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by: Clementine Boehm


Clementine Boehm
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T. Karam

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T. Karam
Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clementine Boehm on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3140 at Louisiana State University taught by T. Karam in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see /class/222937/psyc-3140-louisiana-state-university in Psychlogy at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
Social Psychology Study of interactions between people and groups Power of the situation effects social psychology EX Prison guard studyvideopeople just like us undergrad participants were recruited to participate in basement of psych building They were all assigned as prisoner or guard And it went to hell because the guards ended up being horrible and the prisoners began to rebel They couldn t last as long as it was supposed to because everyone was becoming emotionally distraught 0 Your social role really shapes your behavior Most important thing to humans SURVIVAL This makes us selfobsessed and selfish A lot of thing we learn in social psych has evolved that way and serves a purpose even if it sounds bad Stereotypes help us navigate through our world but can be bad when they are wrong or overused Selfschema generally most people see themselves as positively and that helps us survive If we believe we deserve good things that s what we get 0 When selfschema is bad it turns to aggression and hate SchemaThe way you understand or view of something Ex Bearis mean animal dangerous Schema s are always changing when a situation changes 0 We do this with people there is an automatic label placed on them Female male tall short black white etc We want to do this to help interact with someone o Schemascriptwhen you go to a restaurant and expect things to happen in a certain order You get seated get your drink order food Social Facilitation If you are good at something having an audience makes a better performance If you are bad at something having an audience therefore makes it worse 1202012 55200 PM You should be aware of how people see you The way you behave in front of someone not only affects you but the category that someone placed you in ex Bob Marley Subschema the point of a schema is to be updated with experiences but what ends up happening is when you find an a typical member of a schema if you meet this person you make a subschema There is no change in schema they are just added to another schema as well 0 The more you add and experience you make so many sub schemas you realize that you need to update your view of a schema Group interactions Most people would pick people that look similar to them group think One way to eliminate group think is to have diverse people with diverse thoughts It changes things up and it leads to better outcomes 0 Conformity normative and informational Normative is wanting to conform to be part of the group Information is conforming to be correct Ashes conformity study gets you up to date on social psychology Confederate someone else involved in a study but the participants don t know they are involved 1202012 55200 PM Experiment stats with an idea phenomenon topic or hypothesis o Ex memory researchhow emotion effects the memory o Independent variable something you manipulate only thing that is different between groups o Dependent variable the variable that you measure 0 How does independent variable affect the dependent variable Operational Definitionsays that you are specifying how you are going to measure a specific object If you say you are measuring memory are you going to give certain ways to recall a list or will it be a yesno option Ex long hair makes women more attractive to menhypothesis o Manipulate have same women photoshopped with different hair lengths o Men might have different opinions once they are told that they will be rating the following women on attraction rather then just seeing her on the street o Social desirability affects self reports they don t want to go away from the crowd because not everyone agrees o Conformity affects self report because if the votes are said out loud most men will agree on the women if the previous men did Theory of emotion says physiological arousal and emotion is a label you give the context or situation They are saying all emotion is same physiological arousal it just depends on how you emotionally label it o Introspectionis the selfobservation and reporting of conscious inner thoughts desires and sensations o Cognitive dissonance is a discomfort caused by holding conflicting cognitions eg ideas beliefs values emotional reactions simultaneously o Self perception theory an account of attitude change developed by psychologist Daryl Bem It asserts that people develop their attitudes by observing their behavior and concluding what attitudes must have caused them The theory is counterintuitive in nature as the conventional wisdom is that attitudes come prior to behaviors Societal Expectations 1202012 55200 PM Society tells us how we should be What does society expect of women c To be the person who takes care of the house and children The women is the one to lean on in a family if there is any problems or troubles Society and magazines picture women as skinny pretty and flawless Which makes society think that s how all women must need to look When getting married you are expected to take the man s last name as opposed to him taking yours Evolutionary psychology they look at how evolution affected us Basically it comes down to procreation They think that men and women find attractive in opposite gender is what will make a family Fundamental difference between men and women is men have unlimited chances to have children in a day whereas women have a limited amount of children in a time period c What men find attractive in women is if she can get pregnant that one time youth a little bit of meat on your bone and a lot of things that signify youth wide eyes rosy cheeks full lips hips etc o Women find attractive in men a man who will stay not afraid of commitment provide for her and the baby be there Men should be big strong tall protective o Procreation to bring forth something continued on social expectations 1202012 55200 PM nobody seems to realize the extent of what the other gender goes through and the pressures they feel o also the pressures placed on a gender by the other sex s peersparents Balding women were shocked how much men care about their hair and fear of balding o Specifically for women women think ideal is skinny weight tiny But in general men don t always prefer tiny and skinny women o Insecurities in ourselves let us judge those aspects of others more and we perceive it differently on different people Individual Assignment o Gender socialization Miley pink stuff video 0 Go to a toy store and walk around looking at every toy infancy to teenager toys Write a paper about gender socialization in a toy store Referencing things from commercials tv and parents But the focus is the toys Packaging and ages of the toy Tell about the gender socialization and about what age are toys being differentiated from two different age groups Celebrity responsibilities 1202012 55200 PM Nas and DamianLeaders Every change neurons firing differently has an affect and will continue to have an effect c subtle changes but there are still changes being made minority women have it the hardest in society o Beyonce with long blonde hairnot natural o Celebrities have the fear of once they are at the topchanging to their beliefs and not going with what brought them to the top Heuristicrule of thumb that you follow o Deductive logical rules that are valid or invalid answers o Inductive not so much logical more based on experience and daily lives Representative Heuristic We judge the likelihood of something occurring by how representative it is of the category we have in mind Fallacy ignoring base rate information This heuristic is a stereotype in social psych because we place them in a category and make inferences Conjunction fallacy the overlap of two things can never exceed just one of the two things Representative heuristic 10 babies a day versus 100 babies a day More variation in the 100 hospital Small numbers and sample size allow for less variation We judge the likelihood of something occurring by how representative it is of the category we have in mind coin example second option seems more random Gambler s fallacyuses representative heuristic roulette whole lot of red s have come in a row you bet on black next because it seems more random in a sense o Hot hand fallacy when the ball is consistently passed to the same player because he has a hot hand and is continuously making baskets and is on fireon a roll Availability Heuristic we judge the likelihood of something occurring based on how readily available it is in our minds o Basically we can easily come up words that start with k but it is more difficult to come up with words that have k as a third letter Anchoring and Adjustment heuristic when making numerical judgments we are biased by what the anchor is Biased with numbers who start with a higher number will be giving a higher number typically then the bottom number o Fallacy Insufficient Adjustmentyou are not making enough or too much of an adjustment Simulation Heuristic we make decisions based on how easily we could imagine something occurring We could easily imagine saving 5 minutes and it is harder to imagine saving 45 minutes Related to Gold Silver Bronze medal Those who get silver are more upset then the bronze because silver is closer to gold then bronze is close to imagine oh well I didn t get one at all o Fallacy Hindsight Bias Seeing something that has already happened as being more predictable and you saw it coming Framing the way something is framed affects how we make decisions Priming some sort of cue that makes you think about a concept and in turn affects your behavior If some words were flashed in front of half elderly and the other half different not elderly words those who were primed with old words walk slower out of the room than those who did not see those words Study Strategies o Spaced studying is way more beneficial o Test yourself when studyingtesting affect o Multiple choice definition short answer Chapter 2 background 1202012 55200 PM Knowledge the structure of concept Feature theorywhat is a criticism of feature theory Classify into categories o Allows you to behaveinteract appropriately o Stability nonidentical things can be treated as identical Communication c We assume other share similar concepts and make similar inferences o Indirect learning To learn other concepts o Analogy Create new knowledge o Put together existing concepts Prototype theory idealized form schematic averagebasically we have a prototype of what a category is you average all the aspects of all the members of a category Exemplar theory actual instance of a member of a category that you consider the best Compare item to members knowledge is episodic keep comparing until a match or exhausted How you yourself make sense of something Levels of categorization Superordinate broadest furniture Basic instance Chair Subordinate Subtype beanbag Parallel Distributed Processinghow info in our mind is oragainzed related to each other difficult to understand because they are so basic that it is hard to diagram and talk about in that way Connectionist theory Parallel not serial processing occurs in parallel Distributed not local it is not in one specific spot o These theories are trying to mimic the actual brain Nodes units Connections Excitatory or inhibitory Pattern of activationno localized area for your grandmother but rather the way the pattern comes up in your mind o Purpose of inhibiting is if its not relative its not activated and therefore not getting excited Confirmation Bias you only pay attention to evidence that supports what you already believe They confirm what you believe o Happens all the time Test Review 1202012 55200 PM DRM paradigm normed and created a ton of list of words that are strongly related to a concept that is not in the list o Ex Sleep and Doctornot in the list o If one concept gets activated awake slumber pillow etc the concepts relate to sleep and they activate the concept of sleep Source monitoring framework How you hear it or how something gets activated in your mind Postevent misinformationsuggestion Didn t actually say she was carrying a purse she just suggested it Made everyone believe that she did in fact have a purse o Cowitness Discussing with others the more you talk about it the more you influence others and change your opinions Conforming informational and normative in that situation you are going to take what someone else said and put it in your memory making it informational conforming o Normative conformingis changing opinion to be a part of the group igngv v 7 39 Ei laljlr i39n l39lm 5 gt1 quotsi l llir lll Mood congruency and dependence o Mood congruency you remember things that are congruent to your current mood Ex scared mood if you were asked to give a memory of something it would be a time when you were scared o Mood dependence You are going to remember things from a time when you were in a current mood Time 1Happy smile puppies book door marker state is happy or neutral o Happy mood at Time 2With mood congruency you are going to remember happy things happy smile puppies o Mood dependence you will remember things that happened at the time you were happy you will remember the entire list Study for a test in a good mood you take test in good mood state and context you will do better Statistical Heuristics Heuristics are rules of thumb we have about stats and probabilities statistical intuition we understand this pretty well We have ideas about them and we use them but sometimes we ignore them in a situation In the bookthe law of small numbers the smaller the number of instancessample the more deviation from the population is Ex small and big hospital example smaller sample leads to greater deviation from the population c We have intuition of how these statistical laws work and we can rely on them Grandmother with 9 grandchildren and all boys crazy but grandmother with 3 grandchildren all boys less crazy


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