milk I She has active tuberculosis 7 She is taking a drug that may not be safe for the infant No psychological differences have been found between breastfed and bottlefed infants Most breast vs bottlefeeding studies are correlational and do not imply causation 2009The lVchrawllillCompanies Inc All rights reserved Nutrition Malnutrition in Infancy 39Early weaning and inadequate sources of nutrients can cause malnutrition avMarasmus a severe proteincalorie deficiency I Results in a wasting away of body tissues 39erashiorkor a severe protein de ciency that causes the abdomen and feet to swell with water a Causes the vital organs to collect nutrients depriving other parts of the body Severe and lengthy malnutrition is detrimental to physical cognitive and social development 2009The lVchrawllillCompanies Inc All rights reserved lVlotor Development Dynamic Systems View 39 1 Infants assemble motor skills for perceiving and ac ng I Motor skills represent solutions to goals 1 Development is an active process in which nature and nurture work together m Development of nervous system m Body s physical properties and possibilities for movement m Goal the child is motivated to reach m Environmental support for the skill 2009The lVchrawllillCompanies Inc All rights reserved l vlotor evelopment Reflexes builtin reactions to stimuli generally carry survrval mechanisms Rooting Reflex when the infant s cheek is stroked the infant will turn its head to the side that was touched Jr39Moro Reflex automatic arching of back and wrapping of arms to center of body when startled AGrasping Reflex infant s hands close around anything that touches the palms Some reflexes continue throughout life others disappear several months after birth 2009The lVchrawllillCompanies Inc All rights reserved lVlotor Development r Gross Motor Skills skills that involve largemuscle actiVItIes Walking grabbing for objects Gross motor skills require postural control 39 Posture is a dynamic process linked with sensory information in the skin joints and muscles Infants can produce stepping movements needed for walking from a very early age Ihey lack the ability to stabilize balance on one leg at a me Infants learn what kinds of places and surfaces are safe for locomotion 2009The lVchravvllillCompanies Inc All rights reserved Walk alone easily Stand alone easin I Walk using furniture for support k in LIL Pull self to stand Stand with support Degree of motor development r 7 V rYi4 J Prone chest up use arms for support 4 5 6 7 8 9 1O 11 12 13 14 15 r googThe McGraWH ill Companies Inc All rights reServed lVlotor Development Development in the 2nol Year vToddIers become more skilled and mobile Motor activity is vital to the child s development of competence and independence By 1824 months toddlers can quoti Walk quickly or run stiffly a Balance on their feet in a squat position Walk backward Stand and kick a ball without falling n Jump in place 2009The lVchravvllillCompanies Inc All rights reserved lVlotor Development Cultural Variations mothers in developing countries tend to stimulate their infants motor skills more than mothers in more modern countries wlnfants can reach motor milestones slightly earlier if provided with physical guidance or given opportunities for exercise Even when activity is restricted many infants still reach milestones at a normal age 2009The lVchravvllillCompanies Inc All rights reserved lVlotor Development Fine Motor Skills involve finely tuned movements Reaching and grasping is a significant milestone for infants Palmer grasp grasping with the whole hand Pincer grip grasping with the thumb and forefinger Perceptualmotor coupling is necessary for infants to coordinate grasping r Experienced infants look at objects longer reach for them more and are more likely to mouth the objects 2009The lVchravvllillCompanies Inc All rights reserved Sensation and Perception Sensation occurs when information interacts with sensory receptors eyes ears tongue nostrils and skin Perception the interpretation of what is sensed Ecoloqical View we directly perceive information that exists in the world around us The perceptual system selects from the rich information provided by the environment Perception enables interaction with and adaptation to one s environment 2009The IVchrawllillCompanies Inc All rights reserved Sensation and Perception Affordances opportunities for interaction offered by objects that fit within our capabilities to perform activities What affordances can infants or children detect and use in Children become more efficient at discovering and using affordances through perceptual development 2009The lVchrawllillCompanies Inc All rights reserved Sensation and Perception Visual Preference Method infants look at different things for different lengths of time 39They look at preferred objects longer m decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations Dishabituation recovery of a habituated response after a change in stimulation 2009The lVchravvllillCompanies Inc All rights reserved Hnl itualicn H mlrilumimu M e r googThe MCGraWHill Companies Inc All rights reServed Sensation and Perception Habituation and Dishabituation Studies wHighamplitude sucking Orienting response 1 Tracking rVideotaping Recording heart rate respiration body movement sucking behavior visual fixation 2009The lVchrawliillCompanies Inc All rights reserved Visual Perception Newborn s vision is about 20600 an object 20 feet away appears as if it were 600 feet away By the age of 6 months vision is 20100 or better Vision approximates that of an adult by the infant s first birthday Infants show an interest in human faces soon after birth I The way they gather information about the visual world changes rapidly with age 2009The lVchravvllillCompanies Inc All rights reserved 2009The McGravv HillCompanies ncAl rights reserved flmontrhoidr Iii11 is h 2009The McGrawHillCompanies ncA rights reserved Visual Percelption Perceptual Constancv sensory stimulation is changing but perception of the physical world remains constant W Size Constancv recognition that an object remains the same even though the retinal image of the object changes a Babies as young as 3 months show size constancy w Continues to develop until 10 or 11 years old quotShape Constancv recognition that an object remains the same shape even though its orientation to us changes It 3montholds show shape constancy but not for irregularly shaped objects 2009The lVchravvllillCompanies Inc All rights reserved epth Perception Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk studied development of depth perception using a visual cliff infants 612 months old can distinguish depth Infants 24 months old show heart rate difference when placed on deep side of cliff infants develop binocular depth cues by about 3 4 months of age 2009The lVchravvllillCompanies Inc All rights reserved a 2009The McGrawHillCompanies Inc All rights reserved Other Senses Fetuses can hear and learn sounds during the last two months of pregnancy and can recognize their mother s voice at birth gt Newborns 39 Cannot hear soft sounds as well as adults Are less sensitive to pitch Are fairly good at determining the location of a sound 2009The lVchrawllillCompanies Inc All rights reserved Other Senses Touch and Pain newborns respond to touch and can feel pain Smell newborns can differentiate odors Preference for mother s smell by 6 days Taste sensitivity to taste may be present before birth 2009The McGrawllillCompanies Inc All rights reserved Intermodal Perception v Intermodal Perception the ability to integrate information from two or more sensory modalities W Babies are born with some innate abilities to perceive relations among senses W Their abilities improve considerably through expenence t Perceptual Motor Coupling action guides perception and perception guides action 2009The lVchravvllillCompanies Inc All rights reserved LifeSpan Development Twelfth Edition Chapter 6 Socioemotional Development in Infancy 2009 The McGrawHiil Companies Hm All rights reserved Emotions f Emotion feeling or affect that occurs when a person is in a state or an interaction that is important to him or her especially to his or her wellbeing in Biological and Environmental In uences Changes in baby s emotional capacities with age Development of certain brain regions plays a role in emotions Emotions are the rst language with which parents and infants communicate Social relationships provide the setting for the development of a variety of emotions 2009 The MchaWllill Companies Inc All rights reservecl Emotions Earlv Emotions Primary Emotions emotions that are present in humans and animals Appear in the rst 6 months SelfConscious Emotions require selfawareness that involves consciousness and a sense of me D Appear between 6 months and 2 years of age Ongoing debate about the onset of various complex emotions 2009 The McGraWllill Companies inc All rights reservecl Emotions Emotional expressions are involved in infants rst relatronshlps Positive interactions are described as reciprocal or synchronous Crying is the most important mechanism newborns have for communicating with their world Three types of cries lt3 Basic cry iv Anger cry Pain cry Two types of smiling Re exive smile Social smile 2009 The MchaWllill Companies Inc All rights reserved Emotions Fear is one of a baby s earliest emotions Appears at about 6 months peaks at about 18 months Stranger Anxiety occurs when an infant shows a fear and warmess of strangers Emerges gradually rst appearing at about 6 months of age Intensi es at about 9 months of age escalating past the 1st birthday Intensity of anxiety depends on Individual differences Familiarity of the setting Who the stranger is and how the stranger behaves 2009 The MchaWllill Companies Inc All rights reserved Emotions Separation Protest crying when the caregiver leaves 10039 Afrlcan Bushman Due to anxiety about CE 80 being separated from g Antiguan g o Guatemala the1r caregivers 5 5 5 3 Typrcally peaks at about g 4o months for a r Israeli kibbutzim Infants 3 207 Guatemalanrlndiah Cultural variations I I I I O 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Age months 2009 The McGraWllill Companies Inc All rights reserved Emotions Caregivers actions in uence the infant s neurobiological regulatlon of emotlons As caregivers soothe it reduces the level of stress hormones Swaddling 839 Infant gradually learns how to minimize the intensity of emotional reactions Selfsoothing Selfdistraction Language 2nd year Context can in uence emotional regulation How should caregivers respond 2009 The MchaWllill Companies Inc All rights reserved Temperament Temperament an individual s behavioral style and characteristic way of responding Chess and Thomas s Classi cation Easy child 40 Dif cult child 10 Slowtowarmup child 15 Unclassi ed 35 Kagan classi es children based on inhibition to the unfamiliar Shows stability from infancy to early childhood 2009 The McGraWllill Companies Inc All rights reserved Temperament Rothbart and Bates s Classi cation Extraversionsurgency Negative affectiVity Effortful control selfregulation a Highcontrol children have successful coping strategies Lowcontrol children are disruptive and intensely emotional 2009 The McGraWllill Companies Inc All rights reserved Temperament Kagan children inherit a physiology that biases them to have a particular type of temperament but this is modi able through experience Biological In uences Physiological characteristics have been linked with different temperaments Heredity has a moderate in uence on temperament differences Contemporary view temperament is a biologically based but evolving aspect of behavior 2009 The MchaWllill Companies Inc All rights reserved Temperament Gender and Cultural In uences Parents may react differently to an infant s temperament depending on gender Different cultures value different temperaments S Goodness of Fit the match between a child s temperament and the environmental demands the child must cope with 2009 The McGraWllill Companies Inc All rights reserved Personality Development Three central characteristics Trust Erikson believed the 1st year is characterized by trust vs mistrust Not completely resolved in the rst year of life Arises again at each successive stage of development Development of a sense of self a Occurs at approximately 18 months Independence through separation and individuation Erikson autonomy vs shame and doubt 2009 The McGraWllill Companies Inc All rights reserved Social Orientation FacetOfaCe play begins to characterize interactions at 2 to 3 months of age Infants begin to respond more positively to people than objects Stillface paradigm Frequency of facetoface play decreases after 7 months of age 3 Peer interactions increase considerably between 18 to 24 months of age Increased locomotion skills allow infants to explore and expand their social world 2009 The MchaWllill Companies Inc All rights reserved Social Orientation Perceiving people as engaging in intentional and goaldirected behavior occurs toward the end of the 1st year Joint attention and gaze following Social Referencing reading emotional cues in others to determine how to act in a particular situation Emerges by the end of the 1st year improves during the 2nd year 2009 The McGraWllill Companies Inc All rights reserved Attachment Attachment a close emotional bond between two people Theories of Attachment Freud infants become attached to the person that provides oral satisfaction Harlow contact comfort preferred over food Erikson trust arises from physical comfort and sensitive care Bowlby newborns are biologically equipped to elicit attachment behavior from caregivers 2009 The MchaWllill Companies Inc All rights reserved 24 18 12 Mean hours per day 39 v A I Infant monkey fed on cloth mother I Infant monkey fed on wire mother Hours per day spent with cloth mother Contact Time with Wire and Cloth Surrogate Mothers Hours per day spent with wire mother 15 T 1115 610 Age in days 1620 2125 2009 The NichawHill Companies int Ail rights reserved Attachment Four Phases Phase I birth to 2 months infants direct their attention to human gures Phase 2 2 to 7 months attachment becomes focused on one gure Phase 3 7 to 24 months speci c attachments develop Phase 4 24 months on children become aware of others feelings and goals and begin to take these into account in forming their own actions Infants develop an internal working model of attachment 2009 The MchaWllill Companies Inc All rights reserved Attachment Strange Situation is an observational measure of infant attachment Attachment Classi cations Securely attached explores environment while using caregiver as a secure base d1splays mlld discomfort when careglver leaves Insecure avoidant avoids caregiver shows no distresscrying when careglver leaves Insecure resistant clings to caregiver and protests loudly and actlvely 1fcareg1ver leaves Insecure disorganized disorientation extreme fearfulness may be shown even w1th caregiver Ainsworth s research is criticized for being culturally biased 2009 The MchaWllill Companies Inc All rights reserved iAvoidant I Secure 70 I Resistant 6o Cross Cultural Comparison of 50 Attachment 40 Ainsworth s Strange Situation applied to infants in three countries in 1988 30 20 10 Percentage of infants 0 009 The NichawHill Companies inc Ail rights reserved Attachment Interpreting Differences in Attachment Attachment is an important foundation for later psychological development Early attachment can foreshadow later social behavior Early secure attachment is not the only path to success because children are resilient and adaptive Later experiences also play an important role Genetics and temperament play a role in attachment differences Attachment varies among different cultures of the world 2009 The MchaWllill Companies Inc All rights reserved Social Contexts f The Family Family is a constellation of subsystems 39139quot Each subsystem has a reciprocal in uence on the other Adjustment of parents during infant s rst years Infant care competes With parents other interests Marital satisfaction and relationship dynamics may change Reciprocal socialization twoway interaction process whereby parents socialize children and children socialize parents 519 Pareniiinfani synchrony temporal coordination of social behavior 3 Sca olding parental behavior that supports children s efforts through turntaking sequences 2009 The MchaWllill Companies Inc All rights reserved Percentage of infants 70 60 50 40 30 20 Social CintCXtS Secure Avoidant Resistant a Germany Japan United States 2009 The McGrawHill Companies Inc All rights reserved Social Contexts Maternal and Paternal Caregiving An increasing number of US fathers stay home fulltime with their children Fathers can be as competent as mothers in caregiving Maternal interactions typically center on childcare activities feeding changing diapers bathing Paternal interactions tend to be playcentered Fathers tend to be more involved when They work fewer hours and mothers work more They are younger The mothers report greater marital intimacy The children are boys 2009 The MchaWllill Companies Inc All rights reserved Marital relationship Child A behavior and Parenting development 2009 The McGrawHilil Companies Inc All rights reserved Social Contexts Child Care More children are in child care now than ever before Parentalleave policies vary across cultures The US grants the shortest period of parental leave and is one of the few countries that offers only unpaid leave Type of child care varies Child care centers private homes etc LowSES children are more likely to experience poorquality child care 2009 The MchaWllill Companies Inc All rights reserved Social Contexts National Institute of Child Health Study By 4 months of infants were in some type of child care Socioeconomic factors linked to amount and type of care Quality of child care I Group size child adult ratio physical environment caregiver characteristics Highquality care resulted in better language and cognitive skills more cooperation and positive peer interactions and fewer behavior problems Quantity of child care Extensive amounts of time in child care led to fewer positive interactions with mother more behavior problems and higher rates of illness In uence of parenting was not weakened by extensive care 2009 The MchaWllill Companies Inc All rights reserved Chapter 2 Biological Beginnings Natural Selection Natural Selection an evolutionary process by which those individuals of a species that are best adapted are the ones that survive and reproduce e Based on Darwin s theory Survival characteristics are paSSed on in genes 39 Can produce a gradual modi cation of the population over many generations Survival characteristics may change based on environmental conditions Adaptive Behavior behavior that promotes an Organism s survival in the natural habitat Evolutionary Psychology Evolutionary Psychology emphasizes the importance of adaptation reproduction and survival of the fittest in shaping behavior Fit the ability to bear offspring that survive long enough to bear offspring of their own Natural selection favors behaviors that increase reproductive success o David Buss is a very in uential evolutionary psychologist Evoldtlonaw Developmental Psycl trilogy Extended childhood period allows time to develop a large brain and learn complexity of human society lt Many evolved psychological mechanisms are domainspeci c Information processing Evolved mechanisms are not always adaptive in contemporary society Brain Sizes of Various Primates and Humans in Relation to Length of Juvenile Period u n 39H 4 i Hzquot i i 397 F 77 i ii 17 ii i y i H Wu 39 a rigi Luisa in i a 7 was II A p M l 0 O 2009 The McGrawHjll Companies Inc All rights reserved 41 Evolution and Lite69 Development Why do humans live so long after reproduction Perhaps older people improve the survival rate of babies Paul Baltes bene ts of evolutionary selection decrease With age Natural selection is tied to reproductive tness Does not weed out harmful conditions that appear among older adults Increases our need for culture Evauatng Evolutionary Psychology Evolutionary psychology approach is just one theory of many It has its limitations and weaknesses and its critics Bidirectional view environmental and biological conditions in uence each other Evolution gives us bodily structures and biological potentialities but it does not dictate behavior People create behavior in the context of culture 17 1Q Genetic l OLll jdalEUOMS Human life begins as a single cell r Nucleus of each cell contains chromosomes Chromosomes threadlike structures made up of DNA DNA a complex doublehelix molecule that contains genetic information r Genes units of hereditary information in each chromosome Genes direct cells to reproduce themselves and to assemble proteins Proteins building blocks of cells and regulators that direct the body s processes l 4nv AN lt m lh quot m m ic ilc omndanoais Each gene has its own unique location on a particular chromosome Human Genome Project attempted to map the human genome 39 Genome complete set of developmental instructiOns f0r the making of a human organism Results indicated that humans have about 20000 to 22000 genes Humans have far more proteins than they have genes 2 Genes collaborate With each other and With non genetic factors inside and outside the body Genetic expression is affected by the environment


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